Social Media Use And It’s Role In Curtailing Depression Among Youths Of Enugu State

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

Social Media Use And It’s Role In Curtailing Depression Among Youths Of Enugu State


Abstract


This study focused on the social media use and it’s role in curtailing depression among youths of Enugu state. The study is was specifically focused on Examining the prevalence of social media usage amongst the youth in Enugu state, investigating the trend of depression amongst the youth in Enugu state and examining the role of social media use in curtailing depression among youths of Enugu state.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are students in Enugu North local government area.

It concluded that that social media use plays a significant role in curtailing depression among youths of Enugu state.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • REFERENCES
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Social media has become a common avenue for social networking – creating, sharing and exchanging information – in a virtual public, which allows people to create and consume their own information on any e-medium that sanctions social interfacing. It includes, online platforms such as social networking (Facebook), internet fora (e-Healthforum.com), blogs and microblogs (Twitter), photo or video sharing media (YouTube, Instagram), crowdsourcing (Wikipedia) and virtual games (Weinstein, 2018; Berryman et al., 2017; O’keeffe & Clarke-Pearson, 2011). These media present both opportunities and challenges to users. The use of social media by especially adolescents may enhance communication and socialization, learning opportunities, and access to important health information. But it may also promote dissemination of inaccurate and misleading information that may result in unwarranted adolescent psychosocial behaviours such as sexting, cyberbullying, anxiety, social isolation and suicide (Ibid). Several research findings have confirmed the influences of social media usage on adolescent’s mental health in the extant literature. Common amongst these research findings is expression of concerns about how social media affects psychosocial and emotional traits of adolescents. The commonly found psychosocial problems include, anxiety relating to FoMO (fear of missing out), depression, and loneliness. However, social media influences have not always been negative (see Berryman et al., 2017; Swist et al., 2015; Stricklad, 2014).

In more detail, social media has become an integral part of human beings. It has influenced them in different ways. On the one hand, the numerous benefits of the social media such as online/offline chatting, video calling, sharing thoughts, posting photos, real-time news, advertisements, and meetings, are attracting the users rapidly. On the other hand, people have become addicted to social media causing different social, physical and mental problems. “Facebook can be fun and healthy activity if users take advantage of the site to stay connected with family and old friends and to share interesting and important aspects of their lives but if it’s used to see how well an acquaintance is doing financially or how happy an old friend is in his relationship – things that cause envy among users – use of the site can lead to feelings of depression,” said Professor Margaret Duffy, University of Missouri (The Week 2018, cited 12.09.2018 ). The usage of social media can have both harmful and useful impact on mental health. Therefore, it is vital to use social media in a balanced way so that users get the full advantage of it without hampering their mental health.

Depression is described as a mood disorder that lies on one extreme of mood or affect and characterized by lowered self-esteem, changes in sleep pattern, changes in appetite or weight and inability to control emotions such as pessimism, anger, guilt, irritability and anxiety (American Psychiatric Association (APA), 2013; Krucik, 2013; Smith, Saisan & Segal, 2014). Researchers at the Black Dog Institute (2012) have also identified some other signs of depressive mood to include varying emotions throughout the day, reduced capacity to experience pleasure (that is, inability to enjoy what one used to enjoy in the past), reduced pain tolerance for minor aches and pains, changed sex drives, poor concentration and memory, reduced motivation to carry out usual tasks and lowered energy level.

The number of adolescents experiencing these symptoms of depression and even depression seems to be on the increase across the world despite its devastating effects. Depression is widely acclaimed as potentially life threatening and Adeniyi, Okafor and Adeniyi (2012) warned that it might rank second after heart diseases worldwide by the year 2020 as a killer disease. In other words, given the nature of depression, its signs and symptoms, it could impact negatively on their development socially, physically and emotionally. For example, depression could be attributable to the changes in their emotions, their ability or inability to interact with their peers and even their school performances. Adolescents who are depressed might be at increased risk of having problems with school work and not getting along well with their teachers, peers and parents. They might even develop decreased interest and involvement in most of their daily activities and responsibilities. Depressed adolescents might also manifest increased health complaints such as headaches, fatigues, general weakness of the body, abdominal pains, among others. Attempt by some of them to get out of the blue might make some of them to turn to risky internet sites and blogs for help which might promote substance abuse, unsafe sexual practices, aggressive or self-destructive behaviours that might impact negatively on their health.

It is important to note that the adolescents’ use of social media occurs simultaneously with their development while developing identity, emerging physical sexual characteristics and moral consciousness. It is not uncommon to find many male and female adolescents in Ekiti State, Nigeria, using cell phones to call and access the internet and facebooks, e-mails, 2go, whatsapps, instagrams, video games, among others, to gather information and communicate with each other indiscriminately. These provide the adolescents with the powerful means of understanding themselves and their environment to enhance their personal development. They access online information on many issues without any hindrance. Apart from the apparent benefits derived from these social media, their limited capacity for self-regulation could make the adolescent at some risks as they increase their use. While the benefits of the internet are well known, the relationships between the use and adolescents’ mental health have been a source of concern to researchers. Studies conducted by Campbell, Cumming and Hughes (2006) and Lam and Peng (2010) revealed that students with depressive symptoms used the internet much more than those without symptoms.

Excessive online video viewing (Kim, LaRose, & Peng, 2009; Langley, 2010), social networking (Michael & Michael, 2011), late-night Internet use (Gangwisch, Malaspina, Posner, Babiss, Heymsfield, Turner, Zammit, & Pickering, 2009) and online chatting (Bonetti, Campbell, & Gilmore, 2010) have also been associated with symptoms of depression among young people. With excessive internet use, researchers have found out that students replace real-life interactions with online socializing, leading to increased social rejection, cyberbullying, depression, exposure to inappropriate content, social isolation and and other negative consequences (Valkenburg & Peter, 2009; Stevens & Morris, 2010; O’Keefee, Clarke-Pearson, and Council on Communication and Media, 2011).

In a study to find out the association between media use in adolescence and depression in young adulthood, it was discovered that large amounts of advertising which are usually promoted on social media could impact on the mental health of the adolescents. This is because the contents most often present adolescents with unattainable images, role models that exhibit high degrees of risk taking behaviours, stereotypical characters that may affect self-image and anxiety-provoking shows, are potential contents that can lead adolescents to depression (Primack, Swanier, Georgiopoulos, Land, & Fine, 2009).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

As per the recent survey, 22% of youth sign on to their top choice Social media over 10 times each day, and the greater part of young people sign on to Social media more than once a day. Seventy-five percent of young people presently use phones, and 25% use them for social media, 54% use them for messaging, and 24% use them for instant messaging. Thus, a huge amount of this current age’s social and enthusiastic advancement is happening while on the Internet and cell telephones. (Hinduja S, Patchin J, 2010). Recently, a few specialists have related Social media with a few mental disorders which include depression and anxiety. Since Social media are a moderately new wonder, numerous inquiries concerning the potential effect on mental health remain unanswered. (Igor Pantic, 2014). Therefore this research undergoes the impact of social media on mental health issues of the student. Meanwhile, the researcher’s experiences and interaction with some youths during the course of counselling seems to show that some of the adolescents have symptoms of depression. Would youths in Enugu State of Nigeria manifest symptoms of depression? Would this be associated with the use of social media as found with some adolescents in the advanced countries of Europe and America? And if this can be affirmed, what is the counselling implication?

The objective of the study is to determine the social media use and it’s role in curtailing depression among youths of Enugu state.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is to determine the social media use and it’s role in curtailing depression among youths of Enugu state.

Specifically, the study aims

  1. To determine the prevalence of social media usage amongst the youth in Enugu state
  2. To investigate the trend of depression amongst the youth in Enugu state
  3. To examine the role of social media use in curtailing depression among youths of Enugu state

1.4 Research Question

The following research questions were answered by the study in order to achieve the research objectives

  1. What is the prevalence of social media usage amongst the youth in Enugu state ?
  2. What is the trend of depression amongst the youth in Enugu state ?
  3. Does social media use play role in curtailing depression among youths of enugu state ?

1.5 Research hypothesis

Th following research hypothesis were formulated and tested by the study

Hypothesis one
  • Ho: The trend of depression amongst the youth in Enugu state is low
  • Hi: The trend of depression amongst the youth in Enugu state is high
Hypothesis two
  • Ho: Social media use plays no significant role in curtailing depression among youths of Enugu state
  • Hi: Social media use plays a significant role in curtailing depression among youths of Enugu state

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study specifically focused on the youths in Enugu state and not any other local government because of the prevalence of depression among the students population, which are not recognized. Anecdotal reports from media, families, religious institutions and civil society suggest the prevalence of mental health problems, but there is lack of adequate data on mental health problems, level of knowledge, attitudes and practices among the undergraduate students through empirical research to allow for comprehensive intervention to mitigate the issues.

Furthermore, there is undocumented high level of mental health illiteracy and lack of awareness concerning mental health issues among the students in which they prefer traditional medication as opposed to the hospital when treating mental disorders. This has led to the loss of many lives of the patients, escalation of the symptoms while others are taken to the hospital when it is already too late, being left to loiter in the world without anyone to take care of them or being chained in their homes to prevent harm and attacks.

Another factor that makes these patients suffer most is because most of the members of the community believe that these are conditions caused by demons and in some instances subjects the patients to very hostile situations such as being caged or being caged together with a hyena that is believed to bite the patients and take the demons out.
Finally, this study will aid the policymakers to formulate better responsive policies that will enable adequate budget allocation, proper staffing and procurement of medical equipment, medical supplies, and school community sensitisation . For the academicians, this study highlights on the mental health epidemic among the Unimaid, emphasizing on the data (knowledge, attitudes and practices for caregivers, traditional healers and health service providers) for further studies in this area.


1.6 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study is limited to present the social media use and it’s role in curtailing depression among youths of Enugu state. Impact of social media on the mental health of in secondary schools in Enugu state with a specific focus on students mental health in secondary schools in Enugu state. The study specifically limited with to these secondary schools in Enugu state.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

In the limitation on research work of this magnitude or nature can be carried out without limitation. Hence, during the course, certain constraints were encountered.

Cost:

The cost of thorough research is not what can be afforded by a student. The prices of materials needed for this work has gone up and transport fee has also gone up.

Time:

The time was one of the limitations in the process of carrying out this research work.

Scarcity of Literature:

The research encountered some problems in collection of literature especially on the bank History and operations. This are hindered the smooth running of this work.


1.8 Definition of terms

Mental health:

Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being.

Depression:

A mental health disorder characterised by persistently depressed mood or loss of interest in activities, causing significant impairment in daily.

Stress:

Stress is a feeling of emotional or physical tension.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.

The second chapter is a critical review of other Literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter centers around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the social media use and it’s role in curtailing depression among youths of enugu state. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the social media use and it’s role in curtailing depression among youths of Enugu state. The study is was specifically focused on Examining the prevalence of social media usage amongst the youth in Enugu state, investigating the trend of depression amongst the youth in Enugu state and examining the role of social media use in curtailing depression among youths of Enugu state

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are students in Enugu North local government area.


5.3 Conclusions

The study was conducted to examine the impact of social media on student’s mental health issues. The study revealed that majority of the respondents using number of Social media and they are spending time more than four hours in a day for using Social media. In this study it was found that there was a difference between number of Social media and symptoms of depression. In addition the study revealed that there is a strong relationship between symptoms of anxiety and depression. Further confirmed that there was a relationship between feeling anxious and serious active on Social media than in real life. As a result, the more usage of social media, number of Social media and too much of time spent on Social media is affecting the students mental health such as depression and anxiety.


5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings the researcher recommends that;

  1. There is need for concerted efforts by health care professionals and the schools administrative staff to develop appropriate support services catering to this group of students.
  2. There is also need for greater attention to the psychological wellbeing of students in order to improve their quality of life.
  3. Appropriate screening and intervention programs should be allowed especially during orientation so as to prevent mental health problems among students admitted into the schools.
  4. Early diagnosis, treatment and counselling as the case may be should be offered to vulnerable students.

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