Social Media Marketing And Student Purchase Decision Of E-Tailing Firms In Port Harcourt
Marketing activities has been revolutionized by the changes of information technology and the widespread use of social media and other e-marketing platforms. Many retailers have had to adapt to engage in non-traditional marketing activities that include e-marketing. The use of e-marketing that include social media, digital advertising and e- marketing has gained ground significantly and as a result many retail outlets and brands are adapting to the new changes and consumers preferences. This research aimed to find out the social media marketing and student purchase decision of e-tailing firms in Port Harcourt. The study adopted descriptive cross-sectional study. The research depended on data from primary sources that was gathered through the use of structured questionnaires. The study found out that social media, social media marketing and email marketing positively influenced consumer buyer behavior. The study concludes that inquiries were received via social media about new and existing product. Promotions done via Social Media led to increased sales in supermarkets. Supermarkets had many site visits once a product has been launched. social media marketing attracted more customer and customers perceived social media marketing as convenient mode of transaction. Use of email helped in customer retention and customer provided feedback on the email sent. The study recommends that policy makers in supermarkets ought to formulate strategies on better adoption of E-marketing. The policy makers ought to enhance the better usage of social media to market their products. Administrators ought to train their staffs on E-marketing mode of transactions. The administrators ought to ensure that their supermarkets launch new products by sue of social medias.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
- 4.5 Discussion of Findings
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
Globalisation as described by Hill (2009) is the shift towards a more integrated and interdependent world economy thereby merging historically distinct and separate national markets into one huge global marketplace. The Economic Intelligence Unit (2009) reported that during the recession which commenced in 2007, the global market place was affected by changes in exchange rates, inflation and consumer purchasing behaviour. These changes in the economy forced organisations to remodel business strategies in order communicate their brands more effectively. Davis (2001) writes that one of an organisation’s most valuable assets is its brand and the modern organisation needs to realise that capitalising on its brand is important as it can help achieve growth, profitability objectives and sustainability.
Brands can be built by means of advertising, meeting customer specific needs, associating a specific type of image to a product, identifying and closing a gap that competitors have not identified, aggressive communication and pricing strategies (Burger, 2009). As recessions are times of high anxiety, it was important for organisations to keep honest, open channels of communication and maintain a good reputation in the most cost effective way (Economic Intelligence Unit, 2009). One of the most popular means of communicating brands during the recession was through social media marketing; online or electronic media which facilitates participation, openness, conversation, community and connectivity amongst online users (Mayfield, 2008).
Social media such as Facebook, Twitter and YouTube are dynamic tools that facilitate online relationships (Golden, 2011). It is a relatively low cost form of marketing and allows organisations to engage in direct and end-user contact (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010). Given the choices made available to consumers and the influential role of social media marketing, the brands and consumers have a changing role to play in the organisation’s strategy in that they now have an economic impact (Lindermann, 2004; Mayfield, 2008). Brands influence customer choice. Customers influence other customers. These chains of events affect repurchases, which further affect future earnings and long term organisational sustainability (Oliveira and Sullivan, 2003).
Since the dawn of the digital age, social media marketing has shaped the way businesses promote their products and services. From the first e-mail blast to the invention of inbound marketing, its history is a story of how the business landscape was forever altered by technological advances (Hallissey, 2017). Statista (2015) stated that, as of 2012, worldwide internet advertising revenues surpassed $100 billion. Based on current data, global digital advertising spending per internet user currently averages around 50 US dollars.
These days, so many companies have moved to the digital world to reach consumers. The internet is a wide range of network that connects people around the globe to one environment. Marketing have always been in the system for over decades and it started improving in technologies. According to O’Brien (2019):
Social media marketing started upgrading when the invention of television and telephone came to life. After the internet was established, people became fully aware how connected it was with the world and they used it as a means and way to reach so many consumers. social media marketing was then done through the electronic mail (e-mail), e-mail was developed into these search engines such as google, bing, ask etc. and we later had electronic commerce sites (e-commerce) such as Jumia, Amazon, eBay, AliExpress etc.
Social media marketing is a procedure whereby the distribution, pricing and promotion of a good or product is being marketed via an electronic media such as the internet to satisfy the needs of consumers.
Social media marketing has made consumers get whatever they need easily. Over the years social media marketing has made the buying of goods and services more convenient. The introduction of e-marketing has helped solved long distance buying. Due to the long- distance difficulty of buying goods, e-marketing has made it easier for consumers to purchase goods. For instance, someone in Ghana can buy a laptop in the U.S or China through e-marketing. E-marketing has reduced the cost of showcasing your products. This is in the sense that business owners and investors do not have to worry about getting a store to put their products in. It has helped companies such as Tonaton, Kikuu, Jumia, OLX, Amazon, AliExpress, Alibaba etc.
A consumer takes decisions based on many criteria. Marketing and advertising look to change or affect the consumer buying so that the consumer prefers buying the product of a company he is well aware of. However, if you want to look at the consumer purchasing decisions of the 21st century, you have to acknowledge that consumerism is playing a major role in their decision making.
Kuester (2012) stated that “consumer purchasing decisions is the study of individuals, groups, or organization and all the processes they use to select, secure, and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy desires and also the impacts that these processes have on the customer and society.” consumer purchasing decisions has increase the acquisition of products electronically and online shipping as well. The internet web being the easiest way to purchase goods all over the globe, it has made customers comfortable and has helped e- commerce businesses as well. The internet web is one of the main reasons why consumer purchasing decisions is effective today. Consumers are not bound to any opening times because the internet web is at his disposal at any time to purchase a product or service.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
So many studies have been done on social media marketing and consumer purchasing decisions over the years. The proper analyzing of social media marketing must be done in order to bring in more innovations and bring in more customers and achieve better profit. There are so many ways to improve e-marketing to gain a good and positive consumer purchasing decisions.
With the slight repositioning of an option offer, great results can be achieved. A common or best practice is to provide some incentives to collect email addresses and building your email list for better marketing strategy further in future. The option offer appearance on a Jumia’s website can have a huge impact on the number of customers as well.
Build a value to your customers. Make adjustments in a website for fruitful result is one of the strategies which a marketer can easily adopt. Provide value to the website of your business.
Offer your audience more value. Always believe that the more value your customers feel, the more likely they are going to recommend your brand to their close ones.
There are other existing methods that could be improved such as boosting the website speed. If the website is slow to load, the prospective clusters will move on to your competitors’ website page load time, which allows a user to load pages very quickly and remain connected and interested in your website.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The objective of the study was to analyze the social media marketing and student purchase decision of e-tailing firms in Port Harcourt. In this study, we try to;
- Examine the impact of social media marketing on student purchasing decisions
- Investigate the effect of social media marketing on student purchasing decisions
- Evaluate the factors affecting the consumer purchasing decisions
1.4 Research Question
The study will provide answers to the following questions
- What is the impact of social media marketing on student purchasing decisions ?
- What is the effect of social media marketing on student purchasing decisions ?
- What are the factors affecting the student purchasing decisions ?
1.5 Hypothesis of the Study
The following hypothesis was tested by the study
- Ho: there is no significance influence of social media marketing on student purchasing decisions
- Hi: there is a significance influence of social media marketing on student purchasing decisions
1.6 Significance of the Study
The importance of this study is to enlighten consumers on challenges and benefits on social media marketing.
The findings of this study will help companies to provide better social media marketing skills to improve on their service which will lead to building a good relationship with their consumers.
The research will also help serve as a reference point to students interested in knowing more about social media marketing and student purchasing decisions.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study will analyze the effect of social media marketing on student purchasing decisions. The study is limited to e-tailing firms in Port Harcourt. Hence, the respondents for this study will be obtained from and among customers and e-tailing firms in Port Harcourt .
1.8 Limitation of the Study
In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.
1.9 Definition of Terms
E-marketing is a process of planning and executing the conception, distribution, promotion, and pricing of products and services in a computerized
Consumer behavior is the study of individuals, groups, or organizations and all the activities associated with the purchase, use and disposal of goods and services. Consumer behaviour consists of how the consumer’s emotions, attitudes, and preferences affect buying behaviour.
1.10 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary of the Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations
The section summarizes outcomes of analyzed data. The conclusion arising from the analyzed findings is also presented. The recommendations of the outcomes for policy, concept and practice are presented. The areas for future research are pointed out.
5.2 Summary of the Findings
Purpose of the research was to find out the social media marketing and student purchase decision of E-tailing firms in Port Harcourt. The research was guided by the following specific objectives: social media, social media marketing and email marketing. The research adopted descriptive cross-sectional study. The study utilized data from Primary sources which were gathered by use of structured questionnaires.
The first specific objective was to establish the influence of social media on consumer behavior. The findings showed most of the respondents agreed that their supermarkets used social media to launch new products. Respondents agreed that many inquiries were received via social media about new and existing product. Majority of the respondents agreed that when promotions were done via Social Media, supermarkets experienced increase in sales.
Most of the respondents indicated they were many site visits once a product has been launched. Respondents agreed that their organization used social media to remind customer about existing products. Majority of the respondents agreed that use of social media helped in increasing customer base. Majority of the respondents agreed that customers compared their stocks with competitors in terms of price and variety of the products. The findings from regression analysis established that social media had a positive influence on Consumer purchasing decisions as their respective (p value=0.004<0.05 and t value=3.174>1.96) p values was < 0.05 and t value was > 1.96.
The second specific objective was to find out the influence of social media marketing on consumer buyer relationship. The study established that majority of customers gave positive feedback for use of the platform. Majority of the respondents agreed that social media marketing attracted more customer. Respondents agreed that their customers perceived social media marketing as convenient. Majority of the respondents agreed that their customers were happy with delivery timelines. Majority of the respondents agreed that their customers perceived social media marketing as risky. The findings from regression analysis established that social media marketing significantly influenced on Consumer purchasing decisions as their respective (p value=0.001<00.5 and t value=3.895>1.96) p values was less than 0.05 and t value was greater than 1.96.
Another objective of the research was to establish the influence of email marketing on Consumer purchasing decisions. The research found most of the respondents agreed that there were many queries received via email. Respondents indicated that corporate customers preferred email marketing. Most the respondents agreed that use of email helped in customer retention. Respondents moderately agreed that their customer provided feedback on the email sent. Majority of the respondents moderately agreed that customers considered email as a tradition way of communication. From regression analysis, email marketing had a positive influence on Consumer purchasing decisions as their respective (p value=0.000<0.05 and t value=4.291>1.96) p values was < 0.05 and t value was > 1.96.
The findings from the study led the researcher to conclude that social media had a positive influence on Consumer purchasing decisions. This was attributed to the following; the supermarkets used social media to launch new products. Inquiries were received via social media about new and existing product. Promotions done via Social Media led to increased sales in supermarkets. Supermarkets had many site visits once a product has been launched. Supermarkets used social media to remind customer about existing products. Use of social media helped in increasing customer base. Customers compared their stocks with competitors in terms of price and variety of the products. The findings are in line with Nisar, Prabhakar and Strakova (2018) who states that social technologies provide a potent for an organization to develop information that attract interest of the audience and pass information to consumers.
The study concludes that social media marketing significantly influenced on Consumer purchasing decisions. This was due to the following; customers gave positive feedback by use of the platform. social media marketing attracted more customer and customers perceived social media marketing as convenient mode of transaction. Customers were happy with delivery timelines. The findings are in line with Durmaz and Efendioglu (2016) who says that through digital marketing, customers can access quickly details on product and services and have an opinion by comparing similar features and therefore, speed up the purchasing process.
The study further concludes that email marketing had a positive influence on Consumer purchasing decisions. This was due to many queries received via email and corporate customers preferred email marketing. Use of email helped in customer retention and customer provided feedback on the email sent. Customers considered email as a tradition way of communication.
Policy makers in supermarkets ought to formulate strategies on better adoption of E-marketing. The policy makers ought to enhance the better usage of social media to market their products. Administrators ought to allocate enough budget for technology embracement in supermarkets. Policy makers ought to ensure that staffs employed in their supermarkets are computer literate and are versed on usage of e-marketing.
The study recommends that administrators ought to train their staffs on E-marketing mode of transactions. The administrators ought to ensure that their supermarkets launch new products by sue of social medias. Administrators ought to remind their customers on launched products benefits and existence on use of social media. Administrators ought to carry ought their promotions by use of social media marketing practices.
The study recommends that supermarkets ought to use e-marketing for easy awareness creation of products and services offered. Supermarkets ought to embrace e-marketing to save on cost and to create awareness of products via E-marketing platforms.
The push and pull theory focuses on the resources, competencies and capacity of an organization. Most organizations employ a mix of push and pull marketing strategies. Any adaptation of offerings to customer needs must reasonably fit the competences and capabilities within the firm or its network. The findings of this study reveal a clear indication of this mix with the availability of resources and use of email marketing, social media and social media marketing acting as the push strategies. The response of the customers to these strategies are viewed as the pull techniques. The findings give an average value of 3.5 which indicate that the use of these strategies moderately has a similar impact on the consumers. Due to this, increasing of resources to cater for the e- marketing demands will have a corresponding impact on consumers adopting “pulling” to the brands and the supermarkets.
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