Small And Medium Scale Industrial Cluster Osisioma
The industrial cluster is not a new phenomenon. It has evolved in a process after passing through number of economic theory developed, starting from location theory in 1976 by ven Thunen, marshal’s industrial district theory (1979), max Weber’s industrial complex theory (1950). The cluster concept has attracted many policy makers, academicians and researchers as a vital strategy for rural development (economic and industrial). Today, the developed and developing economy implementing cluster concept as an instrument for the development of rural small and household industries and also for the development of communities related to these industries. Generally, the cluster concept suggests a change in the units of analysis from isolated firms to a network of firms, which have an advantage of effective local knowledge up-gradation, skill development, empowerment of local community, caste people and innovations.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Certification page
- Table of content
- 1.1 Background of the study
- 1.2 Statement of the problem
- 1.3 Purpose of the study
- 1.4 Scope of the study
- 1.5 Limitations
- 1.6 Definition of terms
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 industries (historical preview of its origin)
- 2.2 Origin of industrial cluster
- 2.3 Small and medium industries and the Nigeria economy
- 2.4 Problems of small and medium scale industries
- 2.5 Government’s plans
3.0 Research Methodology
- 3.1 Design of the study
- 3.2 Area of study
- 3.3 Population of the study
- 3.4 Method of date collection
- 3.5 Case study 1
- 3.6 case study 2
- 3.7 Case study 3
- 3.8 Case study 4
- 3.9 Case study 5
4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data
- 4.1 Planning construction (technical studies)
- 4.2 Site selection and analysis
5.0 The Design Programme and Conclusion
- 5.1 Uses analysis
- 5.2 Activity analysis
- 5.3 Space analysis
- 5.4 Design goals and objectives
- 5.5 Design philosophy
- 5.6 Design concepts
- 5.7 Design proposal
- 5.8 Conclusions
Industries are categorized into micro scale, small scale medium and large scale depending on the factors which determine the scope and limitations of such firms. The definition of each of the categories depends largely on the country where the business thrives.
In Nigeria, micro scale industries are defined as those whose total investment cost does not exceed one million, five hundred thousand naira (#1,500,000) including working capital but exclusive of land. The workforce is not more than 10.
Large scale industries are defined as those with total investment of over two hundred million naira (#200,000 000) excluding land but including working capital, and workforce of over 300 workers. It could be a national or state enterprise which may have branches within or outside the area of locality. Private millionaire’s businessmen can also embark on such ventures.
Small scale industries are defined as those with total investment of between one million, hundred thousand naira (#1,500,000) and fifty million naira 50,000,000) and two hundred million naira (#200,000,000) excluding land, but including working capital, and a workforce of 11 to 100 workers.
Medium scale industries are defined as those with total investment of between fifty million (#50,000,000) and two hundred million naira (#200,000,000) excluding land, but including working capital and an workforce of between 101 and 300 workers. For the purposes of this project, concentration will be located at Aba, Abia state.
Small and medium scale industrial cluster is an estate which houses various forms of small and medium enterprise (SME) that provide the services and needs of the people. As industries, each has its own production process which may be different from others. As a cluster, the whole area is planned in such a way as to enhance good co-ordination of activities and relations of one industry to another.
Aba is very good commercial centre and its choice as the location of this project is quite obvious various industries and commercial activities are going on everyday. Presently, the eruption of various industries and their indiscriminate locations seem to take the commercial city out of shape.
The industrial cluster is, therefore, meant to articulate all the various forms of small and medium scale industries together to find solution both to industrial inefficiency and environmental problems.
This cluster is made to house such small and medium firms like, shoe-making, furniture making, welders and etc. The stage is ripe for it and the purpose is welcome. It is hoped that this project would open a new chapter in the industrial and commercial lives of the people of Aba and beyond.
In dealing directly with this project, some economic and technical analysis has been made in order to understand the subject clearly. By so doing expositions have been made on its economic implications and prerogatives which is in essence reporting on the general business of small and medium scale industries especially as it relates to the commercial city of Aba. The technical quality of the report is enhanced by the way all the factors affecting the design of industrial clusters are treated explicitly.
1.1 Historical Background of Industrial Location at Aba
In the eighteenth century, the constructed of railway line from Port Harcourt to Enugu through Aba enhanced the towns locations importance. In a bid to link the hinder leads to urban centres, feeder roads were constructed mainly to convey agricultural goods for sales in the town and manufactured goods from towns to rural areas. Thus, the construction of road networks engendered as series of socio-economic linkages in the area.
The colonial administrations made efforts to develop industries already existing before 1946. For example, the wearing and spinning centres had been in existence before this period. These types of industries were encouraged through the application of modern technique use and assistance to Nigeria industrialists to acquire, manage and staff their ventures. Such efforts gave rise to the growth of factories which started manufacturing for local market and eventually replaced the formerly imported goods
The establishment of foreign trading (the United African Company -21AC and Paterson Zokonis-PZ) and the presence of a large population which provided the market and labour potentials were factors which among other things gave rise to industrial growth at Aba. Other factors also affected Aba in its industrial growth. The completeion of Aba-Port Harcourt road and Aba water works in 1925 generated further industrial concentration. By the year 1982 the town was almost a large settlement with four roads from Owerri, Ikot Ekpene, Ort Harcourt and Opobo Other factors also.
Before the Nigeria Civil war (1960-1967) the growth of Aba attracted more people and industries into the town. For example, within this period a cosmetic/soap factory was established at Abayi while a life stock feed mill, a textile mill and some garment factors were established in the town. The intensive and market oriented industries at this period resulted to a road population growth of Aba. Consequently, the Aba town planning Authority mapped out an area of 2,453sq km as the planning areas for their growing municipality.
The civil war (1967-70) disrupted all industrial activities in the town. However, after the war, all industrial activities in the town were revived; This resulted in industrial expansion, increased production and creation of more job opportunities.
1.2 Statement of the Problems
Aba is city endowed with so many talented people with respect to designing and production so many products. It is a common practice at Aba that various industries and buildings sprout anyhow at any location. People cannot clearly define the residential areas different from commercial or industrial area. Even though they should be related, they should not be juxtaposed to each other bearing in mind the consequences and implications. To solve this problem, therefore, I decided to design on industrial cluster where small and medium scale industries will be conveniently located without necessarily affecting other aspects of human life.
Business and industrial activities should be organised to have a good co-ordination. Some industries depend solely on others in the production of their raw materials while others put finishing touches to the products of other companies and industries. For these activities to be relatively effective, they need to be planed in a rhythmical form.
In a bid to achieve this, it have been motivated to carry out a project bordering on planning of these business ventures to enhance a good business life. Life in itself is supposed to have a form and so does the characteristic of people should be designed to reflect the essence of living in all its ramifications.’
1.3 Purpose of the Study
Industries play a very important role in the human life. Almost all business and commercial activities in the human society have their root in industries starting from a small scale production of cakes, bread, and making of other confectionaries to a large scale production of machines and heavy equipments. All are finally disposed of in a ready market which goes to serve various human needs.
On the other hand, taking into commercial nature of Aba and relatively quick turnover required by consideration the businessmen operating in the area; the idea of designing for small and medium scale industries is not out of place.
The average Aba businessman does not have the patience to wait or a long term profit through large scale industries. Again, people tend to pay attention to these business activities that solve their daily needs.
To this effect, more small and medium scale industries are bound to be advantaged.
1.4 Scope of the Study
Small and medium scales industrials enterprises are numerous that it may be cumbersome designing and providing for each od them in a particular project.
Therefore, much consideration where given to the manufacturing units that some the needs of many people especial in Aba.
However, the spaces are mainly divided according to the scale of industries, which are;
- The small scale sizes -15.2m x 30.4m.
- The medium scale is between 30.4m x 45. (three plots of lands).
- Spaces are provided for the small and medium scale industries.
- Small scale medium scale
- Furniture make
- Welding making metal and allied construction
- Leather bags accessories leather production
- Leather work (shoes)
- Packaging industries
In encountered some difficulties in the course of carrying out this research work. The following are some of the constraints:
- Lack of establishment and industrial cluster in the country carry out a research.
- Secondly, I have to travel severally to Aba in Abia state to visit some individual which sometimes i was turned down.
- Finally, my inability on several occasions to meet the resource personal in charge of the Naze industrial cluster.
1.6 Definition of Terms
Is the production of goods from raw materials especially in factories.
Small Scale Industries:
Are defined as those industries with total investment of between one million, five hundred thousand naira excluding land, but including working capital; and/or a work force of between 11 and 100 workers.
Medium Scale Industries:
Are defined as those with a total investment of between fifty million and two hundred million naira excluding land, but including working capital, and/or labour force of between 101 and 300 workers.
Is a geographic concentration of interconnected business, suppliers and associated institutions in a particular field.
A city in Abia state which is made up of five local Govt. Area.
The set of the different level of something from the lowest to the highest.
A period when the Nigerians was under British colony before she got her independent in 1960.
Post Colonial Period:
This is from October 1st, 1960, when Nigeria gained her impended from British colony.
5.0 The Design Programme and Conclusion
An industrial cluster houses a lot of manufacturing units of diverse products. They equally have their varying forms and characteristics which often times differentiate their production process. Mention and discussion will be made here on some of those major small and medium scale industries which are through very relevant to Aba at the present time.
5.1 Users Analysis
The industrial cluster is a government owned project which is been allocated to private individuals who which to build their industries there.
5.2 Activity Analysis
Printing / Binding
There are mainly two principal segments of printing
- Newspaper and magazine publishing which are dominated by governments
- Job printing which falls into the category of small scale industries.
Several kinds of printing presses are in wide use, and they include:
- Power operated flat
- Power driven rotary
- Cylindrical (offset presses)
- Casting machine (line and monotypes)
- Ruling machines
- Folding equipment
- Paper cutters
- Binding equipments
They workshop should be species enough to accommodate the various machines, furniture and workmen. Enough lighting (Natural and artificial) should be introduced. Ventilating should be well be adequate to enhance heat change especially as the operational machines are sources of heat change flow. The normal window height level can be maintained. The floor should be solid material to withstand vibration.
|Lithographic pross||2.5 X 5.OM|
|Plate maker||1.5 X 1.8M|
|Folder||1.2 x 1.5m|
|Drill||1.2 x 1.5m|
|Gluming belt||2.0 x 4.2|
Cabinet Making – Furniture
The bulky nature of this industry requires a great deal of space for both the storage of raw materials and work circulation. Big showrooms should also be provided for the display of various products. Wide door and window openings should be made for both the carriage of items and goods. Dust vents through the wall and roofs are encourages.
|Band saw||3.0 x 5.0|
|Surface plane||2.5 x 5.0|
|Slot boring machine||4.0 x 3.0|
|Dove tailor||2.2 x 8.3|
|Jointer||1.4 x 8.3|
|Wood shaper||2.9 x 2.6|
|Polisher||2.2 x 2.6|
|Carpenter’s both||3.0 x 4.5|
|Upholstery press||2.5 x 3.5|
The nature of the work generators noise and disturbance and as such should be well zones to minimize the effects on other units. Some the products of this unit include upholsteries shelves, desks, tables, drawers as well as various wood carryings made by the arts dry and joinery workers. Its sources of raw materials is the saw milling industry where various kinds and sizes of timber are produced. The design should be conceived in a module for a better flexibility. Building materials should be such that absorbs the acoustic properties of the workshop.
Metal Construction –Welding Work
The equipments generally used in this limit include:
|Welding machine||2.8 x 2.5m|
|Drilling machine||2.6 x 3.2|
|Engraver||2.2 x 3.0|
|Bandsaw||2.3 x 3.1|
|Work bench||2.7 x 1.9|
Some of the products include water tanks, gates, handrails, water pots, plant mixer, cooking stands etc. Materials include solder, metals of different kinds etc.
Factory walls should not be reflective of heat and smoke. Chimneys or roof vents should also be incorporate to excude fumes and flues. Being a noisy zone, are should be taken in the choice of building materials as well as the locating of the unit in relation to other workshops especially those of relative calmness.
In this industry, the prominent workshops are shoe and bag making, belt ETC. The following are the various working equipments and their sizes.
|Nailer||1.5 x 2.2|
|Sole press||1. 5 x 2.2|
|Heel press||1.5 x 2.2|
|Shaping machines||2.0 x 2.5|
|Leather cutter||3.0 x 3.5|
|Pattern stamper||1.5 x 1.7|
|Sewing machine||1.2 x 2.2|
This is a relatively calm zone expect for the mild sound of the sewing and shaping machines. Lightning should be both natural and artificial. Ventilation should also be at the normal window level.
5.3 Space Analysis
The following are the standard spaces allocated for the various scales industries.
Small Scale Industries
- Furniture making 15.2m x 30.4m
- Welding and metal work 15.2m x 30.4m
- Printing 15.2m x 30.4m
- Leather work 15.2m x 30.4m
In order words, each small scale industry is allocated a plot of kind.
Medium Scale Industries
All the industries under medium scale are allocated three four plots of land to build up,
- Leather Production –
- Plastic production – 45m x 30m
- Paper milling and printing – 45m x 30m
- Metal and allied construction – 45m x 30m
This building will be in change of the activities that will be going on in the cluster. It will have exhibition gallery for display of various products that meet international standards. It will have the following space allocation;
- Reception 74.8m2
- Exhibition 144m2
- President office + convenience 21.6m2 + 2.16m2
- Vice president + convenience 21.6m2 + 2.16m2
- Secretary + convenience 21.6m2 + 2.16m2
- Treasurer + Convenience 21.6m2 + 2.16m2
- P.R.O 21.6m2
- Secretary to the president 12.96m2
- Conference Hall 378m2
- Conference Room 144m2
This section provides group serves to the various industries in the cluster. They include the following units:
- Eating houses
- Raw material
The eating houses ad materials are detached separately and each located at proximate to the workshops.
Below are the space analyses of the space allocation for the services:
i) Eating Houses
- Kitchen – 12.96M2
- Eating area – 36m6
- Servery – 12m2
There are four blocks of four eating units each this total of sixteen units are to be managed by separate individual caterers who may rent the area. The various units are meant to attract competition thereby avoiding monotony and inefficiency.
ii) Raw Material Shop
This is a sales area where the various raw materials required by the workshops in the cluster are sold. They are houses in four blocks with eight shops each.
The conveniences are meant for the raw material shops nine toilets are provided in each block of four.
5.4 Design Goals and Objectives
This project is aimed at defining SME in Nigeria and its role in the development of her economy. Its economic and technical implication are treated to create awareness to the entrepreneur and prospective investors.
Through the plan layout, one would be able to establish the relationship among the various small and medium scale industries.
It is also hoped that this would serve as a raw materials centre for so many large scale industries at Aba. It will this beat hick business activity area due to its multifarious nature.
Finally, it is to encourage government to bring incentives that would attract investors to SME and thus develop shells for the technological growth of the nation.
5.5 Design Philosophy
SME have become a popular phrase in the Nigeria lexicon for many Years. So for the SME to thrive in Nigeria, there needs to good architectural designs for the cluster. In view of this I am happily willing to contribute my own architectural quota.
5.6 Design Concept
In carry out this project, the test of good, planning and integration of space functions has been most conspicuous and demanding, some of the industries are related to each other that it becomes difficult to isolate one from another. In this case, prototype plans are provided according to the nature and requirements of their industries especially the small scale.
The concept is based on simple creative imaginations that should be able to present new patterns, use of objects of different shapes/forms that connects the use of the building symbolically.
The various industries can easily be located at the entrance.
5.7 Design Proposals
In formatting the architect briefly, I have adopted a going shall be proposed.
- Small scale industries
- Medium scale industries
- Administrative block
- General Service like, restaurants, convenient, raw materials shop, machine repair service.
- Parking lots
- Off loading bays & loading bag
Designing for industry is designing for utility. In the era of enterprise development, entrepreneurs want opportunities to thrive in their skills. The quest for technology starts from here. A nation that neglects this aspiration is not yet read to stand on a sound technology footing.
Japan’s unnoticed strive has become a world’s celebrating do day.
The greatest things needed by these entrepreneurs are motivation and incentives from all and Sunday to do what they are best known for. The completion of this project therefore, is a challenge are the best avenue for finding opportunities.
A lot has been put together to arrive at this proposal. I will feel rewarded if the purpose for which it is meant to serve is achieved in the nearest future Aba is a centre of business excellence and this project is another step further to the promotion of international business based on local technology.
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