The Effect Of Socio-economic Background On Academic Performance Of Secondary School Biology Students In Enugu North Local Government Area Of Enugu State 

Biology Education Project Material

The Effect Of Biology Practical Activities On Academic Achievement Of Senior Secondary School Students In Enugu East Local Government Area


Abstract


This study is on the effect of socioeconomic background on academic performance of secondary school biology student. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected secondary school in Enugu North local government of Enugu state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made principals, vice principals administration, senior staff and junior staff was used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the study

Education is the best legacy a nation can give to her citizens especially the youth. This is because the development of any nation or community depends youth. This is because the development of any nation or community depends largely on the quality of education of such a nation. It is generally believed that the basis for any true development must commence with the development of human resources. Much then is said formal education remains the vehicle for social-economic development and social mobilization in any witnessed prolong military rule and aborted civilian administrations, which necessitude the promulgation of decrees, edicts and levels. The inconsistence continuation of government, due to coup de tat de-emphasized the continuity in the implementation of educational laws and polices since 1970’s till the present time. This gradually laid the foundation of fallen standard in education at the primary and secondary school levels (Shittu, 2004) Frequently changes of ministers and commissioners of education by successive government coupled with the politicization of education by political parties that emerged in the country’s political parties that emerged in the country’s political scene 1979 have also brought about disparity in educational practices, which caused differential academic performance and classroom functioning of both teachers and students, from state to state. Material academic performance and classroom function of both teachers and students from state to state. According to Olotu (1994) in the quest of finding survival feet, the nation has evolved series o socio-economic and educational measures and policies such as structural adjustment programmes (SAP), Austerity measures, universal primary education (UPE), Universal Basic education (UBE) and devaluation of the Naira. .These measures have not improved the social economic and educational status of families in the country.

They have rather increased their suffering, and widened the socio-economic gaps between families. Johnson (1996) lamented that parents become poor due to there hard measures such that they can no longer provide shelter, clothing and special need of their children in school/such as provision of text books . school uniforms and good medical care and so on high level of illiteracy, poverty and law socio-economic status coupled with high rate of paternal and maternal deprivation of student academic needs which was necessitated by poor socio-economics situation of the country has thrown many farmers and other ruler dwellers into untold financial problems such as poverty, lack of money to purchase necessary text books and working materials for their kids. Also many rural and sub-urban dwellers can no longer pay the school students to deposit of school to engage in subsistence farming and become housemaids or engage in other mental jobs to support their academic pursuit. Hence, many student have since taken schooling as a secondary assignment and school attendance or rational basis.The resultant problem posed by this poor academic performance in school examination National Examinations council (NECO) and West Africa Examination Council (WAEC). This trend is posing huge. Problems to parents, government, political parties and stakeholders in education. This paper thus examines the socio-economic factors responsible for the poor academic performance of secondary school students, in the local government area of Oyo state Nigeria. Basic issues Home background: Home background according to PISA (progamme international student Assessment, 2000) influences academic and educational success of students and schoolwork, while socio-economic status reinforces the activities and functioning of the teachers and students. From the above, it is reversed that the quality of parents and home background of student goes a long way to predict the quality and regularity of the satisfaction and provision of a child’s functional survival and academic needs. poor parental care with gross deprivation of social and economic needs of a child, usually yield poor academic performance of the child. On the other hand, where a child suffers parental and material deprivation and care due to divorce or death, or ascending of one of the parents the child schooling may be financially buoyant to pay school fees, purchase books uniforms, such child may play truant, thus his performances in school may be adversely affected (Shittu, 2004). Similarly, good parenting supported by strong economic home background could enhance strong academic performance of the child.
This further predicts academic performance where the child is properly counseled in the choice of his/her courses and vocation that matches his mental ability, interest and capacity where as the children to the care of the illiterate mothers will find themselves roaming about the street laboring to make ends meet. Danesy and Okediran (2012) lamented that street hawking among young school students have psychologically imposed other problems, like sex networking behavior, Juvenile delinquent behavior, which takes much of the student school time that necessitated the poor academic performance and drop out syndrome noticed among young school students. Nevertheless, they also lamented that the materials and patterned deprivation of the essential needs of the young student have prompted their poor performance in public examination, such as JSSC, WAEC and NECO. Learning Environment: The learning environment that is free of Barriers, or obstacles or distractions such as noise, gas/smoke pollutions and so on can constitute a health hazards, which in turn affect or reduces student’s concentration or perceptual or conceptual focus to learning (spr in thrall, 1987). Markets and garages located near school have always posed a threat to students. Noise and pollution from these sources have always endangered students’ life and concentration. Therefore for an effective learning and high academic performance, schools a both ruler and sub-urban and urban areas should be located off zones, characterized with smoke/ gas pollutions, market centers or garages. As conducive learning environments stimulate learning, understanding and high perception. Other factors according to Danes (2004, complementing environmental and socio-economic factors to produce high academic achievements and performance include good teaching, counseling, good administration, good seating arrangement and good building. Dilapidating buildings lacking mental stimulating facilities that are characterized with low or no seating arrangement will also be destructive. Danes, however, lamented that the innovative environment do stimulate head start learning and mental perception, not only that, it has also been proved that student that come from simulative environment with laboratory equipments or those that are taught with rich instructional aides, pictures and allowed to demonstrate using their functional nerves like, eyes, hands, and sense of taste. Performed better than those trained under theoretical and canopy of abstraction. Thus teaching and learning should be done under organized, planned and fortified environment with learning instructional aides to stimulate students sense of conception, and concentration to facilitate systematic understanding and acquisition of knowledge in them. SsIn sum a combination of a healthy family background living in good environment plus the child being educated in a conducive environment with a fortified learning or instructional aids or motivational incentives will prompt academic performance. Furthermore, it has been played that some factors which are present in the family contribute greatly to the academic performance of the student. Among these are parental educational background income exposure, parental relationship, with each other strength of the family determines to a grater extent the readiness of the child to learn. Never the less, the influence of other factor like mental and physical disabilities can account for poor family background being an umbrella in the initiation of the child in the world should provide favorable conditions which will improve the academic performance of the child irrespective of the constraints encountered in the academic pursuits. Furthermore, it has been X-rayed that some factors which are present in the family contributed greatly to the performance of the student. Among these are parental educational background, income, exposure parental relationship with each other strength of the family/ population, religion sex difference action, occupation etc. the interplay of these factors in the family determines the to a greater extent the readiness of the child to lean. Nevertheless, the influence of other factor like mental and physical disabilities can account for poor academic performance in biology. In the whole, the family background being an umbrella in the inflation of the child into the world should provide favorable conditions which will improve the academic performance of the child, irrespective of the constraints encountered in his academic pursuits.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Observations and reports from examination bodies like WAEC, NECO and Jamb revealed that a high percentage of secondary school students continue to do poorly in biology examinations. This poor performance is likely to be caused by some factors such as lack of parental care, poverty and lack of interest in education hence. This study sought to investigate the extent to which these variables determine the biology achievement of secondary school students in Eungu North local government area of Enugu State.


1.3 Objective Of The Study

The objectives of the study are;

  1. To ascertain the relationship between socioeconomic background and academic performance of secondary school biology student
  2. To ascertain the effect of socioeconomic background on student performance on biology
  3. To ascertain the relationship between teachers qualification and student performance on biology

1.4 Research Hypotheses

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

  1. H0: there is no relationship between socioeconomic background and academic performance of secondary school biology student
    H1: there is no relationship between socioeconomic background and academic performance of secondary school biology student
  2. H02: there is no relationship between teachers qualification and student performance on biology
    H2: there is relationship between teachers qualification and student performance on biology

1.5 Significance Of The Study

This study will give a clear insight on the effect of socioeconomic background on academic performance of secondary school biology student. The study will be of benefit to students, teachers and the general public. The study will also serve as a reference to other researchers that will embark on this topic


1.6 Scope And Limitation Of The Study

The scope of the study covers the effect of socioeconomic background on academic performance of secondary school biology students. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

a) Availability Of Research Material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

c) Organizational Privacy:

Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.


1.7 Definition Of Terms

Social Economic Status: This is the term used to distinguish between people’s relative position, rank in relation to others in the society in terms of family income, political power, educational back ground and occupational prestige.
Academic Performance: This is referred to as the result of a task given to student in an academic environment.


1.8 Organization Of The Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was on the effect of socioeconomic background on academic performance of secondary school biology student. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of socioeconomic background on academic performance of secondary school biology student.


5.2 Summary

This study was on the effect of socioeconomic background on academic performance of secondary school biology student. Three objectives were raised which included: To ascertain the relationship between socioeconomic background and academic performance of secondary school biology student, to ascertain the effect of socioeconomic background on student performance on biology, to ascertain the relationship between teachers qualification and student performance on biology. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected secondary school in Enugu North local government of Enugu state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made principals, vice principals administration, senior staff and junior staff was used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies


5.4 Conclusion

This study reveals that family background including family structure, parental occupation and parental education level had no significant influence on students’ achievement in biology. The implication of this is that parents of this age are more aware and serious about giving their children the best education they can irrespective of their own shortcomings. Most studies carried out earlier were showing significant influence of family background on students’ achievement. Consequently many researchers indicted parents as contributing to students’ poor performance in science, for example Okafor (2010). It is gratifying to note that things are changing for the better as regards family background influence on academic achievement as this study reveals. Perhaps from the foregoing, researchers should intensity their research efforts towards other possible factors in order to find lasting solution to the problem of poor performance in this very important subject called Biology.


5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings and discussion made above, the researchers recommend as follows:

  1. Parents should continue getting involved in their children’s academic progress by monitoring their activities in and out of school, ensuring that home work is done, providing all necessary materials they need in school and meeting with their teachers when the need arises.
  2. Since the findings of this study seem to suggest that parents, irrespective of their background status, are getting involved in their children’s academic work, they should be regularly informed of their children’s academic progress by the school authorities.
  3. Similar studies could be carried out in other states of the federation with different cultures to ascertain whether the same result will be obtained

The Effect Of Socio-economic Background On Academic Performance Of Secondary School Biology Students In Enugu North Local Government Area Of Enugu State 


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