Soil Survey

Project and Seminar Materials for Civil Engineering CE

Soil Survey


Abstract


Soil survey is the process of classifying soil types and other soil properties in a given area and geo-encoding such information. This is done by collecting soil samples on three (4) trial pits at different locations within the coal camp sub-urban area of Enugu state urban metropolis. A total of 134 respondents were selected from the population figure out of which the sample size was determined. The primary source of data collected was mainly the use of a structured questionnaire which was designed to elicit information on soil survey. The data collected were analyzed using frequency table, percentage and mean score analysis while the nonparametric statistical test (Chi-square) was used to test the formulated hypothesis using SPSS (statistical package for social sciences). The main purpose of this study is to provide a well-constructed soil survey for coal camp Sub-urban which geotechnical engineers can rely on and carry out their engineering projects.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Civil engineering profession encounter soil in diverse ways uses soil as a foundation to support structures and embarkments. Utilises soil as a construction material and must design structures that retain soils from excavation and underground openings.

The answer to a problem in soil engineering is normally obtained by first determining the properties of soil in question and employing these properties to work out a solution. It ies necessary that the soil should be capable of sustaining the applied load without serious deformation and damage, and should retain its strength and stability indefinitely, therefore to meet this requirements an answer to a problem in soil engineering is sought. Hence in planning design and construction of any engineering structure, the engineering should consider supremely important, a satisfactory design with respect to safety and function. To this end, extra care should be taken in any design so as not to defeat the purpose for which the structure was constructed.

Since the soil in every site is different, the soil involve in each different problem must be evaluated. Often, this evaluation can be approximated from a knowledge of the geology of the site or from experience with similar soils. This gave rise to soil surveying and these properties being determined by laboratory tests. More so, and because of the great variety of subsoil condition that may have an adverse effect on the stability of the structures, the design of such structures constitutes a problem. This makes it all the more important to know the soil properties and hence the justification of the project whose purpose is to determine by field and laboratory experiments.

The exercise is therefore designed to provide the necessary data that may be required in the course of some engineering works. This is necessary because of the need to introduce and erect modern structure which is bound to involve some soil problems.

“The practical purpose of soil survey is to enable more numerous, more accurate and more useful predictions [of land performance] to be made for specific purposes than could have been madeotherwise [i.e., in the absence of location-specific information about soils].

Lastly this project deals with the soil survey and laboratory testing of soils in Enugu state urban area, a case study of Coal Camp sub urban area using only four boreholes at different locations.


1.2 Background of Study

Soil survey is a vast area of study or analysis. It depends on one area of discipline. This survey is used to develop some engineering properties that is used to establish some parameters that is used for geometrical design and this establishment depends on the type of soil one is dealing with.

This survey was done a group of three(3) persons, using coal camp sub-urban area as a case study. Samples for the survey was collected from four different locations establishing four boreholes at different depth.

Locations are
  • New site, coal camp ——— borehole 1
  • Jamboree behind coal camp maternity—–borehole 2
  • Chest unit, UNTH, Enugu ——————- borehole 3
  • Bunker hill, coal camp ­—————— borehole 4

The test carried out on the samples are sieve analysis, specific gravity, moisture content, compaction, permeability, consolidation, atterberg limit and triaxial test.

In a situation where the area is water logged , other test that can be carried out are soil pH test, sodium chloride test and sulphate test..


1.3 Aims and Objectives

The main aim of our test is to have a comprehensive soil engineering map in enugu state urban metropolis. A case study of coal camp.

The project aims at providing a well constructed soil survey for coal camp sub-urban which geotechnical engineers can relly on and carry out their engineering projects

  1. To provide good parameter s for geotechnical designs.
  2. To help reduce constant case of failure in construction works.

1.4 Statement of Problems

In construction works , structural or geotechnical engineers have neglected the vital need for soil test or soil survey. The neglect has lead to constant cases of building collapse, failure of newly constructed roads, bridges, culverts etc.


1.5 Significance of Study

Having seen the problems of neglect of soil survey, i feel like contributing to this vital study of geotechnical engineering by collecting the samples, identifying and describing them and carrying out necessary laboratory test to help engineers design to safety.


1.6 Scope and Limitations

The project aims at determining the soil engineering properties, identifying and classifying them.

Due to the vast area to cover, it intends to surveying of soil only in this particular area of enugu state using only four (4) boreholes.


1.7 Collection of Samples and Laboratory Testing Program

The test carried out in this project was on distributed soil sample.

This implies collecting soil samples that are disfigured their natural shape.

Soil samples were collected on three (4) trial pit at different locations within the coal camp Enugu. A total of three (6) samples were collected from the trial pits using pick are and spade. The samples were taken at 1.0m depth intervals. The samples were put in sack bags and labelled 1,2A,2B,3A,3B and 4. The samples were spread on the floor of the soil laboratory and stones removed for seven (7) days to allow for air drying.

The laboratory testing program comprises seive analysis, compaction test, specific gravity, atterberg limit tests, moisture content test, permeability, consolidation test.

The objectives of the laboratory testing program were

  1. To obtain a general information regarding the nature of the soil and their variation with depth.
  2. To obtain information regarding the strength characteristics of the soil.

To obtain information which will enable engineers to group soils according to their appearances of the purposes of complying different soils.

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Conclusion and Recommendations


Soil survey, soil mapping, is the process of classifying soil types and other soil properties in a given area and geo-encoding such information. The information in a soil survey can be used by farmers and ranchers to help determine whether a particular soil type is suited for crops or livestock and what type of soil management might be required. An architect or engineer might use the engineering properties of a soil to determine whether it is suitable for a certain type of construction.

Soil surveys increase general knowledge about soils and serve practical purposes. They provide soil information about specific geographic areas needed for regional or local land use plans. These plans include resource conservation for farms and ranches, development of reclamation projects, forest management, engineering projects, as well as other purposes.

Soil survey works usually include clay mineralogy and certain phases of soil chemistry and physics, as well as information on improved methods for the dispersion of tropical clays; the cation exchange capacity of clay fractions; the mineralogy of soil horizons; the infiltration, movement, and availability of water in different kinds of soils; The purpose of soil survey is both fundamental and applied. Special purpose surveys are for a single well-defined objective. General purpose surveys provide the basis for a variety of interpretations for various kinds of uses, present and future, including some we can’t anticipate now.

Soil Survey methods include pre-field, field and post-field activities. Pre-field Preparations: These include, collation and study of existing data of the area i.e., maps, reports, topo-sheets and analytical data, general field reconnaissance, aerial photo assemblage and interpretation, and design and planning of field survey. Field Survey: Activities include, soil mapping operation and land evaluation operation. The soil mapping operation involves identification and classification of the soil types present in the area, and surveying their distribution, leading to the production of a soil map.

Purpose of soil survey has to do with special purpose or general purpose. Whereas special purpose soil survey is done for specific purpose in mind general purpose soil survey is done mainly to add to the already existing inventory of soil information. Three kinds of soil survey based on regularity of observation include free survey, rigid grid and flexible grid surveys. When soil survey classification is based on scale of published map, we have seven kinds of soil survey namely; compilation, integrated survey, exploratory survey, reconnaissance survey, semi-detailed survey, detailed and intensive surveys.

The different kinds of soil used to name soil map units have sets of interrelated properties that characteristic of soil as a natural body. This definition is intended to exclude maps showing the distribution of a single soil property such as texture, slope, or depth, alone or in limited combinations; maps that show the distribution of soil qualities such as productivity or erodibility; and maps of soil-forming factors, such as climate, topography, vegetation, or geologic material. A soil map delineates areas occupied by different kinds of soil, each of which has a unique set of interrelated properties characteristic of the material from which it formed, its environment, and its history. The soils mapped by the NCSS are identified by names that serve as references to a national system of soil taxonomy.

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