Solid Waste Management And Disposal Systems

Project and Seminar Material for Environmental Science

Solid Waste Management And Disposal Systems


Municipal solid wastes re-use and recycling have multiple socioeconomic and environmental benefits that have not been adequately examined in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. The objectives of this research are to: examine the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of waste management entrepreneurs; identify the sources and destinations of recyclable municipal solid waste; analyse the quantity of waste materials (metal scraps, plastics and cans) recovered, reused and transported for recycling; identify the type of uses recyclable materials are put into in the study area; and examine the socioeconomic benefit of waste re-use and recycling. A total of 252 scrap metal/plastic collectors, scavengers and artisanal recyclers‘ were studied using purposive and snowball sampling techniques. Tables, percentages, charts and multiple linear regression techniques were used for the analysis. The results showed that majority of the waste collectors within the twelve localities of Zaria were less than 20 years old.

Generally, the low educational level of the respondents indicates that formal educational qualification is not a major determinant of being an actor in this type of business. Cans and aluminium, scrap metal, assorted plastics, are the major materials that attract waste entrepreneurs in Zaria. about 71.8% of waste collectors collect waste from multiple sources and majority of the waste actors about 61.5% collect less than 100 kg of valuable waste materials every week. Products produced by artisanal recyclers from cans and scrap Aluminium includes majorly pots and frying pan. A relatively high proportion (56.7%) of plastic collectors disposes the assorted plastics to those involved in reuse like, bottling of locally made drinks (Zobo and Kunu), traditional herbs and honey. The average monthly income for about 43.3% was above N16, 000. 00 which is quite better compared with the Nigerian minimum wage standard.

Also all the respondents claimed that no harmful solid substances were released into the environment as a result of artisanal recycling activity. Further, about 30% of waste management entrepreneurs are employers of labour, with 13.5% having more than 6 employees. The multiple regression analysis revealed that the number of people employed in waste business and quantity of waste collected have significant impact on their income with coefficients of 0.343 and 0.360 respectively, while the coefficient of multiple determination (R2) indicate a total variation of 42.5% at 5% level of significance. However, challenges militating against waste recycling in Zaria include lack of a functional recycling plant; price fluctuation and the cost of conveying recyclables to recycling plants outside the study area among others.

It is concluded that municipal solid waste re-use and recycling activities contribute more to waste management than the government owned agencies in the study area. Their activities in sustainable waste management should be incorporated into the state environmental protection agency institutional framework.

Chapter One


1.1 Background to the Study

The term waste has a different meaning for different people. In general, waste is unwanted for the person who discards it; a product or material that does not have a value anymore for the first user and is therefore thrown away. The United States Environmental protection Agency defined a solid waste as any uselss, unwanted or discarded material with insufficient liquid content, EPA (1975). Because of its sticky nature, a solid Waste has the quality of accumulating, and physically insulting the environment. Omuta (1988), defined a solid as plastic, rubber, paper, glass, etc arising from domestic, trade, commercial, agricultural and industrial activities. Moreso, solid matter that are created by human or animal activities and which are disposed because they are considered useless are known as solid wastes. Most of the solid wastes like plastic, robber, etc. are non. Biodegradable which means that they do not get broken down through organic processes thus, when they accumulate, they pose a health threat to the people. According to Eze (1995), a solid waste means any refuse, gabbage and other discarded materials resulting from community, agricultural and industrial operations.

Solid Wastes Management Practices

Solid wastes management practices can be divided into two namely:

  1. The management of the wastes in the areas where they are generated.
  2. The management of the wastes at dumping grounds.

Solid wastes management practices include the issues that are related to wastes generation, storage, collection and removal from collection points. Moreso, solid wastes management practice is an issue that cuts across every sector of the economy. It is an aspect that has been generating concern in the Chemical Industry which has become a challenge to the Chemical Engineers. Advocates of Environmental protection Agency have drawn the attention of the national policy –maker to the health hazards and potential dangers to natural resources caused by the inadequate management of wastes, Anard (1999). There is a wide variation in both the physical and chemical nature of wastes generated as one goes from one household to another or one industry to another.

Furthermore, waste management is a serious environmental problem that has been the subject of several studies, conferences, strategic meetings and debates. According to Tanaka (1998), the purpose of waste management is to preserve the living environment and improve public health through the restriction of wastes discharge, appropriate sorting, storage, collection, transport, recycling, etc. of wastes and conservation of clean living environment. Thus, wastes management practices are expected to contribute significantly to the conservation of the living environment and maintenance of a high standard of public hygiene.

Solid Wastes Collection Methods

The methods vary widely among different countries and regions. These includes:

1. Curbside Collection:

In this method, every urban domestic household is provided with three bins. One for recyclables, another for general wastes and the third for garden materials. These bins may be provided by the government if requested or individuals.

2. Envac Collection:

This is the convey of refuse via under ground conduits using a vacuum system.
Moreso, domestic wastes collection services are often provided by local government authorities or by private companies.

Disposal Systems

The issue of waste disposal has become one of the most crucial matters confronting the society. Public concern on this issue continued to be expressed daily through the medial such as news paper, magazine, radio and television, Anon (1995). The scientist has spent much time to analyze various stages of waste control systems which are applicable to today’s waste generation and disposal means. The indiscriminate dumping of refuse by many or individual on unapproved or unauthorized areas such as the ground, street corners constitute a big problem to the society. This refuse emits bad odour that is harzardous to man’s health. Moreso, the disposal of waste is a problem. This problem continues to grow with the growth of population and development of industries. Disposal of wastes in open pits have become routine in majority of places some of the methods of disposal systems include incineration, recycling, sustainability, biological reprocessing, energy recovery and avoidance & reduction method.
Furthermore, the problem of solid waste disposal is as a result of increasing urbanization coupled with colonial policy on urban planning. It was observed that before our contact with the Europeans that each household was responsible for keeping its immediate environment clean. Today, traditional dumps have disappeared and the open space converted to housing. However, alternate arrangement has been made for proper solid waste disposal which includes composting, land filling, incinerations and recycling.

Solid Wastes Management Principles
1. Waste Hierarchy:

The waste management hierarchy refers to “3Rs which means, Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. This classifies waste management in terms of waste minimization. The waste hierarchy remains the cornerstone of most waste minimization strategies. The aim is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of wastes. The hierarchy diagram is shown below.

2. Polluter Pays Principle:

This is a principle where the polluting party pays for the impact caused to the environment. Also, a waste generator pays for the disposal of the wastes.

3. Talories Declaration Principle:

This is a declaration for sustainability concerned with unprecedented scale and speed of environment pollution, degradation and depletion of natural resources. Recycling is also now accepted as a suitable option on the waste management hierarchy namely; source reduiction, reuse/recycling, composting, incineration and land filling (Agarwal, Singhmar, Kulshrestha, and Mittal, 2005; Bolaane 2006) (see Figure 1.0).

Figure: 1.1: Hierarchy of Integrated Solid Waste Management.

Source: Richard, Wolfville and Nova (2002).

This is because it does not only provide an avenue for the identification, recovery and exploitation of waste as a resource (Sicular, 1992; The Chartered Institution of Wastes Management, 2007) but also for its potential contribution towards environmental management and livelihoods (Masocha, 2006; Langenhoven and Dyssel, 2007). Waste recycling in developing countries is being driven by the informal sector, often with minimal, if any, input from institutions of the state (Castells and Portes, 1989; Ahmed and Ali, 2004; Wilson, Velis and Cheeseman, 2006). At the same time, the informal sector is becoming increasingly integrated into the social, cultural and economic systems of most developing countries. Consequently, solid waste management (SWM) and recycling by the informal sector, unarguably of contemporary phenomena, which have contributed to socioeconomic development in low-and middle- income countries (Berthier, 2003; Wilson et. al., 2006; Gonzenbach and Coad, 2007; Medina, 2007; Gutberlet, 2008).

An important component of ISWM is to encourage producers to produce environmentally friendly goods and to produce less waste in the production cycle. It also mandates producers to take more responsibility for the waste they produce (Ukoje, 2011). In general, source reduction (most preferred) is the most difficult stage to achieve in ISWM hierarchy, but the stage together with recycling/reuse is the conceptualized application to resource and environmental management.

The next favorable option is waste recycling and reuse; waste recycling is a process that involves collecting, reprocessing, and/or recovering certain waste materials (e.g. glass, metal, plastics, paper etc.) to make new materials or products. Waste reuse and recycling are often undertaken as a survival strategy by scavengers and recycling businesses (Cointreau and De kadt, 1991) thereby reducing the total amount of solid waste headed for the landfill. Waste reuse plays a valuable resource-conserving role: by recycling materials, further exploitation of scarce natural resources is minimized, thus containing the spreading ecological footprints of the city.

In addition, composting as an option is a controlled natural process of decomposition of organic waste materials. It reduces the cost of waste disposal, minimize nuisance potential and produce a clean and readily marketable finished product. Composting helps in increasing the recovery rate of recyclable materials. Furthermore, reuse, recycling and composting are land- saving and pollution- reducing strategies.

Next is incineration, which is another method of disposal and it involves passing the waste through a chamber at high temperature with an adequate supply of oxygen to oxidize all organic material. Its advantage is that it requires less land than landfills. Incineration disposes 99.999% of organic waste if properly carried out at 1200°C temperature and ambient oxygen. Combustion in an incinerator reduces volume by 90% and weight by 75% and ash uses about a third as much landfill space as solid waste itself does (Hill, 2004).

Energy recovered from the process can be utilized for electricity generation. Although incineration appears to be an extremely attractive option, the high financial start-up and operational capital required to implement incineration facilities is a major barrier to successful adoption in developing countries (United Nations Environmental Programme, 1996). A large portion of that cost goes to the environmental hazard mitigation components, including emissions (Rand, Haukohl and Marxen, 2000).

Additionally, specific technical expertise and related general repair and maintenance technology are often absent in developing nations‘ scenario. Incineration in Africa would be infeasible if the waste stream is indeed 70% wet organic content. Under these conditions, incineration is likely to be energy consuming rather than an energy-producing option. There is environmental-health problems associated with incineration. When conditions are not optimal, incineration volatilizes many compounds, such as dioxins, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxides, which are potentially harmful to human health, atmosphere, plants, and animals (Manyanhaire et al, 2009).

Lastly in the hierarchy is land disposal (landfill), which involves haulage of garbage in open areas. Such areas range from unsanitary open dumps to properly operated sanitary landfills (Ukoje, 2011).

In the past few years, research on SWM in Nigeria has focused essentially on contextualizing waste recycling as an approach to urban environmental management and livelihoods (Adeyemi, Olorunfemi and Adewoye, 2001; Agunwamba, 2003; Nzeadibe and Eziuzor, 2006; Nzeadibe and Iwuoha, 2008). Unfortunately, SWM appear to have received little attention from Nigerian social scientists especially from the viewpoint of the socially-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) (Nzeadibe, 2009). Environmental concerns and sustainable development are germane to MDGs, which make an investigation into how wealth generated from waste helps in sustainable environmental management an appropriate subject of inquiry.

1.2 Statement of the Research Problem

In the pursuit of sustainable waste management, the prevention of waste generation is the first priority, followed by waste recovery and safe disposal of waste on the hierarchy of principles for waste management (Figure 1.1). These principles need to be put in practice through joint waste prevention and management measures if growing environmental degradation is to be avoided. For example, the use of valuable land for waste disposal, the release of harmful substances from landfills and waste transports into air, soil and water, and the use of resources that are transformed into disposed waste instead of being reused or recycled will all have negative impacts on the environment, and will have a long-lasting direct and indirect influences on the quality of life (European Urban Waste Management Cluster (EUWMC), 2005).

It is known that there have been some local methods by which solid wastes were been reused or recycled. The knowledge of waste reuse and recycling might not be totally new in the Nigerian context. Rather, it is the current sophistication involved that is rather new. Waste facilities in developing countries are minimal, but substantial quantities are diverted for recycling (Tajuddeen, 2003). So there was this reuse culture that has been planted in to Nigerians subconsciously. Every item used were structured for reuse. Even today, the sachets of ―pure water‖ are used by horticulturists for flower nursery and paper wrappers are reused. The reuse tradition is what makes old newspapers useful for wrapping roasted groundnut ( Arachis hypogea Linn) and pop corn (guguru) or akara, the popular fried beans cake. Apart from the fact that the reuse culture saves lots of money, it is highly conservative resulting in waste management (Ajibade, 2005).

In spite of the enormous benefits associated with sustainable waste management strategies such as re-use and recycling, only a handful of countries are able to put them into practice. For instance, most of the economically developed countries are still unable to recycle much of their waste (Anthony, 2009). Besides, growing land scarcity and stricter environmental standards now make it difficult for many rich cities to find adequate and suitable disposal sites for the large volumes of waste being generated by their urban populations (Pacione, 2005; Charzan, 2002).

Hardoy, et. al., (2001) researched on environmental problems in an urbanizing world and estimates that between one third and one half of all solid waste generated in Third World cities remains uncollected and the collection rate could be as low as 10 – 20 percent in some cases. Depicting a similar picture of the problem, Cointreau (2001), has estimated that in some cases, up to 60 percent of solid waste generated within urban centres in poor countries remains uncollected and such refuse accumulates on waste lands and streets, sometimes to the point of blocking roads. Moreover, uncontrolled solid waste disposal can also cause environmental problems like traffic congestion on the streets and roads, municipal floods when dumped on waterways, etc. (Lawal, 2011).

The foregoing review demonstrates that waste to wealth has multiple socioeconomic and environmental benefits yet it has not been systematically examined in Zaria. The dearth of such work is an important research gap needed to be urgently filled.

1.3 Research Questions

The research questions posed are as follows:

  1. What are the sources and destinations of recyclable Municipal Solid Waste, in Zaria metropolis?
  2. What is the quantity of waste materials (metal scraps, plastics and cans) disposed and recycled in the study area?
  3. What type of uses are the recyclable materials put into?
  4. What are the socioeconomic benefits of waste management and disposal systems to waste management entrepreneurs (WMEs) in the study area?

1.4 Study Aim and Objectives

The aim of the study is to evaluate solid waste management and disposal systems to create wealth and promote a sustainable environment. The specific objectives are to:

  1. Examine the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of waste management entrepreneurs (WMEs) in the study area
  2. Identify the sources and destinations of recyclable Municipal Solid Waste, in Zaria metropolis; iii.analyse the quantity of waste materials (metal scraps, plastics and cans) recovered, reused, transported for recycling.
  3. Identify the type of uses recyclable materials are put into in the study area.
  4. Examine the socioeconomic benefits of waste management to waste management entrepreneurs (WMEs) in the study area.

1.5 Justification for the Study

There are several reasons for continuous research on waste problem at local, national and global levels. Firstly, the earth‘s natural resources are fast dwindling, hence the need to conserve the resources. Reuse and recycle are some of the conservation means for sustainable natural resource management, including municipal solid waste. This is the environmental justification for this study. Also, this study will provide evidence on the volume of wealth/job created from managing municipal solid waste (MSW) that can be used for future development planning in the area of employment generation. Evidence from other countries such as Germany, Australia and the US demonstrate how significant job creation at the local level has been achieved through high recycling rates, thus supporting new business formation (Mayor of London, 2003).

In terms of contribution to knowledge on solid waste and urban environmental management, findings of the study will form a base knowledge for researchers interested in that area. It is hoped that this work will contribute to finding a sustainable way of handling scrap metal, can and plastic waste menace in Zaria with adaptive implications for the whole country and beyond.

1.6 Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential for solid waste re-use and recycling as a management strategy to create wealth and promote a sustainable waste management. The spatial scope of this work are localities in Zaria which include; Samaru, Palladan, Basawa, Gyllesu, Muchia, Chikaji, Wusasa, Dogarawa, Sabon-Gari, Tudun Wada, Gaskiya and Zaria city. The areas were chosen based on the prominence of collection points. By indication, Zaria as used in this study comprises Zaria and Sabon-Gari Local Government Areas (LGAs), with four (4) districts namely; Zaria city district, Tudun Wada district, Sabon-Gari district and Samaru district.

This study will therefore examine recovery, reuse and recycling of MSW. The focus will be limited to scrap metal, plastic bottles and cans; since they are the items that are majorly recovered by the entrepreneurs. The temporal scope for the field work was limited to one month (i.e. from second week of November to first week of December 2012).

1.7 Organization of Study

This research work is divided into five chapters.

  • Chapter one contains introduction to the research work which summarizes background to the study. In this chapter, statement of the problem, objective of the study, significance of the study, research hypothesis, research questions, scope of the study, and organization of the study are discussed extensively.
  • Chapter two of this research work is known as the review of related literature otherwise known as the literature review and the theoretical frame work, which reviews previous research work in the field of study and analysis of various principles relating to the research topic.
  • Chapter three is concerned with the research methodology. This discusses research design, the population size to be studied, sample size determination, sampling techniques applied , method of data analysis and interpretation, the statistical tools used in the analyzing the formulated hypothesis .
  • Chapter four of this research work is the data presentation, analysis and interpretation.
  • Chapter five summarizes the whole research project stating the findings useful conclusion and the recommendation and this constitute the concluding part of the research work.

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

The aim of the study is to evaluate the potential for municipal solid waste reuse/recycling as waste management strategies in Zaria metropolis to create wealth and promote a sustainable environment. The objectives of this research are to: examine the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of waste management entrepreneurs; identify the sources and destinations of recyclable municipal solid waste; analyse the quantity of waste materials (metal scraps, plastics and cans) recovered, reused and transported for recycling; identify the type of uses recyclable materials are put into in the study area; and examine the socioeconomic benefit of waste re-use and recycling. A total of 252 scrap metal/plastic collectors, scavengers and artisanal recyclers‘ were studied using purposive and snowball sampling techniques. Tables, percentages, charts and multiple linear regression techniques were used for the analysis.

The study established that majority of the waste collectors within the twelve localities of Zaria were less than 20 years old. The implication is that the trade is more attractive to the very young ones. As expected, the majority of the people involved in the trade, as indicated by the survey results are of Hausa/Fulani ethnic composition with 86.5%. In fact, 31.7% of the respondents claimed that their highest level of education is Quranic education compared to 0.8% that has acquired tertiary education. Generally, the low educational level of the respondents indicates that formal educational qualification is not a major determinant of being an actor in this type of business. Only about 24.6% were engaged in other occupation like petty trading, restaurant operation, security service, casual/industrial work, farming etc. while 75.4% were not engaged in other occupations.

Cans and aluminium, scrap metal, assorted plastics, are the major materials that attract waste entrepreneurs in Zaria. Waste collectors‘ utilize multiple sources, including individual houses, institutions, landfill/dumpsites, restaurants etc compared to single sourcing of usable materials. Greater quantity of the recyclable materials still circulate within Zaria since most of the scavengers find it difficult transporting and absent of recycling plants, they sell to major dealers. About11.1% of major dealers of scrap metals and plastics convey such goods to Lagos and Kano. The collectors surveyed expressed that most of the plastics are also utilized locally and people from neighbouring State and Local Government areas such as Katsina and Makarfi, Giwa and Soba obtain these products.
The study notes that majority of the waste actors about 61.5% collect less than 100 kg of valuable waste materials every week. In contrast, 23.4% comprising artisanal recyclers and some scrap metal collectors (major dealers) collects above 600 kg of waste per week. Products produced by artisanal recyclers from cans and scrap Aluminium includes majorly pots and frying pan. A relatively high proportion (56.7%) of plastic collectors disposes the assorted plastics to those involved in reuse like, bottling of locally made drinks (Zobo and Kunu), traditional herbs and honey. Also some reuse and sell plastic bottles. The survey indicates that the average monthly income generated especially among some of the actors from scrap metal/plastic bottle collection, scavenging and artisanal recycling was discovered to be above N 16, 000. 00 which is at par with the minimum wage for civil servants in the study area, about ten (10) scrap metal dealers earn up to about N200, 000 in a month. Also their income is strictly as a result of waste activity and not from other source(s) or occupation. A 1kg of scrap metal cost between N30-N35 in Sabon-Gari, Tudun-Wada, Wusasa, Gaskiya etc. and between N20-N25 in Samaru, Palladan, Basawa etc while a dozen of plastic bottles cost between N30 and N50. Major dealers revealed that they pay mostly between N100000 to N120000 per standard truck in the movement of recyclables to recycling places outside Zaria and that a tonne of recyclables in recycling industries is worth between N42000-N47000.

Solid waste activities in Zaria provide jobs and livelihood to vulnerable groups (widows, retirees, young etc.) especially those with low level of formal education. Some WMEs (scrap metal collectors) employ as high as seventeen persons; while some in waste business don‘t have people working for them but are self employed especially scavengers and plastic collectors. Most waste actors were aware of waste as a threat to the environment like litter, disease outbreak, reduces environmental aesthetics, flood.

The challenges militating against solid waste activities in Zaria are categorized into: lack of a functional recycling plant; provision and subside on trucks that convey valuable materials to the required destination; lack of protectors and payment especially to scavengers or every individual involved in waste management from government for keeping the environment clean.

5.2 Conclusion

By adopting the wealth aspect from waste or treating solid wastes as resources, in terms of waste management strategy has effectively become not only a service but an instrument for alleviating poverty. Government should not only conceive waste management as a means of service delivery but a war against poverty and poor living environment. The future prospect of scrap metal/plastic collection, scavenging and artisanal recycling is envisaged to be prosperous and can offer livelihood opportunities for poor people if the process of collection remains unaltered. However, price fluctuation and the cost of conveying especially scrap metals to recycling plants outside the study area have negative influences on the motivation for the job and the realization of good incomes adequate enough to meet improved standards of living for members that are still new in the business.

5.3 Recommendations

The study has shown the characteristics of solid waste re-use/recycling as waste management strategy as well as the potentials to create wealth and promote a sustainable waste management in Zaria metropolis. Based on such findings, recommendations were developed to promote solid waste re-use/recycling situation in Zaria metropolis.

5.3.1 Specific Recommendations

A holistic and people-focused approach in empowering the unemployed to make choices for their livelihoods should be the key focused of intervention. Within this framework, the collaboration of all stakeholders such as WMEs, municipal solid waste management agencies, government agencies such as the ministries of trade, labour and state security to dialogue and design policies and regulations that will address issues of scrap metal/plastic price, price fluctuations and cost of conveying the materials from collection points to recycling plant and also make provision for a functional recycling plant in Zaria. This will strongly improve the actors income.

The implementation of the policies and regulations from ISWM should be strictly adhered to. The policies and regulations should take into cognizance the importance of all stakeholders and harmonize their difference so that the exploitation of a category of stakeholder (e.g. scavenger) by the other (for instance major waste dealers) is minimized.

It is suggested that solid waste activity being an informal sector should be transformed into a more formal sector which will in turn bring about better organization of the sector, hence making it more attractive thus, paving ways for lots of job opportunities for a good number of both unskilled and skilled people residing in Zaria. This can be achieved through involvement of non-governmental organization (NGO) to provide appropriate public awareness, tools and educational programmes concerning the benefits of solid waste management.

The WMEs should be encouraged to form strong and functional association with educated and influential leaders that will take their case to appropriate government authority. Lack of diversification was observed from the results of the field work, that majority of the respondents were restricted to waste activity and not diversifying into other activities. Diversification if encouraged will add extra income and promote more employment

Alternatively, public and private participation (PPP) arrangement should be encouraged to collaborate with WMEs thereby, generating more job opportunities, with a wage adequate to meet improved socio-economic conditions of living for WMEs where issues of social security, work accidents insurance and the provision of working tools, equipments and protective clothing will be well taken care of.

The development of the capacity of the unemployed to appreciate opportunities from waste management that will meet the socio-economic needs of their living conditions should be a fundamental objective of poverty eradication and human development. Government and nongovernmental organizations should take the leading role in the formulation and implementation of multi-dimensional policies and the empowerment of the jobless so that their development in terms of capacity building will sustainably be achieved.

5.3.2 The institutional framework for waste management in Zaria

Field investigation revealed that Kaduna State Environmental Protection Authority (KEPA) is a state agency with a zonal office in Zaria where relevant information was brought. KEPA was established in 2006 and it is a state agency by 1999 constitution of Kaduna state. It was disclosed that all waste management issues are under the authority of local government councils; the state government only provide policies and guidelines for the local government councils to adopt. However, the state government can only intervene when the volume of waste in Zaria and its environs is beyond the capacity of the local government authority to handle. In Zaria, since the inception of KEPA, the state government only intervened twice in October, 2010 when there was an outbreak of cholera.

Regarding the types of waste, the agency does oversee the affairs of both solid waste and effluent from some of the few industries in the study area. It was discovered that charges depend on whether the waste is biodegradable or non-biodegradable though the minimum charge per tonne of both degradable and non-biodegradable waste is N10, 000 for collection and disposal.

With respect to disposal, there are 4 not officially designated landfills in Zaria. Two of them are, along Jos road. There is also, a disposal point along Zaria bye pass, while the other, is along Kano express way (Sakadadiroad).
Landfills in Zaria are not enough and the environmental implications as revealed by the agency‘s spoke person are that waste are indiscriminately disposed to create unsanitary outlook and other effects like environmental degradation, outbreak of diseases like diarrhea, cholera etc and that landfill which is the only means of disposal are very close to residential areas and are not properly managed.

Environmental health unit under Sabon Gari Local Government Council (Kaduna state) has been in existence since 1992 and were solely into collection of solid waste from major dump sites in Zaria. The Department is funded by government and they collect solid waste 3 times annually from the community without charging them. The unit‘s spoke person further revealed that an organization like Al-amin Refuse Collection and Disposal is a profit-oriented Non Governmental Organization that charges the community as they collect their waste. The organization carries out this activity weekly and the charge depends on the volume of solid waste; the least charge is N 2,000- N 5,000 Naira weekly.

Solid wastes when collected by this unit are finally disposed in the 4 not officially designated landfills in Zaria as earlier stated by KEPA zonal office in Zaria. Notable environmental implication include; constitute breeding ground for rodents and insects, bad odor, water pollution and same implications as revealed by KEPA zonal office in Zaria.
As demonstrated from the work that solid waste recycling and re-use was actually a vital source of income. The actors in recycling and re-use activities solely depend on waste pickers (scavengers) for a greater percentage of most of the waste valuables they utilize and in turn the wealth they generate. There is a need to formally recognize the role of waste scavengers notable among which are; they operate on a daily basis unlike environmental health unit workers under Sabon Gari local government area that operate only 3 times annually.

Zaria local government area and KEPA‘s operation as regards waste collection are also not regular; increasing the aesthetics of the environment by picking the huge volume of most of the waste disposed indiscriminately on the environment; reduce the breeding ground for mosquitoes, rodents and other vectors that causes diseases to man; reduce the prevalence of air and water pollution among others.

This is a clear indication that solid waste pickers, artisanal recyclers and actor‘s involved in re-use and recycling activities contribute more in terms of waste collection than the government owned agencies in the study area. Their contribution to safe guarding the environment is good enough for support and be incorporated into the state environmental protection agency since they fall within a well institutional framework which the agency is part
of. Recommendations for further research are as follows:

  1. Morbidity and ill-health implication of waste scavenging in Zaria, Nigeria.
  2. Waste to Wealth from ‗Tinka’ and Itinerant waste sellers and environmental sustainability in Zaria, Nigeria.

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