Socio-Economic Status Of Parents And Students’ Academic Performance In Lagelu Local Government Area, Oyo State

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Socio-Economic Status Of Parents And Students’ Academic Performance In Lagelu Local Government Area, Oyo State


Abstract


This study examined socio-economic status of parents and students’ academic performance in Lagelu Local Government Area, Oyo state. The researcher adopted descriptive survey of correlational type. The study used random sampling technique to select ten public secondary schools out of twenty-six secondary schools. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select two hundred respondents. A research questionnaire titled “Socio-Economic Status of Parents Questionnaire (SESPQ) and Students’ Academic Performance Proforma (SAPP)” were used to collect relevant data from the respondents. One main hypothesis and three operational hypotheses were formulated and tested for this study. The hypotheses were tested using Pearson product moment correlation statistical method at 0.05 level of significance.

The findings revealed that:

  1. There was significant relationship between socio-economic status of parents and students’ academic performance in Lagelu Local Government Area, Oyo state.
  2. There was significant relationship between educational status of parents and students’ academic performance in Lagelu Local Government Area, Oyo state.
  3. There was significant relationship between parents’ occupation and students’ academic performance in Lagelu Local Government Area, Oyo state.
  4. There was significant relationship between family structure and students’ academic performance in Lagelu Local Government Area, Oyo state.

Based on the findings, it was recommended that every parent could be able to provide for the needs of their children. Parents should endeavour to improve on their socio-economic status in order to aid the performance of their children. Parents should endeavour to enhance their educational status so that they could assist their children in any of their class assignment.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgment
  • Table of Content
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • Background to the Study
  • Statement of the Problem
  • Purpose of the Study
  • Research Question
  • Research Hypothesis
  • Scope of the study
  • Significance of the study
  • Operational Definition of Terms

Chapter Two:

Review of Related Literature

  • Concept of Social-economic status
  • Concept of Academic Performances
  • Students’ Academic Performance in Nigeria
  • Socio-economic Status of Parents and students’ Academic Performance
  • Parental Occupation and Students’ Academic Performance
  • Parental Academic Background and students’ Academic Performance
  • Other Factors Affecting students’ Academic Performance
  • Empirical Studies
  • Appraisal of Literature Reviewed

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • Research Design
  • Population, Sample and Sampling Techniques
  • Instrumentation
  • Validity and Reliability of the instrument 33Procedure for Data Collection
  • Method of Data Analysis

Chapter Four:

Data Analysis and Results

  • Hypotheses Testing
  • Summary of the Findings

Chapter Five:

Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • Discussion of the Findings
  • Conclusions
  • Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Introduction

Background to the Study

Socio-economic status is a definite background variable that represents a feature of the social structure in society (Oakes & Rossi, 2003). It is a fact that families where the parents are privileged educationally, socially and economically, promote a higher level of achievement in their offspring. The socio-economic status of a child is usually determined by parental educational level, parental occupational status and income level (Jeynes 2002). It is understood that low socio-economic status negatively and depressingly affects students’ academic achievement. Due to low socio-economic status, a student does not have access to important resources and generates additional stress and tension at home (Jeynes, 2002, Eamon 2005). According to Parson, Stephanie and Deborah (2001), Socio-economic status is an expression which is used to differentiate between people’s relative status in the community with regard to family income, political power, educational background and occupational status.

Socio-economic status is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person’s work experience and of an individual’s or family’s economic and social position in relation to others based on income, education and occupation. When analysing a family’s socio-economic status, the household income, earner’s education and occupation are examined, as well as combined income verses with an individual, when their own attributes are assessed (Keltner, 2008).

In the current era of globalisation and technological revolution, education is considered as a crucial step for every human activity (Farooq, Shafia, & Berhanu, 2011) and it is considered as the lifeline for efficient and stable working of human society. Education does not only provide knowledge and skills, but also inculcates values, training, fostering right attitudes and habits. Cultural heritage and values are transmitted from one generation to the next through education. Education is the best legacy parents can give to their children. The development of the nation starts from the family. When the family succeeds in teaching and impacting good values in their children, the country becomes a better place to live. It is generally believed that the basis for any true development must commence with the development of human resource. Formal education is the demonstration of such desires to effectively and efficiently build a sound and strong economy. Education is very vital in the human existence because the society and education are interrelated and inter-dependent. This can also be seen in the nature and development of a child born in a given society.

The school is an umbrella governing children from different parental background and social backgrounds and as such the children’s learning and rate of academic development is closely related to other experiences. Education in Nigeria is overseen by the Ministry of Education. Local authorities take responsibility for implementing policies for state-controlled public education and state schools at a regional level. The education system is divided into kindergarten, primary education, secondary education and tertiary education. This study is focused on secondary education. Students spend six years in secondary school that is 3 years of JSS (Junior Secondary School), and 3 years of SSS (Senior Secondary School). The Senior Secondary School ends with Senior Secondary Certificate Examination. Junior secondary school is compulsory and leads to the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE), which opens the gate to Senior Secondary School. SSS curriculum is based on 6 core subjects completed by 2 or 3 elective subjects. Core subjects are: English; Mathematics, Civic Education, Computer: one major Nigeria language and others are elective; it contains vocational subjects which include; marketing, Animal husbandry, food and nutrition, technical drawing, music and fine arts. Students can also join, after the BECE a technical college. The technical college curriculum also lasts 3 years and leads to a trade/craftsmanship certificate.

Nigerian education has been experiencing a geometric set back since the past two decades which makes the academic performance of students to be getting poorer, this pathetic situation has always been an issue to attend to by government and the stakeholders in the educational sector. Numerous factors have been identified in various research studies to be responsible for the continuous declining of our educational system. Various factors such as classroom size, poor teacher-student ratio, in-adequate instructional materials, attitude of teachers towards work and lack of seriousness on the part of students. With the availability of more qualified teachers, improved technology and facilities for teaching and learning, educational system in Nigeria is still losing it values.

Motivation for this study is based on the fact that some students are exceptionally good in their work, while some extremely bad. When variations in scores are traced it is more often discovered that family background is a major contributory factor. It is therefore important that the levels of such contributions and the influence they have on children be examined so that useful suggestions to parents, teachers, educational planners and government could be made.

Orhungur (2003) asserts that the cultural background of the family is determined to a large extent by its socio-economic background. As the child grows up moves out to the interest wider society his/her interaction with it and perception of it are largely determined from her earlier, experiences at home.

Besides, the other factors such as individual and household characteristics, school related factors and government policies, socio-economic status is the most researched and debated factor that contribute towards the academic performance of students (Farooq et al, 2011). Furthermore, little empirical evidences are found in Nigeria regarding the association between parental socio-economic status and academic achievement of their students (Odoemena, 2010). As a result, conducting research on such issues would provide great insights on the association between socio-economic status of parents and academic performance of students.

The researcher is being motivated to study the effects of parental socio-economic status on the students’ academic performance, as most families are poor and cannot adequately affords 3-square meals not to talk of meeting the educational needs of their children. The researcher wishes to study the serious implication that the family socio-economic status had on the learning and performance of students’ academic performance. Osunloye, 2008 observed that there is an awareness of the importance of the home environment or family on children academic performance.
Statement of the Problem

Poor academic performance of secondary school students has been associated with high level of indiscipline from students, lack of commitment from parents, teachers and inefficient administrators in secondary schools (Ugoji, 2008). The gap in performance between students and academic excellence constitutes a great source of worry and serious concern as well as discomfiture to parents, school managers, policy makers and various governments responsible for the education of students in Nigeria.

In order to improve performance, much has been done to the factors that Ugoji (2008) reported above, as the level of discipline in many of the schools has improved, and the ministries of education and other stakeholders have done much to put in place efficient administration, but in spite of all these, students’ performance has not significantly improved. Therefore, it is important to establish other factors that affect academic performance in Nigeria outside those that are perceived by Ugoji and some other researchers.

Obanya (2004), Ebenuwa – Okoh (2010), and Atanda and Jaiyeoba (2011) noted that some of the factors responsible for the low performance of students in WASSCE and NECO are low socio-economic status of parents and lack of seriousness of students. This study therefore attempts to investigate parents’ socio-economic status and students’ academic performance in secondary schools.


Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study is to investigate socio-economic status of parents and students’ academic performance in Lagelu Government Area, Oyo state. Other purposes are to:

  1. Determine the relationship between the educational status of parents and students’ academic performance in Lagelu Local Government Area, Oyo state.
  2. Ascertain parents’ occupation and students’ academic performance in Lagelu Local Government Area, Oyo state.
  3. Find out the relationship between family structure and students’ academic performance in Lagelu Local Government Area, Oyo state.

Research Questions

For the purpose of this research work the following research questions were raised:

  1. What is the impact of educational status of parents on students’ academic performance in Lagelu Local Government Area, Oyo state?
  2. What are the types of occupation parents indulge in Lagelu Local Government Area, Oyo state?
  3. To what extent does family structure of students improve academic performance in Lagelu Local Government Area, Oyo State?

Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to serve as main frame for this study.

Main Hypothesis
  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between socio-economic status of parents and students’ academic performance in Lagelu Local Government Area, Oyo state.
Operational Hypotheses
  • Ho1: There is no significant relationship between educational status of parents and students’ academic performance in Lagelu Local Government Area, Oyo state.
  • Ho2: There is no significant relationship between parents’ occupation and students’ academic performance in Lagelu Local Government Area, Oyo state.
  • Ho3: There is no significant relationship between family structure and students’ academic performance in Lagelu Local Government Area, Oyo state.

Scope of the Study

The study will be confined to senior secondary school three (S.S.S. Three) Students in Lagelu Local Government Area, Oyo State. The geographical scope of the study will be limited to students in Lagelu Local Government Area, Oyo state. The respondents would be selected from 10 secondary schools. The variables scope is educational status of parents, parents’ occupation and family structure. The instrumental scope will be Socio-economic status of parents Questionnaire (SESPQ) and Students’ Academic Performance Proforma. The statistical scope will be descriptive and inferential statistics. The time frame is 2013-2016.


Significance of the Study

This research work presents the influence of parental socio-economic status on students’ academic performance. Most particularly it explains the way in which occupational status, educational status and family structure of parents affect the students’ academic performance.

The findings of this study would be of immense benefit to students, the ministry of education, the government, non-governmental agencies, examination bodies and guidance counselors. The findings of the study would help these various organisations to understand the effect of parental socio-economic status on the performance of students academically. The findings of this study would assist government to have better insight into adverse effects of the low socio-economic status of the populace. In short, the study would create awareness on the best ways to improve the education of the country.

The parents which are saddled with the responsibilities of ensuring high academic performance for their child stand to benefit from the findings of this study would assist them to have better knowledge about how their occupation, education and also the relationship the parents have with their children affect the children positively or negatively. Educational and curriculum planners could be guided in planning the curriculum without rigidity to suit diverse cultural environment. The professional counselor also stands to benefit immensely from the result of this study.


Operational Definition of Terms

As words may mean differently in different contexts, the following definitions are given as intended to be understood for the purpose of this study.

Family Structure:

Refers to the characteristics that define a family like; income and social class in socio-economic status of parents and students’ academic performance in Lagelu Local Government Area, Oyo state.

Educational Status of Parents:

Refers to the educational background of students’ parents like; School Certificate, NCE, First degree, Masters and Ph.D holders in socio-economic status of parents and students’ academic performance in Lagelu Local Government Area, Oyo state.

Parents’ Occupation:

Refers to the job or occupation that parents are doing in socio-economic status of parents and students’ academic performance in Lagelu Local Government Area, Oyo state.

Socio-Economic Status:

Refers to position of recognition which one finds himself in the society, such a position may not be heredity but acquired through personal efforts like education, wealth, occupation and social class in socio-economic status of parents and students’ academic performance in Lagelu Local Government Area, Oyo state.

Academic Performance:

Refers to the students’ achievement, scores within the class or in external examination and their positions relative to all those subjected to the same test in socio-economic status of parents and students’ academic performance in Lagelu Local Government Area, Oyo state.


Chapter Five


Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations

This chapter presents discussion of findings, conclusion and recommendations made on the research carried out on socio-economic status of parents and students’ academic performance in Lagelu Local Government Area, Oyo state.


Discussion of Findings

Hypothesis one revealed that there was significant relationship between socio-economic status of parents and students’ academic performance. This finding is in line withthe findings of Odoemana and Opara (2010) who stated thatsocioeconomic status is also seen as an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person’s work experience and of an individual’s or family’s economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation, when analysing a family’s socioeconomic status, the household income, earner’s education and occupation are examined, as well as combined income, whereas for an individual’s socioeconomic status only their own attributes are assessed.

Hypothesis two indicated that there was significant relationship between educational status of parents and students’ academic performance. Galindo Marcenaro and Vignoles (2004) stated that policy making, the relativity between those of high and low status from among the parents in relation to their children’s education is widening rather than narrowing across educational achievement. Jeynes (2002) and Eamon (2005) believed that low socio-economic status and low educational background negatively affects academic achievement because they both prevents access to vital resources and creates additional stress at home. Nannyonjo (2007) opined that students from the educated parents who attended and finished senior four or senior six or university performed considerably better than the student with parents who did not finish primary or just finished primary school. Students whose fathers had university degree may likely expect to have the highest increase in test score. Eccles & Kean (2005) stated that the relationship between parent’s education and their children’s academic success is on the notion that the parents gain knowledge of parenting and this influences their interaction at home.

Hypothesis three revealed that there was significant relationship between parents’ occupation and students’ academic performance. Sirin (2005) stated that parental occupational status is part of a larger constellation of sociological variables influencing children’s school outcome Fizbe and Shady (2009) affirmed that for some parents the opportunity cost of schooling are associated with labour shortage, resources and services lost by the reason of sending their children to school.

Hypothesis four revealed that there was significant relationship between family structure and students’ academic performance. Agus and Makhbul (2002) investigated that students from families of higher income levels perform better in their academic performance as compared to those who come from families of lower income brackets. Checchi (2000) also concluded that family income provides an incentive for better student performance; richer parents internalise this affect by investing more resources in the education of their children.


Conclusion

From the result, it is obvious that socio-economic status enhances the level of students’ academic performance. With the results of the analyses and factors under consideration, the following factors contribute positively to students’ academic performance good parental background, parents’ occupation, as well as educational status of parents.


Recommendations

Based on the result of the findings, the following recommendations were put forward that;

  1. Government should endeavour to improve the social and economic values of the society so that every parent could be able to provide for the needs of their children.
  2. Parents should endeavour to improve on their socio-economic status (income, education and occupation) in order to aid the performance of their children.
  3. Parents should endeavour to enhance their educational status (e.g inservice training, part-time programme) so that they could assist their children in any of their class assignment.
  4. Parents should make sure that they engage in business or occupation, such as trading so that they could be able to cater for education and shelter of their children.
  5. Parents should endeavour to establish the number of children they can cater for rather than indulging in a large family structure that would affect the performance of their children in school through birth control mechanism.

Socio-Economic Status Of Parents And Students’ Academic Performance In Lagelu Local Government Area, Oyo State


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Socio-Economic Status Of Parents And Students’ Academic Performance In Lagelu Local Government Area, Oyo State


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Frequently Asked Questions


How does parental socioeconomic status affect student performance in school?

Eamon (2005) revealed that students whose parental socioeconomic status is low do not show effective performance in school. Findings also showed that the academic achievement of students is negatively correlated with the low parental socioeconomic status level as it prevents the individual in gaining access to sources and resources of learning.

Does socioeconomic status affect student academic achievement?

Significant differences were found between the students with (high and low) and (high and middle) socioeconomic status. On the other hand insignificant difference was found between the students with middle and low socioeconomic status in respect to academic achievement.

Is there any effect of family size on the academic performance?

Is there any effect of family size on the academic performance of physics students? The socio-economic status of parents has no significant effect on the academic performance of physics students. There is no significant effect between family size and the academic performance of students in physics.

What is the average pupil score of high socio-economic status?

Pupils from high socio-economic status, middle socio-economic status and low socio-economic status background recorded mean score of 56.90, 58.00 and 47.82 respectively. 

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