Significance Of Family Planning In The Control Of Increasing Population In Nigeria
This study investigated the significance of family planning in the control of increasing population in Nigeria. The study sought answers to four research questions and two hypotheses. The population of the study consisted of families in Ugbowo, Ekiadolor, Oluku, Iguosa and Idowina communities in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. 240 families were sampled using the simple random sampling technique. Questionnaire was the major instrument for data collection. Data collected were analysed using mean scores, while t-test statistics was employed in testing the hypotheses. Based on the analysis, the study showed that there is a high level of awareness on family planning method within their various communities. The study also revealed that most parents accepted family planning method within their various communities. Also, most parents do not embrace the use of condom and implantation methods. However, parents accept injectable based on doctor’s advice, that pills prevent pregnancy, also that traditional family planning method is cheaper and safer than the new modern method, and lastly that use of contraceptives have no side effect on reproductive system. Based on the findings, recommendations and suggestions for further research were made.
Background of the Study
Family planning has been a common problem with the developing countries in the world, due to lack of family planning the population of the developing countries using Nigeria as a typical example when unchecked increased geometrically. The lack of family planning which led to an increase in Nigeria population is as a result of lack of women education, poverty etc.
It is a common observation to everybody that what we often say is a blessing could turn to be a curse as in the case of the increasing population of a country. The only way this can be prevented is through the use of birth control or family planning and this is one of the major way in which Nigeria population can be reduced. One question that always comes to my mind is that if fertility is not controlled and it grows beyond its carrying capacity, then there will be a huge problem in population control, as we all know over populations a problem to a country especially the developing countries. The above mentioned facts has led the researcher into the topic; family planning as an agent of reduction of the increasing population in Nigeria, a case study of Oredo Local Government Area.
It is important to know that whatsoever happens in any society always begin from the family. However, another question that can really come to mind is this. What is family planning? Though many authors has defined it in various way. Family planning is defined as a process whereby parents or couples have their children by choice and not by chance by this we mean that couples can control the number of children they want and when they want them. Though more people use family planning than ever before. More than half of the couples in the developing countries use family planning today compared with 10% in the 1960s. This dramatic increase in family planning use has caused fertility to decline much more rapidly in the developing countries and if this is achieved it can lead to the attainment of optimal population which is the best type of population in both developed countries and developing countries.
Family planning helps save women and children’s live and preserves their health by preventing untimely and unwanted pregnancies reducing women’s exposure to health risk of child birth and abortion and giving women who are often the sole care givers more time to care for their children. As countries has modernized and become more urban and as women have achieved higher levels of education and have begun to marry late. Couples want fewer children. The growing availability of modern family planning method through the use of contraceptive such as pills, injections, intrauterine devices and sterilization etc, has made it possible for women and couples to space the births of their children and it as made it possible to have fewer children and this has help and will continue to help to reduce the over-population rate of Nigeria.
Statement of Problem
Over a long period of time the issue of family planning as been neglected because so many believe that children are blessing from God and children are to be given birth by chance and not by choice which is the opposite of family planning and this as an effect on the Nigeria population.
Hence this research work is carried out in order to know if the people are still in the shadow of ignorance over the facts of family planning through the data collected and also to enlighten the populace of the importance, harmlessness of proper family planning to the society and to oneself.
Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study was to find out the significance of family planning in the control of increasing population in Nigeria.
Specifically, the study was set out:
- To determine the level of awareness the people have on family planning programmes.
- To ascertain the level of acceptance the people derive on family planning.
- To find out the most effective family planning methods embraced by the people of Oredo.
- To ascertain the influence of family planning on parents reproductive behaviour.
In pursuance of purpose of the study, the researcher sought answer to the following research questions.
- What is the level awareness on Family Planning among the people in the community?
- What is the level of acceptance of the people towards family planning?
- Which of these family planning methods do people actually embrace mostly?
- What influence does family planning have on the reproductive behaviour of parents in the community?
Hypotheses of the Study
This study sought to test the following hypotheses:
HO1: There was no significant difference in the mean scores of the level of awareness on family planning methods, between the families in semi-urban and those in the rural areas.
HO2: There was no significant difference in the mean scores of the level of acceptance of new modern method of family planning between families on rural areas and those in semi-urban areas.
Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will be immensely important to all those connected with family planning control most especially the health works. Information gathered from this project will help educate the illiterate couples and also the literate couples, it will also give the general public on the importance of family planning in the society.
The researcher who will want to carry out further research into this project topic. The information available from this project will add to the pool of data or ideas to be used in planning and developing the general public.
Scope of the Study
The focus and coverage of the research work is on Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. It examines the significance of family planning as an agent of population reduction in Nigeria. The research selected the following communities for the study;Ugbowo, Ekiadolor, Oluku, Iguosa and Idowina. All in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State.
Definition of Terms
It can be define as a situation whereby couples decides to have their children by choice and not by chance.
In this context agent means a force that causes a change.
A device or drug serving to prevent pregnancy.
Is the total number of people who live in a particular area, city or country.
The power to make decision about how country an area, an organization is run.
To make greater in amount or value.
Conclusion and Recommendations
The purpose of this study was to investigate the significance of family planning in the control of increasing population in Nigeria, particularly in Oredo local government of Edo state.
In pursuance of the aforementioned objectives, four research questions are posed, two hypotheses postulated. The instrument used was the researcher made questionnaire title “influence of family planning on families”. Review of related literature was done under four major headings and nine subheadings which provided the researcher with information on what has been done in the area as well as a sound conceptual framework of the study. Subjects for the study constituted 240 parents from the 12 communities that make up Oredo local government area of Edo state. The research questions were analysed using mean score while the hypotheses were tested using t-test statistics.
The result revealed
- Families in Oredounanimously agreed that they are aware of the existence of family planning methods in their communities.
- They also unanimously agreed that there is a high level of acceptance of family planning method.
- The finding from the analysis of data obtained from responses to research question 3, item 11, and 14 revealed that most people do not embrace the use of condom and implantation. While items 12, 13, 15 and 16 indicates that injectable based on doctor’s advice is preferred, pills prevent pregnancy, traditional family planning method is cheaper and safer than the new modern methods and that use of contraceptives have o side effect on reproductive system.
- Parents unanimously agreed to items 18, 19 and 20 that family planning have positive impact on reproductive behaviour while only item 17 disagreed with the fact that constant practice of family planning does not have any adverse effect on reproductive system.
- There was no significant different in the mean rating on the level of awareness on family planning method between families in rural and semi-urban areas with regard to impact of families planning on families. In other words, no two groups were significantly different at 0.05 level.
- There was no significant different in the mean rating of level of acceptance of family planning method between families in rural and semi-urban areas with regard to the impact of family planning on families. The implications of the research findings, recommendations, suggestions for further research and limitation of the study were also highlighted.
The following recommendations have been in light of the findings, the discussion that followed and the various implications that have been highlighted.
- Seminars and workshop concerning reproductive issue should be regularly conducted for parents. This will enable them effectively put into practice various family planning that are within their reach.
- The community approach should be used in integrating family planning education in various communities. The aim is not only to motivate the
people as well as to generate social support for family planning. To do this effectively in our rural environment there is need to know something about the community such as its structure, its channels of communication, its attitude to government agencies as well as its attitudes to health and family planning.
- Family planning education can form part of health education. This could be given to pregnant mothers attending the antenatal clinics. All health officers should actively participate in family planning education in their communities.
- Every person whether married or single should be made aware of the need for family planning. This awareness could be created through massive population and medical education. People should be made aware of the individual benefits that could emanate from family planning and how this may be realized. To this effect mass media should be intensively used.
- Direct family planning services clinics and multipurpose community centers should be opened by the government in rural and semi-urban areas.
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