Social Factors Affecting Effective Teaching And Learning In Senior Secondary Schools

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Social Factors Affecting Effective Teaching And Learning In Senior Secondary Schools


Abstract


This study was conducted to find out the social factors affecting effective teaching and learning in senior secondary schools. The purpose of the study is to identify the factors affecting the effective teaching and learning of Accounting in secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area. The research design of the study was descriptive survey design. The population of the study was ten thousand, nine hundred (10,900) students and seventy-five (75) teachers in the senior secondary schools. One hundred and fifty (150) teachers and students were sampled in five selected schools. The instrument used for data collection was structured questionnaires. The validity and reliability of the instrument were tested. Data collected were presented in a table, mean and frequency distributions were used to analyse the data. The findings show that teaching and learning of Accounting in our secondary schools are affected by unqualified Accounting teachers, poor method of teaching, inadequate instructional materials and attitudes and interest of the teachers and students. Based on the findings some recommendations were made thus Employment of Accounting teachers by the government through the ministry of education should be strictly based on merit so as to make it possible for only those who studied the course to be appointed.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Effective teaching and learning is affected by a number of factors including admission points, social economic status and school background. Geiser and Santelices (2007), Acato (2006), and Swart (1999) all argue that admission points which are a reflection of the previous performance influence future learning ability of students. Considine and Zappala (2002) argue that families where the parents are advantaged socially, educationally and economically foster a high level of achievement in their children. Sociocultural approaches to the process of learning are increasingly being applied by educationalists. Sociocultural theorists argue that individuals cannot be considered in isolation from their social and historical context and therefore it is necessary to look at the society and the developments occurring at a given time.

Two principal agencies, the family and the school powerfully shape children’s learning experiences. The influence of these two agencies is constrained by the wider social and cultural systems into which they are embedded. There is great diversity in cultural backgrounds, social conditions, family arrangements and school organization. These two factors have been going through constant modifications. The relationship between family socio-economic status and the learning outcomes of students is well established in sociological research. While there is disagreement over how best to measure social factors, most studies indicate that students from low social status families do not perform as well as they potentially could at school compared to students from socially high background (Graetz, 1995).

Most studies, however, compare students from across all social backgrounds to reach the conclusion that low social status adversely affects a range of teaching and learning outcomes. Research has shown the importance of the type of school a student attends in influencing educational outcomes. While research in the US has found that social variables continue to influence teaching and learning even after controlling for different school types, the school context tends to affect the strength of the relationship between social factors and effective teaching and learning (Portes and MacLeod, 1996). Similarly, research in Britain shows that schools have an independent effect on student attainment (Sparkes, 1999). While there is less data available on this issue in Australia, several studies using the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth have found that students attending private non-Catholic schools were significantly more likely to stay on at school than those attending state schools (Long et al., 1999; Marks et al., 2000).

Students from independent private schools are also more likely to achieve higher end of school scores (Buckingham, 2000). While school-related factors are important, there is again an indirect link to social factors, as private schools are more likely to have a greater number of students from high socially high families, select students with stronger academic abilities and have greater financial resources. The school effect is also likely to operate through variation in the quality and attitudes of teachers (Sparkes, 1999). Teachers at disadvantaged schools, for instance, often hold low expectations of their students, which compound the low expectations students and their parents may also hold (Ruge, 1998)


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Formal education confronts students with many demands that are not a regular or frequent characteristic of their everyday experience outside the classroom. The practice of education confronts students with meaningful and necessary discontinuities in their intellectual, social and linguistic experiences. Hence, the need to examine the effects of social factors on effective teaching and learning in senior secondary schools.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The following are the objectives of this study:

  1. To examine the social factors affecting effective teaching and learning in senior secondary schools.
  2. To identify other factors affecting effective teaching and learning in senior secondary school.
  3. To examine the relationship between social factors and effective teaching and learning in senior secondary schools.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the social factors affecting effective teaching and learning in senior secondary schools?
  2. What are the other factors affecting effective teaching and learning in senior secondary school?
  3. What is the relationship between social factors and effective teaching and learning in senior secondary schools?

1.5 Hypothesis

HO: There is no significant relationship between social factors and effective teaching and learning in senior secondary schools.

HA: There is significant relationship between social factors and effective teaching and learning in senior secondary schools.


1.6 Significance of the Study

The following are the significance of this study:

  1. The outcome of this study will educate the education administrators on the relationship between social factors and effective teaching and learning in senior secondary schools.
  2. This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.

1.7 Scope / Limitations of the Study

This study will cover the relationship between social factors and effective teaching and learning in senior secondary schools.

Limitation Of Study
Financial constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

This chapter deals with the summary of the study, conclusions drawn from the study, recommendations, educational implication of the study, limitations of the study and suggestions for further studies.


Summary of the Study

This researcher is centered on the social factors affecting the effective studying of Accounting in the secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area Akwa Ibom state. It has identified that employment of qualified Accounting teachers, improvement in the available instructional materials and method of teaching will enhance the teaching and learning of Accounting in the secondary schools as well as improve the students’ performance in the subject. Based on this, recommendations are made on how to facilitate teaching and learning of Accounting in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom state.


Educational implications of the Study

This study revealed that the school requires specialist in the area of Accounting in order to achieve the various objectives which include acquiring knowledge of the operating system of the economy and the maximization of scarce resources for optimum result.

The study also revealed that more Accounting concepts should be incorporated in the curriculum of the relevant knowledge which is an essential requirement to personal contribution to the betterment of mankind.


Limitation of the Study

  1. It was observed that some of the respondents were reluctant and dishonest in filling the questionnaire thereby made it difficult to elicit authentic information from such information.
  2. Most of the schools were situated in remote areas that were not motorable thereby threatening the accessibility of such schools.
  3. Lack of fund and short period required for the study.

However, the researcher was able to carry out this study despite these problems.


Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study the researcher made the following recommendations:

  1. Employment of Accounting teachers by the government through the ministry of education should be strictly based on merit so as to make it possible for only those who studied the course to be appointed.
  2. The government should try as much as possible to organize from time to time, seminars, workshops and symposium for Accounting teachers on contemporary issues in the field.
  3. The government should provide instructional materials to schools and teachers should also improve where necessary for Accounting.
  4. More emphasis should be laid on Accounting as a core subject in senior secondary schools.

Suggestion for Further Studies

The researcher suggests that further research should be undertaken in the following;

  1. How to improve students’ performance in Accounting in senior secondary school in Uyo Local Government Area.
  2. The effects of teaching aids on the teaching and learning of Accounting in secondary schools.


Social Factors Affecting Effective Teaching And Learning In Senior Secondary Schools


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Social Factors Affecting Effective Teaching And Learning In Senior Secondary Schools


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Frequently Asked Questions


How do social factors influence teaching and learning in schools?

While research in the US has found that social variables continue to influence teaching and learning even after controlling for different school types, the school context tends to affect the strength of the relationship between social factors and effective teaching and learning (Portes and MacLeod, 1996).

How does social status affect teaching and learning outcomes?

Most studies, however, compare students from across all social backgrounds to reach the conclusion that low social status adversely affects a range of teaching and learning outcomes. Research has shown the importance of the type of school a student attends in influencing educational outcomes.

What are the components of social determinants of educational outcomes?

The components are important social factors, such as parents’ educational attainments, have been found to be more significant than economic factors in explaining children’s educational outcomes and among the most replicated results in child development studies.

Do admission points influence effective teaching and learning?

Effective teaching and learning is affected by a number of factors including admission points, social economic status and school background. Geiser and Santelices (2007) argued that admission points which are a reflection of the previous performance influence future learning ability of students.

What are the factors that influence learning?

Learning is influenced by many factors such as attention, motivation and emotions as well as by learner characteristics like prior knowledge, cognitive and learning styles and intellectual capabilities. The following list shows a number of other factors that may also have a bearing on a pupil’s capability to learn: * Family * Culture * Gender * Impact of peers * Subject content * Teaching style * Learning skills * Recognition of need to learn * Past experiences of learning * Personal …

How does socioeconomic status affect student learning?

The effects of low socioeconomic status on students learning outcomes. A higher education level of parents is positively associated with a greater tendency for them to advocate for their children’s placement in higher education courses and actively manage their children’s education (Baker & Stevenson, 1986).

Why do teachers assume students with low socioeconomic status won’t do well?

They automatically assume that students who have low socioeconomic status won’t do well in school because many are absent from school or have behavioural problems. This can be closely linked to student’s home life. Comber (1997) argues that teachers continue to hold deficit views of some students.

How does social class affect education?

How Does Social Class Affect Education? How Does Social Class Affect Education? Social class affects education because the people who are in lower social statuses are not able to afford a premier education, the necessary tools to complement a public education, or continuing education.

How do social factors influence teaching and learning in schools?

While research in the US has found that social variables continue to influence teaching and learning even after controlling for different school types, the school context tends to affect the strength of the relationship between social factors and effective teaching and learning (Portes and MacLeod, 1996).

What are the social effects of Education?

Health officials have taken note of the mental and physical impact social isolation has had on the American public. The pandemic has caused widespread isolation thanks to social distancing, including remote working, online education, cancellation of sports …

How does social inequality affect education?

Social Inequality and Educational Disadvantage Whether in educational attainment between income groups or racial/ethnic groups or across geographic locations—inequality persists. Low levels of performance among the most disadvantaged create long-term problems, particularly in an economy in which higher skill levels are more and more valued …

How can I increase admissions in my school?

Dear Farooq, to increase admissions in your school you have to assess and evaluate several factors including school positioning, academics, quality of teachers, infrastructure etc. We provide school improvement services to help schools develop and sustain.

What are the effects of Teacher Education on student achievement?

Overall, the greatest impacts are on the emphasis on improving student test scores; classroom management practices; understanding of instructional practices; and knowledge and development or training plans.

What is the main deciding factor in admission to a school?

As Table 2.6 and Figure 2.3 show, on average across TALIS countries, students’ residence was the main deciding factor in admission to a school. 

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