Socio-Economic Consequences And Government Intervention In Rural Migration In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Bende L.G.A, Abia State)

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration


This project work is on “ socio- economic consequences and government intervention in rural migration in Nigeria” using Bende LGA of Abia state as a case study. An attempt was made to highlight the major socio-economic problems brought about by rural urban migration in Nigeria. Data were obtained using mixed methods approach comprising questionnaire surveys and key informat interviews.

The population and its sample size was calculated without bias using the yaro yamen’s formula. Research questions and hypothesis were tested to ascertain its validity and reliability through data obtained. Based on the findings, the researcher draws her conclusion and proffer solutions in form of recommendations on how best to hinder the trend of rural-urban migration and its consequences large.

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement Of problem
  • 1.3 Objective of study
  • 1.4 Scope of study
  • 1.5 Limitation of study
  • 1.6 Significance of study
  • 1.7 Theoretical framework
  • 1.8 Statement of hypotheses
  • 1.9 Definition of terms
  • References

Chapter Two

2.0 literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • References

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research design
  • 3.3 Sources / methods of data collection
  • 3.4 Population and sample size
  • 3.5 Sample technique
  • 3.6 Validity and reliability of measuring instrument
  • 3.7 Method of data analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Data Presentation and Analysis of Data

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Data presentation
  • 4.3 Analysis of analysis
  • 4.4 Interpretation of result (s)

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary of findings
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation
  • Bibliography
  • Appendix
  • Questionnaire

Chapter One


1.1 Background Of The Study

To a large extent, migration is a natural phenomenon. This is because wild animals and birds migrate, that is moving from one geographical area to another at certain periods of the year. The migration of weaver birds is common in Nigeria.

Migration is usually concerned with a permanent change of home, but it can also apply to temporary movements such as those of nomads. Migration is sometimes used to include all types of movements as those of seasonal workers, tourists etc. The migration of farmers from over crowded or unproductive areas to areas where land is under utilized is an important aspect of rural economic development. Today, man is living in a more settled life although the process of migration has not stopped. What has changed is rather the pattern of migration.

The two (2) types of migration are observable in the modern world. They are: International migration which involves movement of people beyond the boundaries of many nations and Internal migration involving the movement of people within the territorial boundaries of a particular country.

Whether international or internal; migration is all about the movement of people from one geographical area to another, which may be induced by social or economic factors. This migration could be the movement of people from one region to another within the same country, or the movement of people from the rural area to the urban centers, but also within the same country. The later is the subject of this paper research work.

Rural-urban migration means the movement of people from rural population to the urban centre within a national boundary. Almost all developing countries that have been concerned with the size and growth of their urban population believe that internal (rural-urban) Migration has been the prominent factor contributing to urban growth.

Although high population growth is a serious problem in most developing countries, internal migration puts even greater strain on cities. Because of lack of data on migration in many developing countries, the difference between the urban growth rate and the natural (total population) growth rate is used as a rough measure of migration.

1.1 Background Of The Study

Abia state was carried out of the former Imo state in 1991. The name “Abia state” is an abbreviation if four of the state’s densely populated regions, Abia, Bende, Isuikwu- ato and Afikpo of which Afikpe later was carried out to form the present day Ebonyi state.

The present day Bende L.G.A which forms the background of this research work, was formally called old Bend whose administrative and geo-political area stretched at that time from Arochukwu to umuahia and included such towns as ututu, Ikechiowa, ohafia, Abiriba, Nkporo, Abam Umuhu, Bende, Igbere,Item, alayi, ozu Item, Isukwuato, uzuakoli, Nkpa, Uuahia and Ikwuano with a population of 3 million people.

Citizens from old Bende LGA listed above are simply referred to an “ Benda people”. The term Bende is in honour of a town called “Bende” LGA area of governance.

Even today, the Bende town is still the administrative seat of Bende in the present day Abia state local government areas structure.

Bende today has been restructured to include towns namely:Nkpa, Nkpokpa, Amaohoro, Eluama, Agbaiyi, Umuede, umuewu ugwu, Oblaji, Okpobia, Alayi, Item, Okporoenyi, Ugwieke, Eziukwu, igbere and odua with the total population of about 128,227 based in 2006 population census. Bende is predominantly made up of farmers and local traders. Bende is blessed with so many natural resources like salt, gold, phosphate, laterite gravel and lime stone. It is also one of the three (3) agricultural backbone of abia state.

The people cultivate yam, cassava, cocoyam and harvest large palm oil plantation for commercial and personal consumption which was formerly the heavy earners for the people in the LGA before the oil boom and has been neglected.

Bende people are known for their brave ring and self-reliance. They showed a lot of these great traits in the was of survival during the Nigerian Biafra war which was greeted and celebrated with the famous Bende war dance which is very unique and popular.

Bende today, despite producing top men like Dr. Orji Uzor kalu, former governor of Abia state 1999-2007, ace actor Mr. James Iroha a.k.a Gringory Akabuogu of new masquerade e cast, Chinedu ikedieze a.k.a Aki, okechukwu Edward Ukeje also known as Mr. Raw and host of other top educational and intellectual figure plus politicians, they are still suffering from mismanagement.

1.2 Statement Of Problem

The increasing rate of rural- urban migration in the third world is often seen as a source of both social and economic problems. Evidence shows that rural workers migrate to the cities even if they are unlikely to find jobs, provided that they expect to hit the jackpot eventually by obtaining high wage sector employment. Migrants are attracted to cities, not because they are assured of an increase in wages, but because they gamble on being absorbed in high wage and are willing to be unemployed or accept very low wages in the urban labour market for a period of time in the expectation of achieving a high lifetime income.

However, the chances of hitting the jackpot fall as more and more rural workers join the ranks of the unemployed. At some point the unemployed are numerous enough to discourage additional migration in excess of the rate at which new jobs were being created in the high wage sector; in this way, urban unemployment acts as an equilibrium device, eventually choking off the flow of new migrants (Economic Review 1996). With particular reference to Bende Local Government Area as the researcher’s case study; a lot of socio- economic problems have been encountered as a result of rural- urban migration. The researcher reduce the effects to include;

  1. Decrease in agricultural produce
  2. Depopulation of the rural areas
  3. Shortage of agricultural labors
  4. Non- proliferation of the rural market due to low patronage.

1.3 Objectives Of Study

The factors influencing the decision to migrate are varied and complex. Since migration is a selective process affecting individuals with certain economic, social, education demographic characteristics, the relative influence of economic and non- economic factors may very not only between nations and regions but also within defined geographic areas and populations.

Much of the early research on migration tended to focus on social, cultural and psychological factors while recognizing but not carefully evaluating the importance of economic variables. All these non- economic factors are of course relevant. However, there now seems to be wide spread agreement among economists and non-economists alike that rural-urban migration can be explained primarily by the influence of economic factors. These include not only the standard “push” of relatively high urban wages, but also the potential “push-back” of high urban unemployment.

The objective of this research work is to set out in detail the types of migration in developing countries, the determinants and consequences of rural-urban migration (internal migration), and the possible suggestions that are to be taken by the present and subsequent governments to curb the high rate of rural- urban migration in Nigeria. The objective would be determined with particular reference to Bende LGA.

1.4 Research Questions

In carrying out the research, the following research questions were formulated:

  1. What are the socio-economic consequences of rural migration in Bende LGA?
  2. Does rural migration contributed to the development of the economy?
  3. To what extent has the government intervenes in rural migration?
  4. What are the reasons for rural migration in Bende Local government?
  5. To what extent does rural migration affect Bende LGA dwellers?
  6. Has these socio-economic consequences in any way affect economic development of Nigeria?

1.5 Statement Of Hypotheses

In view of the nature of this research topic, it is necessary to formulate some research hypotheses. These research hypotheses were tested for validity or otherwise in this study.

  1. HO: Economic reason is not the cause of migration of Bende People.
    H1: Economic reason is the cause of migration of Bende people.
  2. HO: Lack of social amenities is not contributory to migration of Bende people.
    H1: Lack of social amenities is contributory to migration of Bende people.

1.6 Significance Of Study

Rural- urban migration has remained a topical issue in Nigeria especially with the growth of large cities like Lagos, Kano, Asaba and Aba to mention but a few. As the name implies, rural-urban migration is the movement of people from rural areas to urban centre. This movement takes place due to various reasons. Consequently, this essay will attempt to investigate the reasons for rural- urban migration and also probe into the reasons for government intervention.

The findings and recommendations of this study will be useful to both students and researchers who will under take further research intervention in rural migration in Nigeria.

1.7 Scope Of Study

This research discusses rural- urban migration in the Nigerian economy with particular reference to Bende Local Government Area. It will consider the reasons for rural- urban migration and discuss the reason why the Federal Government often attempts to influence rural- urban drift.
The findings of this research project can also apply to all other developing nations where there is high rate of rural-urban migration.

1.8 Limitation Of The Study

In an attempt to carryout this research work, the researcher encountered numerous constraints. These hindrance includes: financial shortage, limited transportation fare, time constraints, scrunty and acquisition of textbooks, lukewarm or non challant attitude of respondents to the questionnaire and bureaucratic bottleneck.

1.9 Definition Of Terms


Concentration of people in a geographical area where they can support themselves from the city’s economic activities on the fairly permanent basis.


An area that is over crowded.

Data collection:

process of gathering data, information and facts for the purpose of research.


Movement of people from one geographical area to another. explanation


Movement of people from one geographical area to another.

Urban area:

Areas or locations where there is opportunity for a diverse type of living environment and life style.

Rural area:

Society based on individualism, homogeneous culture and impersonal contractual relationship.


They are hiccups, constraints and barriers to effectiveness in carrying out the research work in this context.

Chapter Five

Summary, Recommendations And Conclusion

5.1 Summary

This essay has attempted to review the subject of rural-urban migration in the context of a developing economy of Nigeria. It has therefore exposed us to the reasons and consequences of migration as well as government attempts at reducing the movement. People migrate from rural areas to urban centers for a number of reasons which could be economic, social or even political. Such migration has produced some noticeable problems in cities and rural areas which therefore informs government attempts at controlling the trend. It was also observed in the course of this research that some policies being put in place by government increase the problem of rural-urban migration rather than reduce it.

Consequently, the research is compelled to put forward the following suggestions and recommendations

5.2 Recommendations

A good number of recommendations have been advocated, although governments often pay lip- services to some measures expected to produce desirable results. Such recommendations include:

  1. Provision of employment opportunities in the rural areas.
  2. Expansion of small scale labour- intensive industries. This may entail reforming and encouraging the rural areas.
  3. Formulation and implementation of policies on rural industrialization.
  4. Promotion of agriculture in the rural areas through various schemes and projects e.g. Directorate of food, road and rural infrastructure (DFRRI).
  5. Modifying the direct linkages between education and employment. This does not necessarily imply reducing investment on education but rather entails changing the curriculum to better prepare students for rural vocations.
  6. Genuine efforts should be made at providing infrastructural facilities and social amenities in the rural areas. This no doubt will reduce the” temptation” to migrate to the cities.

5.3 Conclusion

Migration, all said and done is inevitable if economic growth is to take place. On the other hand, industrialization is indispensable to growth and requires urbanization which in turn requires migration. It should be noted that migration is also a form of labour mobility. Mobility of labour is very significant in determining the productivity of any economy. This is because it affects the degree to which labour is utilized. If labour is static and refused to move to where the employment opportunities exist, it will remain unemployed and production will consequently suffer.
From the foregoing, it could be deduced that labour has to be sufficiently mobile geographically and occupationally for an economy to attain high levels of employment, productivity and welfare.

Probably, the task of government should be to control and channel it into the most productive sectors of the economy and areas of the country rather than dissipating energy and resources in trying to stop migration. It should always be born in mind that mobility is necessary for effective and productive use of human resources. This important point can never be over emphasized.

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