Single Parenting And Deviance Behavior Of Children: Issues, Challenges And Prospects

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Single Parenting And Deviance Behavior Of Children: Issues, Challenges And Prospects


Abstract


This study attempted to investigate the influence of single parenting and deviance behavior of children: issues, challenges and prospects using some selected Ido-Osi Local Government Area of Ekiti State as a case study. The purpose of the study is to find out the influence of family pattern on the deviant behaviour and academic performance of secondary school students. A total number of two hundred (200) subjects were randomly sampled for the study. Schools were purposely selected to cater for mixed schools, boys and girls schools. In which questionnaire were adequately administered as an instrument of data collection. The data collected were adequately administered and data were analyzed using the Taro Yamani and chi-square which aid conclusion and adequate recommendations were made.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Every country places a significant emphasis on the education of its educational system. As a result, it commands a significant education of attention from the family, the community, and all levels of government; educational matters are deliberated over, planned, and carried out (Omolewa, 2001). It is widely held that receiving an education not only re-creates people but also the nation, as well as impacts the values and attitudes necessary for a life that is meaningful. The National Policy on Education (2009) is correct when it says that education is “an instrument par excellence.” The world at large had recognized education as the panacea to development and survival of man himself, so the National Policy on Education’s assertion that education is “an instrument par excellence” is not incorrect. Therefore, it should not come as a surprise that there are three stages of education: basic, secondary, and postsecondary education. These three levels offer different educational procedures. As a direct consequence of this, education has been put on the concurrent list. That is to say, the administration, funding, policy development, and upkeep of schools or issues connected to education are all topics that may be discussed by both the federal government and individual state governments. Public outcry has been heard over the years regarding the future of the educational system in Nigeria and the production of graduates with little technical know-how. This has led to serious setbacks in the industrial and economic development of the nation as well as its place among the comity of nations in the 21st century. Research into the factors that impact the academic performance of students both in and outside of the classroom may be able to be traced back to the individual family or the home. The home, often known as the family, is an essential component of society and is a component of the social structure. It is a truism that healthy homes are the foundation of a prosperous nation. It is because of reasons like these that every civilization works for societal advancement. Everyone has someone who cared for them when they were little and who they considered to be a member of their “family.” There has never been a lone guy in the world. Everyone has a family to which they belong. There are just a select few things that are more ubiquitous than the family. The only way for human cultures to maintain their way of life through generations is through the institution of the family. This is demonstrated in the Bible in Genesis 1:28, where it says, “And God blessed them; and God said unto them, Be prolific, and multiply, and replenish the land, and subdue it…” (American Standard Version) [American English] No matter whether they are married or not, all parents create long-lasting imprints on their children’s lives, and the position of a parent who is single does not exempt them from this responsibility. On the other hand, regardless of what may have caused this singularity, the child’s developing personality is likely to be marked in significant ways by the experience, whether it be death, divorce, or something else. The manner in which a single parent tackles the tremendous chores that come with being a single parent is ultimately what counts most. According to Ahuja (2000), regardless of the approach that a single parent takes to the problems of parenting, there are profound repercussions on the child’s personality, uniqueness, and academic performance when compared to children whose parents cohabit the same household. Being a child of a single parent is a challenging and difficult circumstance to be in. According to Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, children look to their parents to fulfill their first three psychological needs. These needs are referred to as the physiological, safety, and love and affection needs. Physiological needs include things like food, water, air, and shelter. Safety needs include things like security. Their children will feel safe and confident in themselves if their parents exude self-assurance and are emotionally stable. The identity crisis that a child experiences as a result of having only one parent may have a profoundly single impact on their personality. Despite the fact that the customs and mentalities of many African civilizations have evolved, many children who have only one parent are still referred to as bastards. This is especially true for children whose parents have never been married. It is a societal taboo, therefore it will always be a source of shame for the child whose mother was never married to his or her father, or for the children whose father refused to acknowledge or accept them as his own. At school and on the playground, other students and children single them out and make fun of them. As a consequence of this, individuals develop an aversion to going to school and interacting with other people. These are some of the challenges that children who have only one parent have to face throughout their lives (Stinson, 2000). The child is the primary focus, and without the child, the term “parent” cannot be used in any meaningful context. Researchers in the social sciences have found a variety of ways in which children’s behaviour patterns alter based on the sort of family they come from. These patterns include: Many people are of the opinion that children raised in families with only one parent are more likely to exhibit materialistic and obsessive spending behaviors than children raised in households with two parents. (Amato, P. R., 1987) A child who grows up in a household in which both the mother and the father are active participants will receive excellent care and will have optimal opportunities to interact with their homes. This is because the process of socialization is dependent on both parents playing roles in the child’s upbringing that are complimentary to one another in order to be successful. The home is the initial and most important environment for the development of socialization skills. A child like this who is raised correctly has a good chance of reaching their full potential later in life, but children who grow up in homes with just one parent are more likely to be deprived of certain rights and opportunities and to have those rights taken away from them (Battle, 1998). According to Salami (1998), “Children from broken homes are typically connected with anti-social behaviour and bad academic records.” This is the author’s point of view. It is clear that time has moved on. It is no longer common practice to follow many of the antiquated rituals and practices that have been passed down through the generations and taught for many years. It is no longer accurate to say that the underlying beliefs and values of our society are the same as they were in the past since modern culture has evolved beyond those ideas and values. Despite this, moralists and conservatives are becoming increasingly repulsed by the rapidly shifting belief and cultural systems in today’s world. The fact of the matter is that practices that were formerly deemed intolerable but have since gained popularity at an alarmingly quick rate. One of the most significant problems that has been giving conservatives sleepless nights for decades, and possibly centuries, is the problem of single parenting. In today’s world, single parenting is already developing into a trend that is quick and swift in its expansion. (Tenibiaje, M. O., 2011).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

It is clear that time has moved on. It is no longer common practice to follow many of the antiquated rituals and practices that have been passed down through the generations and taught for many years. It is no longer accurate to say that the underlying beliefs and values of our society are the same as they were in the past since modern culture has evolved beyond those ideas and values. Despite this, moralists and conservatives are becoming increasingly repulsed by the rapidly shifting belief and cultural systems in today’s world. The fact of the matter is that practices that were formerly deemed intolerable but have since gained popularity at an alarmingly quick rate. One of the most significant problems that has been giving conservatives sleepless nights for decades, and possibly centuries, is the problem of single parenting. In today’s world, single parenting is already developing into a trend that is quick and swift in its expansion. (Tenibiaje, M. O., 2011) When both parents work together to provide the best care for their child, it helps the child develop in a way that is both ethically sound and emotionally secure. The child’s initial point of contact with socialization is the family, and the family has a significant impact on the child’s development in many domains, including academics, mental and moral development, emotional and spiritual growth, and physical development. Before a child attends school, the firm foundation of education is laid by the family, and the home is the place where the child develops the personality that they will bring with them to school. The elderly are fond of saying, “Charity begins at home.” In the process of a child’s intellectual growth, the child’s parents have important functions to perform. Because of this, the researcher plans to evaluate the single parenting and deviance behavior of children: issues, challenges and prospects, utilizing certain selected schools in the Ido-Osi Local Government Area as a case study.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of the study is to ascertain the single parenting and deviance behavior of children: issues, challenges and prospects; but for the successful completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following sub-objectives;

  1. To investigate the influence of single parenting on the behavioural pattern of junior secondary school student.
  2. To ascertain the impact of single parenting on the psychological well-being of junior secondary school student.
  3. To ascertain if there is any significant relationship between parenting and academic performance.
  4. To ascertain the role of parents on the academic performance of students in junior secondary schools

1.4 Research Question

For the successful completion of the study, the following research questions were formulated by the researcher;

  1. What is the influence of single parenting on the behavioral pattern of junior secondary school students?
  2. Does single parenting has any impact on the psychological well-being of junior secondary school student?
  3. What is the relationship between single parenting and the academic performance of students?
  4. Does parents play any role on the academic performance of junior secondary school students?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

Hypotheses 1
  • H0: single parenting does not have any significant influence on the deviance behaviour of junior secondary school students
  • H1: single parenting does have a significant influence on the deviance behaviour of junior secondary school students.
Hypotheses 2
  • H0: there is no significant relationship between single parenting and academic performance of junior secondary school students
  • H2: there is a significant relationship between single parenting and academic performance of junior secondary school students.

1.6 Significance of the Study

It is hoped that the outcome of this study will help to enlighten single parents of the risks of single parenting, how it affects their children’s academic performance, and how they can strive to improve their children’s academic performance. It will also help bachelors and spinsters to prepare very well for marriage before going into it, so that they will not put the lives of their unborn children in danger. It will also help students from single-parent homes to realize the consequences of their present home condition and put in their best efforts in order to sail through the demeaning tasks of self-study with ease. This study is also intended to call the attention of marriage counselors to the damaging effects of broken homes on children’s academic performance, so that they will help to safeguard marriages that are about to crash.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of the study covers the single parenting and deviance behavior of children: issues, challenges and prospects using junior secondary school students in Ido-Osi Local Government Area of Ekiti State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Parents

A parent is a caregiver of the offspring in their own species. In humans, a parent is the caretaker or biological parent is a person whose gamete resulted in a child, a male through the sperm, and a female through the ovum. Parents are first-degree relatives and have 50% genetic meet. A female can also become a parent through surrogacy. Some parents may be adoptive parents, who nurture and raise an offspring, but are not actually biologically related to the child. Orphans without adoptive parents can be raised by their grandparents or other family members.

Single Parenting

Single parenting can be defined as when one out of two people who are responsible for the nurturing and rearing of a child is not available, and the work meant for two people is now been carried out by only one person. According to Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, a single parent is defined as a mother or father who looks after children of their own, without the other partner. Single parenting can be viewed as a situation whereby the duties that require two parents to carry out on their children is being carried out by a single parent, either the wife or the husband.

Impact

Encarta dictionaries (2009) define impact as “the powerful or dramatic effect that something or somebody has on something or somebody.

Academic Performance

According to Encarta dictionaries (2009), academic relates to education, educational studies, an educational institution, or the educational system. Encarta dictionaries (2009) also define performance as the manner in which something or somebody functions, operates, or behaves. Academic performance can then be defined as how well one performs in his/her studies and classes in an educational institution or system.

Student

Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary (6th edition) defines student as a person who is studying at a university or college. It also defines student as a person who is studying at a school, especially a secondary school.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study etc.
  • Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter.
  • Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design and methods adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain the influence of Single Parenting And Deviance Behavior Of Children: Issues, Challenges And Prospects using junior secondary school students in Ido-Osi Local Government Area of Ekiti State. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges encountered single parents in child upbringing.


5.2 Summary

This study examined the single parenting and deviance behavior of children: issues, challenges and prospects in Ido-Osi Local Government Area of Ekiti State. The central focus of this study was to appraise how academic performances of students are influenced by parental upbringing. A number of literature work were reviewed in this research work, which sought to identify, understand and define the key items ranging from concept of single parenting ,causes of single parenting, factors that influences junior students’ academic performance, effect and challenges of single parenting on the society. Four research questions and hypotheses each were formulated in this study. The research method adopted for gathering information in this study was survey research design. The population of this study covered all school teachers and students in the selected secondary schools in Ido-Osi Local Government Area of Ekiti State. The instruments used in this study were questionnaire and achievement tests for gathering information from the respondents which are teachers and students respectively.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the study, it was deducted that the nature of single parental homes determine their wards academic performance in school. Academically, there are various variables that predict one’s performance in school subject. These could be those from the family and others from the teachers. However, since this study is concerned with the home factors. Such variables identified to have one impact or the other on the student’s academic performance is parental education, number of children in the home, parental occupation and income among others. The fact established in this study has brought about the conclusion that more negative impact could super cede the positive ones on single parental upbringing on the student’s academic performance within the study area.


5.4 Recommendations

Haven completed the study, the researcher put forward the following recommendations;

  1. The government should institute a special scholarship to assist students of poor single parents who are presently enrolled in school to caution the effect of their financial strength. To this end, modalities for accessing the fund should be establish by setting up a committee.
  2. Stigmatization of single parents and their children should be discouraged forthwith by enacting all relevant laws.
  3. Parents should be way mindful of their children especially their education before contemplating divorce separation.
  4. That society should promote her cultural values and assist the social institutions within its locality to orientate families on the benefits and odds of divorce especially as it affect students’ educational outcome.
  5. The Government should provide the necessary framework for curriculum experts to address the needs of students from divorce homes during the curriculum planning and development

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