The Significance Of Motivation Of Enhancing The Employee Performance In A Competitive Marketing Environment: A Case Study Of United Bank For African (UBA) Ilorin
The available theories on organization fail to encompasses effectiveness and efficiency motivation can be viewed as an inner urge that drivers people to work or perform. It is also an energy that boosts the morale of a worker or an employed.
This project work will emphasis te role of motivation ion an organization.
Chapter one of the project on the effect of motivation on employee performance in competitive marketing environment on introduction, it first of all define what motivation is by various authors and tries to mention , different kinds of motivation. This chapter state the purpose of study , statement of the problem, relevant research questions statement of hypothesis, background of study, significance of the study scope and limitation of chapter one.
In Chapter two, this chapter set the current research into perspective in order to show the state of art, this chapter, literature review is based on ideas of the subject matter of the study the chapter also extraged kinds of motivation steps in motivation by chris, techniques of motivation was stated as financial incentive, non financial or non monetary incentive, chapter also stated motivation in organization policies.
Chapter three, is research methodology, this is perhaps the background against which the findings and conclusion are based this phase of the research consist of the population of this study, sampling design and procedure, data collection, re-statement of research question, limitation of the methodology and historical background of the organization.
Chapter four in which data gathered are presented and analyse in order to derive a valid and objective conclusion on the subject matter of the study questionnaire were administered to the bank staff bank all data analyse and interception.
In chapter five this study effect of motivation on employees, in banks have been motivation their employee for effective and efficient performance, using the united bank for Africa Plc as a case study. The questionnaire was deigned to provide information about the degree of motivation in the commercial banking industry. The data collected were presented and analysed chapter four in order to desire a valid and objective conclusion on the heading summary of major findings.
Motivation has been defined on different ways by different scholars and the patterns of these definition has helped on understanding motivation better some of these definition are as follows.
Michael (1978) defined motivation as the act of stimulating someone or asset to get a desired course of action to push the button to get a desired reaction.
While Hodgets (1977) viewed motivation as “the process of creating organizational conditions which well impel employees to strive to attain company goals”
Viteless (1953) says that motivation represents an unsatisfied need which creates a state of tension or disequilibrium, causing the individual to move in a good directed pattern towards restoring a state of equilibrium by stratifying the need.
Kills (1958) says that motivation is the stimulation of any emotion or desire operating upon ones will and prompting or during it into action.
On the other hands, Umukoro (1994) has defined motivation as “the interrelationship between the needs and the fulfillment of the needs”.
Asika (1995) queting Michael (1980) has defined motivation as “those psychological process that course the arousal, direction and persistence of voluntary action that are goal directed”.
A motivated person is ready to act, R. stodyill (1959) defined motivation as a function drives and confirmed desirability estimates regarding various alternative satisfaction. How the motivated person decides to act is influence by us or her perception of the situation. Two people in the same motivated state and objective situation may act quite differently because they perceive the situation differently.
Why do people have different perceptions of the same situation? We start with the nation that all of us is apprehend a stimulus object through sensations, that is flows of information through one or more of our five sense sight, bearing, smell, touch and taste, however, each of us attends, organize and interprets his sensory information in an individual way. In fact, perception can be defined as “the process by which an individual selects, organize and interpret information inputs to creat a meaningful picture of world.
A larger part of managers tasks is getting things done through people, he must therefore try and understand peoples motivation. This aspect of the management element of direction is concerned with inducing people to work to best of their ability.
Motivation refers to the way urges, aspirations, drives and needs of human bangs direct their behaviour.
M.D Vernon (1969) defined motivation as the ludden urge within us which compels us to behave in certain ways. Such urge may be purely instinctive. Motivation is also the process of arousing emplyess enthusiasm to enable them perform their duties with pleasure and interest in such a way that organizational goals will be achieved.
Motivation may be positive or negative, if it is positive (Carrot approach) when some valuable rewards such as high pay, job security etc are offered for acceptable performance. It is negative (stick approach) when a form of physical, financial or social punishment such as loss of job, loose of income, reduction of or demotion is out to an individual for low performance.
In fact it has been observed that the performance of employees in work jetting or at best in an organization is dependent on the degree of motivation given to the employee by the employers(s), however, employees energy curve well be at lowest when there are perceived inadequate motivation.
In recent times, motivation of workers has been a subject of controversy between workers and management. A worker (employee) feels satisfied (intrinsic), when he is aptly he motivated, but dissatisfied (maintenance) when he is not motivated.
Motivational factors are:
- Recognition in work place
- Good take home package
- Higher responsibility
- Advancement and growth
- Training and development
- The work itself
Maintenance factors are:
- Company polity
- Work condition
- Relationship with peers
- Inter-personal relationship with superior
- Inter-personal relationship with subordinates
- Job security
The above factors are what Fredrick herzberg, referred to as the “two factor theory” but if the above factors the motivational facts are properly harnessed, the employees would perform better in any organization.
Nevertheless, contrary to what motivation is all about, some organizations choose the path of rationalization for the sole aim of not paying a whopping sun as salary. The workers also have chosen to commit fraud without recourse to equity due to job insecurity occasional by frequent retrenchment exercise. This is the main reason for sporadic fraud in banks as witnessed in the country on recent time. In conclusion therefore, it has been noticed and conforded that lack of motivation is the bone of frequent strukes and decreased productivity in an organization; sums up the merits of motivation thus:
- It enhances individual and organizational growth
- It improves productivity and performance
- It enhance quality
- It improve safety
- It enhances group dynamism
- It enhances corporate image
- It enhances good labour management relations
1.1 Statement of the Problem
The modern organization is very complex and profit oriented. Various reasons have been advanced for the performance and low productivity of an average Nigerian worker. The major problem has been what is or the best means of making workers perform well towards achieving the organization goals.
Various theories on motivation has been postulated by various scholars of international repute and it affects employees performance and productivity. Some of the theories are examined below:
Abraham Maslow of branches University, a prominent student of “Behaviour” has propounded a theory on motivation known as the “herarchy of need”. The underlying concept of the theory cannots that human needs are Lierachical; that a need must be gratified before other needs will predominant. These needs, according to Mashow, are the physiological) Biological needs, security (safety) needs, social needs, Esteem needs and self, actualization. He (Maslow) strongly believed that these needs are in linearity.
Another scholar on motivation was claylon P, Alderfer’s needs theory. This theory simply stated that human needs are circumstantial. These needs are: needs for existence, relatedness and growth. The ERG theory. Alderfer fervently believed that these needs are in a “continuum” tendency to move forward and backward according to situation. This is a complete aberration from Maslow’s needs hierarchy.
Theory x and y which was postulated by McGregor clearly indicates the inner essence of a worker. A worker detested to work (theory X unless forced, the converse is theory y.
The “Equity” theory which was postulated by S.Adams (1963) generally explains how employers should strive for justice and for play in their places of work and how they are motivated to correct them. Other notable theories are:
- Fedrick Herzberg – two factor theory
- Victor room – expectancy theory
- David mcclehand – need concept
Conclusively, we have observed that all the aforementioned theories centered on motivation as it affects employees performance in an organization. Therefore, employees should ensure to see that its employees are adequately motivated to achieved the descred profit maximization objective of the organization, since motivation. They say increase out.
1.2 Scope of the Study
Motivation has been the focal point of interest between employees in an organization especially in banking sector however, the study is limited to united bank for Africa (UBA) plc shall be placed on.
- Key concepts and theories of motivation in relation to banking
- The bulk of the employees in various branches of the bank in lagos including the head office wil be used consequently, the research questions will be answered from the data collected from these staff, hence findings shall only be applicable to the above mentioned bank
1.3 Significance of the Study
The study will be very useful to employers of labour in organization as various concepts of motivation will be adequately addressed. The study also will help management of the organization (united bank for Africa-UBA) to know in other to motivate them. The study is also to determine the effect of motivation or individual and group of workers and their actions and reactiosn towards such aspects of the motivation’s potentials
The study will be useful to the following:
- The organization: united bank for Africa (UBA) plc on which this study is conducted
- The employee(s) in organization who is desirous in knowing why motivation has been the issues of controversy between management and employees will also benefit tremendously from this study
- They society would also gain a lot from this study as various theories on motivation will be highlighted.
However, the use of questionnaire is intended to show how and what motivates workers in UBA Plc and probably proffer solutions that will be useful for improvement towards any eventual lapses that may surface during the period of the research work.
1.4 Purpose of Study
The banking industry in Nigeira, especially the commercial banking industry has been characterized by strike actions due to lack of motivation of staff and management’s indifferent attitude towards staff welfare.
This study therefore aims at:
- Determination factors affecting motivation in the commercial banking industry
- To find out why management has refued to motivates staff adequately
- To find out why lack of motivation affects employees performance.
- Advise bank for Africa plc on how to motivate staff.
- To identify the problems that causes frequent strike
- The commercial banking industry
- To examine whether the bank is motivating is staff low and goal achievement
- To identify the problems that have inhabited the the effective and efficient performance of UBA Plc
- To examine whether the effect of motivation actually increase or decreases productivity and efficiency
1.5 Limitation of Study
Areas that will be examined in the study or research work:
- Definition and explanation of motivation
- Contemporary mode of motivation
- Douglas Mcgregor’s theory
- Horzberg maintenances theory
- Elton model managerial approach to motivation
- Financial incentives
- Use of participant
- Job enlargement
- Job rotation
1.6 Definition of Terms
Definition of some major terms used in this project work
This is a psychological process that cuase the arousal, direction persistence of voluntary actions that we are goal directed (micheal 1986) (OYEBODE 2001) defined motivation as a product of behaviour (individual and group behaviour) and desire ad determined by the target productivity level in the organization.
Motivation can still be defined as a energy that drives the workers to perform his work effectively and efficiently.
Effectiveness and efficiency in organization:
This can be defined as ability to accompany a given task while efficiency on it won can be defined as successive accomplishment of a given task at the rate required of its accomplishment.
These can be defined as the internal and external variable which have negative and positive effect on the marketing activities and may affect organization objectives and goals.
5.0 Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Summary of Findings
This study, effects of motivation of employees performance has attempted to fond out how employees in banks have been motivating their employees fro effective and efficient performance, using united Bank for Africa plc as- A case study. The question naire was designed to provide information about the degree of motivation in the commercial banking industry. The data collected were presented and analyzed in chapter four in order to derive a valid and useful conclusion on the subject matter of the study.
The study also shows that motivation increase employees efficiency and productivity in an organization as evident in the hypothesis tested.
In conclusion, we have tried to identify the problems that characterizes the motivation of employees in banking industry. The bank should understand that only banks that can boost of the personal touch, high quality service, distinctive competence in resource management and good customer relationship will rain the competitive advantage to maintain. Profitable level. All these aforementioned factor centre on employees who are the bedrock of the organization, hence their motivation must be prime to management.
The study has proved beyond reasonable doubt that the quality level and overall performance of the commercial banking industry in Nigeria, with united bank for Africa as a case study is below the accepted standard due to employee motivational problems. Although the UBA plc is making serious and concerned efforts to motivate its employee.
Also, the management of UBA should find a way of motivation give adequate training to their staff in order to meet the demands of their customer and also to be a breast with the competition currently wherent in the banking industry, Bedelan (1986) supported this nation when he said “training is the process of developing individual skill, knowledge and attitude so as to improve present and future performance” Ejiogu (1995) also seas training as a process of causing a person or even an enimal to respond to discipline and instructions a process of making someone to become more proficient, effective and efficient in the performance of a task.
Finally, it has to be stresses that motivation is a patient instruction in employees performance in an organization. In fact, it is the core of management of human resources.
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