Skills Improvement Need Of Woodwork Teachers In Technical Colleges In Aba Abia State

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Skills Improvement Need Of Woodwork Teachers In Technical Colleges In Aba Abia State


Abstract


This study was conducted using descriptive survey research to assess the skills improvement need of woodwork teachers in technical colleges in Aba, Abia state. Four research questions were developed and answered in line with the purpose of the study. Four null hypotheses were formulated and tested at the probability of 0.05 level of significance. A structural questionnaire was developed from the related literature reviewed for the study. The questionnaire was faced- validated by three experts. The questionnaire was tested for reliability using test-retest method and the result showed a coefficient of 0.88. Copies of the questionnaire were administered on 112 respondents to obtain data and same were returned. The data were analyzed using the mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions and t-test statistics to test the null hypotheses. The findings of the study showed that woodwork technology teachers required skills for improving practical project in technical colleges in Abia State. Recommendations made include need for Abia State governments to package the identified competency items in skills required by woodwork technology teachers for improving practical projects in technical colleges into workshop materials and organize workshop on them for the benefit of wood work technology teachers, training and retraining of woodwork technology teachers and provision of instructional resources.

 


Table of Content


Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Question
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisation of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Skill Development
  • 2.3 Technical Colleges
  • 2.4 Woodwork Technology
  • 2.5 Practical Projects
  • 2.6 Modern Woodwork Technology Tools and Equipment
  • 2.7 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.7.1 The Theory of Skill Development
  • 2.7.2 Needs Assessment Theory
  • 2.8 Related Empirical Studies

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population
  • 3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique
  • 3.4 Instrument for Data Collection
  • 3.5 Validity of the Instrument
  • 3.6 Reliability of the Instrument
  • 3.7 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.8 Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Result
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

A nation is made up of people whose individual contributions improve national growth and development. An individual needs to develop and acquire necessary skills to enable him meet his own and national aspirations. Vocational and Technical Education leads to the acquisition of skill and techniques in chosen occupation or profession to enable an individual earn a living. The Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN, 2004) viewed vocational and technical education as those aspects of the educational process involving, in addition to general education, the study of technologies and related sciences and acquisition of practical skills, attitudes, understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in various sectors of economic and social life. The major aim of vocational and technical education is to provide education for self reliance. Osuala (2004) stated that vocational and technical education is a training intended to prepare the students to earn a living in an occupation where success is dependent largely on technical information and an understanding of the laws of science and technology as applied to modern design, production, distribution and services. Uwaifo (2008) described vocational and technical education as result oriented. It brings about technological advancement and aims to provide new manpower for employment and provide further training for those already qualified, so that they can keep up with modern working methods.
To this effect, Joshua (2002) viewed vocational and technical education as a type of education made up of theoretical and practical instruction given to those who wish to be employed in commerce and industry or any type of enterprise that requires the use of tools and machinery for the operation, production, preservation and distribution of goods and services. However, from the definitions above, it could be understood that vocational and technical education is that aspect of education that prepares individuals with necessary skills, knowledge and attitudes needed for a purposeful employment to earn a living. Vocational and technical education is the type of education offered in technical colleges.

Okoro (2001) stated that technical colleges are regarded as the principal vocational institutions in Nigeria which are established to prepare individuals to acquire practical skills, knowledge and attitudes for effective participation in the world of work. Okoro stated further that technical colleges give training intended to prepare students for entry into various occupations. The national policy on education (FGN, 2004) outlined the aim of technical colleges which include preparation for useful living within the society and preparation for higher education. It means that the quality of instruction at technical colleges, must in addition to the development of the cognitive or intellectual abilities of the youth, be oriented towards the acquisition of appropriate work skills, abilities and competences for the individual to live and contribute to the development of the society. However, the purpose of technical education with regard to the trade related courses in technical colleges is not likely to succeed using “chalk and talk” approach alone, except through effective use of educational resources to bring the students in contact with the school curriculum and learning activities. Adeogun (2009) stated that resources refer to the available facilities that can be used to achieve educational goals and objectives. Orebanjo (2010) also recorded that good human resources particularly well trained, qualified and devoted teachers help students in various aspects of development in practical projects and skills acquisition in woodwork related services.

Woodwork technology is one of the programmes offered in technical colleges in Nigeria. Wagner and Kicklighter (1986) stated that woodwork technology requires technical skills from students for good performance in woodwork trades such as; frame construction, carcase construction, stool construction and the skills in the use of tools and equipment to effectively conduct in woodwork practical project. Hence students in woodwork technology need to acquire appropriate skills in order to be employable in woodworking establishments.

Skill according to Okorie (2000) means expertness, practised ability, dexterity and fact. Osuala (1987) defined skills as the competent to perform efficiently and expertly in one or more kinds of repetitive process, jobs or special equipment demanding manual dexterity. Abdullahi (2010) opined that a skill is the capability of accomplishing a job with precision of certainty, practical knowledge in combination with ability, cleverness and expertness. Okorie and Ezeji (1988) remarked that to possess a skill is to demonstrate the habit of acting, thinking or behaving in a specific activity in such a way that the process becomes natural to the individual through repetitive practices. Osuala (2004) asserted that most technical skill training actually present greater challenges to the learner by integrating practical work, theoretical knowledge, observation, ability and encouragement in an occupation. The expected usefulness of the technology for education recipient, therefore, include ability to create jobs and earn a living through application of acquired practical skills especially in woodwork technology.

The study of woodwork technology in technical colleges in Kano and Jigawa sates is not yet providing the necessary skills in practical projects as expected from woodwork technology students in technical colleges (Olaniyan, 2001). The information obtained from the Executive Secretaries, science and technical schools board, Ministry of Education Kano and Jigawa states, showed that for the past five years there has been poor performance of woodwork students in woodwork technology trades, especially in practical projects. This could be due to lack of improved skills by the woodwork teachers in conducting practical projects, shortage of technical personnel as well as inadequate funding of woodwork practical projects. In this respect, technical teachers are referred to those who obtained technical training/theories and practice of education that are related to the knowledge, skills and attitudes to the youths who will later use the knowledge and skills acquired to improve and reduce unemployment problems (Ikpe, 2005). In this respect, technical teachers are referred to those who obtained technical training on theories and practice education in related to the knowledge, skills and attitudes to improve on aspects of practical projects and reduce unemployment problems in the society.

The concept of practical project can be viewed as a piece of research work or an enterprise by a school or colleges student carefully planned to achieve a particular aim (Osuala, 2004). It is an activity that produces something of value for other people; exertion of physical and mental energy for accomplishment of specific purpose; or a form of activity/job that has social approval and satisfies a real need of the individual to be active, productive, creative respectful and to acquire prestige. On the other hand, Lawry (1991) remarked that practical project is a means of developing students’ general professional skills and attitudes similar to those met by professionals at the workplace. It provides students with a real problem to which they are expected to provide a suitable solution or socially approved practical activity which will show their freedom, intellectual and physical movement. Okoro (1993) and Bukar (1994) reported that project is an instructional method employed by industrial technical teacher to achieve a satisfactory level of skill acquisition. There are number of factors influencing the increase in the number of unemployed graduates from technical colleges. According to Okoro (1993) one of such is the inadequate preparation of students for projects in schools and colleges for effective performance. Hence, industries reject many applicants due to lack of appropriate practical skills. It is therefore, pertinent to note that woodwork technology teachers need to improve their skills in practical projects so as to train students to the point of acquisition of productive, saleable or employable skills in both private and public services.

The performance of technical college students in terms of practical projects in woodwork technology in Abia state is faced with numerous problems such as lack of improved practical skills from the woodwork technology teachers, inappropriate teaching methods for conducting practical projects, acute shortage of qualified woodwork teachers, lack of facilities as well as inadequate funding. These problems, as identified by Olaitan (1996), have contributed to the poor performance of college students in woodwork technology which need to be improved. It is therefore, noteworthy that improved skills of woodwork technology teachers would contribute to a large extent to the effective performance of woodwork technology students in practical projects in technical colleges in Abia state. This, therefore, calls for means or ways of improving the skills of woodwork technology teachers in practical projects in the states technical colleges.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Technical colleges produce craftsmen who constitute the lower level manpower needed in the country. Students who pass through technical colleges usually take one external examination, National Business and Technical Education Board (NABTEB). Graduates of technical colleges need to acquire the necessary skills that will enable them to be self-reliant or employed for pay in industries as well as other woodworking establishments.

Woodwork is as old as man. The quality and aesthetic nature of olden and modern woodwork projects depend on the highly skilled manpower for maximum productivity. Technical Colleges as the stepping stone for development of technological skills, play an important role for equipping woodwork students with skills to be self-reliant in their discipline as well as proceed for further education to become more competent personnel to work with woodwork industries or teachers for the conventional secondary schools and Technical Colleges (FRN, 2014).

A woodwork graduate of Technical College should be capable of independent work, but it is observed by Umar (2014), that most of the wooden articles executed by these graduates are poorly performed. This could be lack of skills required in accomplishing given tasks in the use of tools and equipment for the manufacture and repair of wooden structures. However, most of the technical school graduates lack some of the skills required to enable them practice their trade effectively which is directly related to the teachers’ preparedness and the methodology used in the teaching activities in the school workshops (Dauda and Jibrin, 2007). In order to train students properly in woodwork skills for effective participation in the world of work, the skills of teachers need to be improved for effective teaching and learning. In an attempt to fill this gap, it is imperative to carry out a study on skills improvement need of woodwork teachers in technical colleges in Aba, Abia state.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The aim of this study is to assess the skills improvement need of woodwork teachers in technical colleges in Aba, Abia state. Specifically, the objectives of the study include to;

  1. Assess the skills required by woodwork technology teachers to improve practical projects in frame construction in technical colleges in Aba, Abia state.
  2. Examine the skills required by woodwork technology teachers to improve practical projects in carcase construction in technical colleges in Aba, Abia state.
  3. Assess the skills required by woodwork technology teachers to improve practical projects in stool construction in technical colleges in Aba, Abia state.
  4. Examine the skills required by woodwork technology teachers for effective use and maintenance of modern tools and equipment for improving practical projects in technical colleges in Aba, Abia state.

1.4 Research Question

The following research questions are formulated to guide this research:

  1. What are the skills required by woodwork technology teachers to improve practical projects in frame construction in technical colleges in Aba, Abia state?
  2. What are the skills required by woodwork technology teachers to improve practical projects in carcase construction in technical colleges in Aba, Abia state?
  3. What are the skills required by woodwork technology teachers to improve practical projects in stool construction in technical colleges in Aba, Abia state?
  4. What are the skills required by woodwork technology teachers for effective use and maintenance of modern tools and equipment for improving practical projects in technical colleges in Aba, Abia state?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

HO1: There is no significant difference between the mean responses of woodwork technology teachers and supervisors in woodwork industries on skills required by woodwork technology teachers for improving practical projects in frame construction.

HO2: There is no significant difference between the mean responses of woodwork technology teachers and supervisors in woodwork industries on skills required by woodwork technology teachers for improving practical projects in carcase construction.

HO3: There is no significant difference between the mean responses of woodwork technology teachers and supervisors in woodwork industries on skills required by woodwork technology teachers for improving practical projects in stool construction.

HO4: There is no significant difference between the mean responses of woodwork technology teachers and supervisors in woodwork industries on skills required by woodwork technology teachers for effective use and maintenance of modern tools and equipment for improving practical projects in technical colleges.


1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings of the study would benefit woodwork technology teachers, woodwork technology students, Ministry of Education Abia state, curriculum planners, parents and guidance, woodwork technology industries as well as people and government of Abia state.

The findings of the study will provide information for woodwork technology teacher to improve their teaching to solve the current problem inherent in students’ poor performance in woodwork technology and ways of improving woodwork technology students’ performance at National Business and Technical Education Board (NABTEB) examination in Abia state. On the other hand, the woodwork technology students would benefit from the findings.

They will be able to overcome some of the difficulties encountered in producing woodwork practical projects. The students would as well acquire and develop the appropriate skill that would make them self-reliant, enterprising and improve their employability.

The Ministry of Education through science and technical schools’ board would be more committed as a result of this study to the financing of technical colleges regarding the training of woodwork teachers to upgrade their skills. The Ministry would through the knowledge of the study supply qualified and competent teachers, and also provide adequate facilities for the execution of practical projects.

The result of the study will also provide information to curriculum planner on aspects of curriculum in woodwork practical projects that require improvement. Hence information will be integrated by the curriculum planners for the purpose of improving the skills of teachers in woodwork practical projects by updating the requirements of the woodwork technology curriculum for practical projects.

Moreover, parents and guidance will benefit from the findings of the study because when their children and wards are empowered with improved practical skills, they may be employed or establish their own enterprises and thereby take the responsibilities of some member of the family financially and otherwise.

In addition, the result of the study will be of immense benefit to industries by obtaining the skilled personnel that will facilitate the production of the industries in terms of woodwork practical projects. This would increase the productivity and marketability of industries and their products.

Finally, people and government of Abia state will equally benefit from the findings of this study by obtaining the desired skilled and professionally qualified woodwork technology teachers and graduates. This knowledge of the finds and their integration in the curriculum would eventually reduce the rate of unemployment in the society at large by increasing the living standard of the people. An understanding of the findings would also assist government in policy making and implementation about woodwork technology teachers and students in the states.


1.7 Scope of Study

This study is focused on the skills improvement need of woodwork teachers in technical colleges in Aba, Abia state in the areas of frame construction, carcase construction, stool construction as well as the skills in the use of modern tools and equipment for conducting practical projects. The study will be conducted in Abia state to solicit the opinions of woodwork technology teachers and supervisors of woodwork industries on the skills required by the teachers for improving practical projects in technical colleges.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of this study, the researcher encountered some limitations. There was unwillingness of respondents to fill the questionnaires. Some of the copies questionnaires were also reported missing and it was severally replaced and this affected the researcher negatively finance wise. Also, the researcher faced time constraints and had to combine the research with other academic activities and coursework. Lastly, the researcher selected limited technical colleges in Aba, Abia state since all the technical colleges could not be exhausted.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Teacher:

Is a person who teaches, especially in a school. The primary role of a teacher is to deliver classroom instruction that helps students learn. To accomplish this, teachers must prepare effective lessons, grade student work and offer feedback, manage classroom materials, productively navigate the curriculum, and collaborate with other staff.

Wood Work:

Is the skill of making items from wood, and includes cabinet making, wood carving, joinery, carpentry, and woodturning.

Technical College:

Is a college of further education providing courses in a range of practical subjects, such as information technology, applied sciences, engineering, agriculture, and secretarial skills.

Skills:

Is the learned ability to perform an action with determined results with good execution often within a given amount of time, energy, or both. Skills can often be divided into domain-general and domain-specific skills.


1.10 Organisation of the Study

This study is organized into five chapters. Chapter one included the background of the study, research problem, research objectives and questions as well as limitation of the study. Chapter two contains the literature review. Chapter three includes the methodology and study area. Chapter Four contains the results and discussion of key findings of the study. Chapter Five finally looks at the summary, conclusions, and recommendations based on the findings.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

This study was carried out to assess the skills improvement need of woodwork teachers in technical colleges in Aba, Abia state. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with the use of questionnaire to elicit information from the respondents. The total population used for this study was 112, comprising 37 woodwork technology teachers and 75 registered supervisors from woodwork industries in Abia State. The instrument for data collection was questionnaire. The instrument sought information to determine the skills required by woodwork technology teachers for improving practical projects in technical colleges in Abia State The instrument was validated and the reliability tested using test-retest method. The instrument was administered and retrieved personally by the researcher with the help of four trained research assistants. All the 112 copies administered on the respondents in technical colleges in the two States were returned showing 100% return rate. The data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation.

The findings on the mean responses of woodwork technology teachers and registered supervisors of industries on skills required by the woodwork technology teacher for improving practical project in frame construction in technical colleges in Abia State implies that woodwork technology teachers required skills for improving practical projects in carcase construction. The finding revealed that woodwork technology teacher requires skills in carcase construction.

The findings revealed in table 3 shows woodwork technology teachers should improve their practical skills on the construction techniques on the aspects of stools construction.

Findings on the mean responses of woodwork technology teachers and registered supervisors of industries on skills required by woodwork technology teachers for effective use of modern tools and equipment for improving practical projects in technical colleges shown in table 4 revealed that all the respondents scored above average in agreement with the skills required by woodwork technology teachers for effective use of modern tools and equipment for improving practical projects in technical colleges in Abia State.


5.2 Conclusion

The National curriculum for technical colleges specified the objectives of the technical colleges which include preparation for useful living within the society and preparation for higher education. This implies, enabling woodwork students acquire basic knowledge and practical skills in woodwork technology and prepare them for occupations in industries among others. These objectives have not been achieved because the broad nature of the curriculum in wood construction does not specify the basic knowledge and skills in step- by-step procedure for the woodwork teachers to use in teaching the student.

For the objectives to be achieved there is the need to improve the curriculum to reflect on the basic knowledge and skills needed by students in the area of wood work technology. To make an input in this direction the study identified the skills required by woodwork technology teachers for improving practical projects in technical colleges in Abia state.


5.3 Recommendation

Based on the findings of this study, the following are recommended;

  1. The National Curriculum for technical colleges should integrate the identified skills required by woodwork technology teachers for improving practical projects in technical colleges into the curriculum of woodwork technology in technical colleges and ensure that the NABTEB integrate them in their syllabuses to serve as guide for woodwork technology teachers.
  2. The State government should package the identified competency items in skills required by woodwork technology teachers for improving practical projects in technical colleges into workshop materials and organize workshop on them for the benefit of wood work technology teachers.
  3. Government should organize seminars and workshops for woodwork technology teachers to update their knowledge and skills for improving practical projects in technical colleges.
  4. In-service training should be made available for woodwork technology teachers to further their education in order to keep up with skills changing technology in the society.
  5. Modern tools and equipment should be adequately supplied and maintained regularly for improving practical projects in woodwork technology in technical colleges.

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Frequently Asked Questions


Why is it important for teachers to maintain their technology skills?

Because as computer and associated technologies continue to change and evolve, educators must continue to strive for excellence in their work. Today that includes continued time and effort to maintain and improve their technology skills (as much as some educators do not want to admit).

Are there any research project topics available in vocational and technical education?

Research project paper, seminar topics, proposals, titles, ideas and materials are available for dissertation, thesis and essay in VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION. 

What is the employment outlook for Industrial Arts and technical education teachers?

According to the BLS, the overall employment of industrial arts and technical education teachers is projected to show little or no change from 2018 to 2028. As middle and high school students are required to take more academic classes and fewer career and technical classes, employment growth may be affected.

Why teach Industrial Arts in schools?

The 21st-century economy depends on a diverse array of talents and occupations. The work of electricians, mechanics, carpenters, welders, and builders is essential to a functioning society. And it’s up to industrial arts teachers to equip their students with the know-how and hands-on skills to succeed in these crucial jobs. 

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