Solid-Phase Extraction Of Nickel (II) Ion By Studying The Effects Of Sample Volume On Coated Silica Gel And Production Of Schiff’s Base (BHPDE)

Project and Seminar Material for Science Laboratory Technology SLT

Solid-Phase Extraction Of Nickel (II) Ion By Studying The Effects Of Sample Volume On Coated Silica Gel And Production Of Schiff’s Base (BHPDE)


Abstract


Bis-(4-hydroxypent-2-ylidene)-diaminoethane(BHPDE) is a Schiff base resulting from the condensation of pentane-2-,4 dione and 1,2-diaminoethane.Solid-phase Extraction of Ni (II) ion by column method in the pH range 1- 12 have been studied in trichloromethane using bis-(4-hydroxypent-2-ylidene)-diaminoethane(BHPDE). Ni (II) ion extraction using 2% BHPDE in CHCl3 is sufficient or abundant in the pH of 4.0. The aqueous BHPDE shows a maximum absorption at 320nm. The Ni (II) ion complex has maximum absorption at 375nm.

The acid dissociation constants of H2B (BHPDE) are obtained by titrating with 0.179 M NaOH and are found to be pka1D = 11.55 and pka2D = 11.5 corresponding to the formation of HB- and B2 respectively. Pka1D and pka2D share the same value since H2B (BHPDE) has two protons located in the same chemical environment. Electronic Spectrum of BHPDE confirms that BHPDE absorbs maximally in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum and not in the visible region since it is not displayed in the spectrum. The physical modification of the silica gel using BHPDE has also been studied.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the study

Solid phase extraction (SPE) is a sample preparation technique by which compounds that are dissolved or suspended in a liquid mixture are separated from other compounds in the mixture according to their physical and chemical properties. Solid phase extraction has two phases which are stationary phase and mobile phase; the stationary phase is the silica gel while the mobile phase is nitric acid (Hennion and marie-claire, 1999).

Solid phase extraction uses the affinity of solutes dissolved or suspended in a liquid (known as the mobile phase) for a solid through which the sample is passed (known as the stationary phase) to separate a mixture into desired and undesired components. The result is that either the desired analytes of interest or undesired impurities in the sample are retained on the stationary phase. The portion that passes through the stationary phase is collected or discarded, depending on whether it contains the desired analytes or undesired impurities. If the portion retained on the stationary phase includes the desired analytes, they can then be removed from stationary phase for collection in an additional step, in which the stationary phase is rinsed with an appropriate eluent. Schiff base named after Hugo Schiff is a compound with the general structure R2 C=NR1 (R1≠H) where R stands for a phenyl or alkyl group which makes the Schiff base a stable imine. This kind of ligands is able to coordinate metal ions through the imine nitrogen. Schiff base is normally applied to these compounds when they are being used as ligand to form coordinate complexes with metal ions. Its function is to increase the pre-concentration of the metal ions.

Solid phase extraction technique has several advantages over other pre-concentration methods in terms of reusability of the adsorbent, higher pre-concentration factor, lower consumption of reagents, ease of automation, its environmental friendliness, simplicity, economy. SPE technique is based on adsorption of the metal ion (nickel (II) ion) on silica gel coated with Bis (4-hydroxypent-2-ylidene)-diaminoethane (BHPDE) as a ligand (Taylor and Francis, 2000).


1.2 Objectives of the study

  1. The objective of this study is to activate and modify the silica gel and to develop the calibration curve of Schiff base.
  2. To be able to measure the quantity of a compound accurately, and to determine λ max of (BHPDE) ligand.
  3. To synthesize Schiff’ base which can be used as ligand in the solid support surface to get a new sorbent with high sorption or adsorption efficiency.
  4. To test the power of the prepared SG-extractor in pre-concentration of Ni (II) ions from aqueous solution.
  5. To optimize the conditions for extraction.

1.3 Statement of the problem

Different techniques are used for the separation and pre concentration of metal ions in the solution. Sample preparation techniques among which are liquid-liquid extraction, precipitation, Volatilization, ion-exchange mechanisms, etc are characterized by higher consumption of reagents, lower pre-concentration factor, inability to reuse adsorbent where obtainable, capital intensive and not environmentally friendly.

However, solid-phase extraction technique is the most popular sample preparation method which can be favored and advantageous in the area of its simplicity, ease to automation, lower consumption of reagents, economy, environmentally friendly and above all, high pre-concentration factor.


1.4 Hypothesis

Ho (Null hypothesis): Solid phase extraction of trace metals with the Schiff base Bis-(4-hydroxy pent-2-ylidene)-diaminoethane by column method.

Ha (alternate hypothesis): Solid phase extraction of trace metals without the Schiff base Bis-(4-hydroxypent-2-ylidene)-diaminoethane by column method.


1.5 Significance of the study

In this study, Schiff base was synthesized which was used as a ligand in the solid phase support surface to get a new sorbent with high sorption efficiency.

Secondly, we were able to determine the concentration of some selected trace metals commonly found in our environment. This study may be useful to the young researchers who intend to investigate metal ions in our environment.


1.6 Limitation of the study

This research work is limited to the use of solid particles silica gel to extract solute from liquid samples. It does not involve the study of gaseous samples that can be passing through the packed columns but rather only deals on liquid sample. This study uses Bis-(4-hydroxy pent-2-ylidene)diamino ethane as its Schiff base. The research also focuses only on one trace metal such as nickel (II) ion.


Solid-Phase Extraction Of Nickel (II) Ion By Studying The Effects Of Sample Volume On Coated Silica Gel And Production Of Schiff’s Base (BHPDE)


Project Material Download

3,000 Naira


The complete material will be sent to you in just 2 steps.

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make payment of ₦3,000: through USSD Transfer, Bank Mobile App, ATM Transfer, or POS Transfer to:

Access Bank PlcAccount No.: 0811003731
Name: Samphina Academy
Account Type: Current

Or Click Here to pay with Debit Card

FOR CLIENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA:
Click Here to pay with Debit Card ($15)
GHANA – Make Payment of 60 GHS to MTN MoMo, 0553978005, Douglas Osabutey 

  PAY WITH CRYPTOCURRENCY


Step Two Purchase

Send the following details through Text Message or WhatsApp Messenger | +234-8143831497

  • Payment Details 
  • Email Address 
  • Solid-Phase Extraction Of Nickel (II) Ion By Studying The Effects Of Sample Volume On Coated Silica Gel And Production Of Schiff’s Base (BHPDE)

The complete material will be sent to your email address after receiving your payment information | T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


You may also like:

⚠️ Need a different topic? Perform a quick search



Get A Complete Business Plan For Any Business In Nigeria

Business Plan for Businesses in Nigeria

  Business Plans in Nigeria


Disclaimer


This research material “Solid-Phase Extraction Of Nickel (II) Ion By Studying The Effects Of Sample Volume On Coated Silica Gel And Production Of Schiff’s Base (BHPDE)” is for research purposes and should be used as a guide in developing your research project / seminar work. For no reason should you copy word for word (verbatim) as samphina.com.ng will not be liable for any who copied the material.

The aim of providing this material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works. According to Austin Kleon “All creative work builds on what came before”.

samphina.com.ng is only providing this material “Solid-Phase Extraction Of Nickel (II) Ion By Studying The Effects Of Sample Volume On Coated Silica Gel And Production Of Schiff’s Base (BHPDE)” as a reference for your research. The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own research. Use it as a guidance purpose only.

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.