Social Factors Affecting Effective Teaching And Learning Of Mathematics In Senior Secondary School In Adamawa State

Mathematics Education Project Material

Social Factors Affecting Effective Teaching And Learning Of Mathematics In Senior Secondary School In Adamawa State


Abstract


This study was conducted to find out the social factors affecting effective teaching and learning in senior secondary schools. The purpose of the study is to identify the factors affecting the effective teaching and learning of Mathematics in secondary schools in Jada Local Government Area. The research design of the study was descriptive survey design. The population of the study was ten thousand, nine hundred (10,900) students and seventy-five (75) teachers in the senior secondary schools. One hundred and fifty (150) teachers and students were sampled in five selected schools. The instrument used for data collection was structured questionnaires. The validity and reliability of the instrument were tested. Data collected were presented in a table, mean and frequency distributions were used to analyse the data. The findings show that teaching and learning of Mathematics in our secondary schools are affected by unqualified Mathematics teachers, poor method of teaching, inadequate instructional materials and attitudes and interest of the teachers and students. Based on the findings some recommendations were made thus Employment of Mathematics teachers by the government through the ministry of education should be strictly based on merit so as to make it possible for only those who studied the course to be appointed.


Chapter One


Introduction

Background of the Study

Effective teaching and learning is affected by a number of factors including admission points, social economic status and school background. Geiser and Santelices (2007), Acato (2006), and Swart (1999) all argue that admission points which are a reflection of the previous performance influence future learning ability of students. Considine and Zappala (2002) argue that families where the parents are advantaged socially, educationally and economically foster a high level of achievement in their children. Sociocultural approaches to the process of learning are increasingly being applied by educationalists. Sociocultural theorists argue that individuals cannot be considered in isolation from their social and historical context and therefore it is necessary to look at the society and the developments occurring at a given time. Two principal agencies, the family and the school powerfully shape children’s learning experiences. The influence of these two agencies is constrained by the wider social and cultural systems into which they are embedded. There is great diversity in cultural backgrounds, social conditions, family arrangements and school organization. These two factors have been going through constant modifications. The relationship between family socio-economic status and the learning outcomes of students is well established in sociological research. While there is disagreement over how best to measure social factors, most studies indicate that students from low social status families do not perform as well as they potentially could at school compared to students from socially high background (Graetz, 1995).

Most studies, however, compare students from across all social backgrounds to reach the conclusion that low social status adversely affects a range of teaching and learning outcomes. Research has shown the importance of the type of school a student attends in influencing educational outcomes. While research in the US has found that social variables continue to influence teaching and learning even after controlling for different school types, the school context tends to affect the strength of the relationship between social factors and effective teaching and learning (Portes and MacLeod, 1996). Similarly, research in Britain shows that schools have an independent effect on student attainment (Sparkes, 1999). While there is less data available on this issue in Australia, several studies using the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth have found that students attending private non-Catholic schools were significantly more likely to stay on at school than those attending state schools (Long et al., 1999; Marks et al., 2000). Students from independent private schools are also more likely to achieve higher end of school scores (Buckingham, 2000). While school-related factors are important, there is again an indirect link to social factors, as private schools are more likely to have a greater number of students from high socially high families, select students with stronger academic abilities and have greater financial resources. The school effect is also likely to operate through variation in the quality and attitudes of teachers (Sparkes, 1999). Teachers at disadvantaged schools, for instance, often hold low expectations of their students, which compound the low expectations students and their parents may also hold (Ruge, 1998)


Statement of the Problem

Formal education confronts students with many demands that are not a regular or frequent characteristic of their everyday experience outside the classroom. The practice of education confronts students with meaningful and necessary discontinuities in their intellectual, social and linguistic experiences. Hence, the need to examine the effects of social factors on effective teaching and learning in senior secondary schools.

One of the factors that has great effect on teaching and learning is social factors, such as background, environment. Therefore, there is need to research the social factors that affect effective teaching and learning of Mathematics in senior secondary schools in Adamawa state. And find a way to deal with them.


Purpose of The Study

The general purpose of the study is to identify the social factors affecting the effective teaching and learning of Mathematics in secondary schools in Jada Local Government Area.

The study is specifically designed to:

  1. Determine the educational qualification of Mathematics teachers in the secondary schools and how it affects the study of Mathematics.
  2. Find out the extent instructional materials available and how they affect the study of Mathematics?
  3. Identify the method Mathematics teachers used in teaching Mathematics in the secondary schools
  4. Identify the extent interest and attitudes of students and teachers affect the teaching and learning in the secondary schools

Research Question

The following research questions guided this research work:

  1. How do qualifications of the Mathematics teachers influence the teaching and learning of Mathematics in the secondary schools
  2. To what extent are instructional materials available and how they affect the study of Mathematics?
  3. To what extent does poor method of teaching affect teaching and learning of Mathematics in secondary schools?
  4. To what extent does an interest and attitude of students, teachers and school administrators influence effective teaching and learning of Mathematics?

Significance of the Study

This study will help to make our educational administrators to see the need to have qualified Mathematics teachers if not available to handle the subject and effectively for the benefits of the students and society at large.

It will also helps to sensitize the educational administrators to appreciate the need to make available the necessary materials, examples chalkboard, graph, audio-visual materials, etc that will enhance effective learning of Mathematics if they are not available.

This study will if need be direct the Mathematics teachers’ attention to the need for them to adopt more appropriate teaching method in order to bring about the above mentioned desirable experience in the learners. This study will have a great significant to economists for formulation and evaluation of their plans.

It will be useful to learners to identify the factors affecting the teaching and learning of Mathematics. It will help to identify the factors affecting the teaching and learning of Mathematics. It will help to produce sound Mathematics students that will function well in the economy.

This work will serve as a source of encouragement to students and teachers that will come across it. It is hoped that the findings of this study would also form the basis for further research work by future researchers on this issues.


Scope of the Study

This study will cover the relationship between social factors and effective teaching and learning in senior secondary schools.


Limitation of Study

Financial Constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time Constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


Organizations of the Study

The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.

The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter centres around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

This chapter deals with the summary of the study, conclusions drawn from the study, recommendations, educational implication of the study, limitations of the study and suggestions for further studies.


Summary of the Study

This researcher is centered on the social factors affecting the effective studying of Mathematics in the secondary schools in Jada Local Government Area Adamawa state. It has identified that employment of qualified Mathematics teachers, improvement in the available instructional materials and method of teaching will enhance the teaching and learning of Mathematics in the secondary schools as well as improve the students’ performance in the subject. Based on this, recommendations are made on how to facilitate teaching and learning of Mathematics in Jada Local Government Area of Adamawa state.


Educational implications of the study

This study revealed that the school requires specialist in the area of Mathematics in order to achieve the various objectives which include acquiring knowledge of the operating system of the economy and the maximization of scarce resources for optimum result.

The study also revealed that more Mathematics concepts should be incorporated in the curriculum of the relevant knowledge which is an essential requirement to personal contribution to the betterment of mankind.


Limitation of the Study

  1. It was observed that some of the respondents were reluctant and dishonest in filling the questionnaire thereby made it difficult to elicit authentic information from such information.
  2. Most of the schools were situated in remote areas that were not motorable thereby threatening the accessibility of such schools.
  3. Lack of fund and short period required for the study.

However, the researcher was able to carry out this study despite these problems.


Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study the researcher made the following recommendations:

  1. Employment of Mathematics teachers by the government through the ministry of education should be strictly based on merit so as to make it possible for only those who studied the course to be appointed.
  2. The government should try as much as possible to organize from time to time, seminars, workshops and symposium for Mathematics teachers on contemporary issues in the field.
  3. The government should provide instructional materials to schools and teachers should also improve where necessary for Mathematics.
  4. More emphasis should be laid on Mathematics as a core subject in senior secondary schools.

Suggestion for Further Studies

The researcher suggests that further research should be undertaken in the following;

  1. How to improve students’ performance in Mathematics in senior secondary school in Jada Local Government Area.
  2. The effects of teaching aids on the teaching and learning of Mathematics in secondary schools.

Social Factors Affecting Effective Teaching And Learning Of Mathematics In Senior Secondary School In Adamawa State


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Frequently Asked Questions


How do social factors influence teaching and learning in schools?

While research in the US has found that social variables continue to influence teaching and learning even after controlling for different school types, the school context tends to affect the strength of the relationship between social factors and effective teaching and learning (Portes and MacLeod, 1996).

How does socioeconomic status affect student learning?

The effects of low socioeconomic status on students learning outcomes. A higher education level of parents is positively associated with a greater tendency for them to advocate for their children’s placement in higher education courses and actively manage their children’s education (Baker & Stevenson, 1986).

How does social class affect education?

How Does Social Class Affect Education? How Does Social Class Affect Education? Social class affects education because the people who are in lower social statuses are not able to afford a premier education, the necessary tools to complement a public education, or continuing education.

Why do teachers assume students with low socioeconomic status won’t do well?

They automatically assume that students who have low socioeconomic status won’t do well in school because many are absent from school or have behavioural problems. This can be closely linked to student’s home life. Comber (1997) argues that teachers continue to hold deficit views of some students.

How does the SES status of the community affect education?

Inadequate education and increased dropout rates affect children’s academic achievement, perpetuating the low-SES status of the community. Improving school systems and early intervention programs may help to reduce some of these risk factors; therefore, increased research on the correlation between SES and education is essential.

What are the hindering factors in teaching mathematics?

Another hindering factor was that teachers were always using less challenging problems and avoided the more challenging problems to save teaching time and to prevent the possibility of their students from becoming demotivated in learning Mathematics.

How does social status affect teaching and learning outcomes?

Most studies, however, compare students from across all social backgrounds to reach the conclusion that low social status adversely affects a range of teaching and learning outcomes. Research has shown the importance of the type of school a student attends in influencing educational outcomes.

What are the factors that influence learning?

Learning is influenced by many factors such as attention, motivation and emotions as well as by learner characteristics like prior knowledge, cognitive and learning styles and intellectual capabilities. The following list shows a number of other factors that may also have a bearing on a pupil’s capability to learn: * Family * Culture * Gender * Impact of peers * Subject content * Teaching style * Learning skills * Recognition of need to learn * Past experiences of learning * Personal …

What are the factors affecting teaching and learning?

The awareness about the factors affecting teaching would help the teacher to make teaching and learning more effective. The factors can be categorised on the following basis: Factors affecting teaching related to Support Material Factors affecting teaching related to Instructional Facilities

What is effective mathematics teaching?

Teaching mathematics can only be described as truly effective when it positively impacts student learning. We know that teaching practices can make a major difference to student outcomes, as well as what makes a difference in the classroom.

What are the hindering factors in teaching mathematics?

Another hindering factor was that teachers were always using less challenging problems and avoided the more challenging problems to save teaching time and to prevent the possibility of their students from becoming demotivated in learning Mathematics.

Why is it important for mathematics teachers to update their instructional practices?

Furthermore, as change in the real world is inevitable, it is therefore vital for Mathematics teachers to constantly learn and update their instructional practices so as to promote and equip students with the required mathematical understanding to meet the challenges of the 21 st century. References Ahmad, A. W., & Shahrill, M. (2014).

Do teacher practices promote or hinder student engagement in mathematics?

This paper reports on teacher practices identified as promoting and hindering student engagement in mathematics. This paper reports on research that emanates from concerns about declines in student participation, interest and achievement in mathematics in the middle years of school.

What factors influence the effectiveness of mathematics teaching and learning?

One individual commented that the factors that he/she believes are influential in the effectiveness of Mathematics teaching and learning are teachers’ professional developments, times for teaching and learning, availability of teaching aids, computers, OHP, etc.

Does lack of incentive for mathematics teacher hinder effective teaching?

The findings in research question four of chapter four shows that lack of incentive for mathematics teacher hinder effective teaching of mathematics with average mean score of 2.51 which is above the cut-off point of 2.50 when teachers are paid well they will put all their effort in teaching the students.

What are the problems of teaching mathematics?

The problems of teaching mathematics thus; problems of trained mathematics teachers, problems of instructional materials, lack of mathematical laboratory, problems of methodology, problems of expatriate teacher, problems of textbook, societal problems, lack of incentive, problems of classroom, problems of time and problem of language. 

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