Selfconcept And Motivation As Correlates Of Student’s Academic Performance In Mathematics In Mkpat Enin Local Government Area

Mathematics Education Project Material

Selfconcept And Motivation As Correlates Of Student’s Academic Performance In Mathematics In Mkpat Enin Local Government Area


Abstract


The broad objective of this study is to examine self-concept and motivation as correlates of student’s academic performance. The study will further investigates the extent at which self-concept and motivation as correlates of student’s academic performance in mathematics. The study will however be delimited to selected secondary schools in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area, Akwaibom State. The research adopted the survey descriptive design and with the aid of convenience sampling method, the researcher conveniently selected one hundred and fifty (150) participant who are student and teachers in selected secondary schools in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area, Akwaibom State. Self- structure questionnaire was issued to the respondent of which one hundred and forty-one (141) were retrieved and validated for the study. The study made use of of descriptive analysis and inferential statistics where data from field survey was analyzed using simple percentage, mean and standard deviation presented in frequencies and tables. Hypothesis test was conducted using Pearson Correlation Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS v.23). From the findings of the study, the result reveals that Mathophobia which accounts for the massive withdrawal of students from the mathematics class may be a symptom of low self concept. Also fear stems from a feeling of inadequacy in the face of a challenge which in this case is mathematics. Findings of the study also reveals that lack of motivation both intrinsic and extrinsic is one of the most critical factors affecting learning of mathematics in secondary schools this is because, Students who are motivated to learn about a topic are keen to engage in activities they believe will help them learn, such as attending carefully to the instruction, taking notes to facilitate subsequent studying, checking their level of understanding and asking for help when they do not understand the material. In contrast, students who are unmotivated to learn are not enthusiastic in their learning efforts. They may be inattentive during the lesson and not organise or revise the learning material. Note-taking may be done haphazardly or not at all. They may not monitor their level of understanding or ask for help when they do not understand what is being taught which in turn lead to poor performance in mathematics. The study therefore recommends that Students should be exposed to self-esteem and positive self-concept enhancement programmes. Student participation in such programmes may lead to an improvement in learning outcomes. Mathematics teachers should focus on motivational strategies that will involve students in academic activities for improving their overall performance.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

In modern Nigeria, a larger focus is being placed on industrial and technological growth. As a result, students are encouraged to pursue science-related topics. Mathematics is a topic that cuts across all sciences. Mathematical approaches now saturate virtually every sphere of human endeavour and serve a critical role in a country’s economic success. In order to compete for scientific and technological development, we must excel in mathematics at all levels of education. Unfortunately, student’ performance in mathematics at the conclusion of secondary school has not improved in the last decade (Umoinyang, 2019). Several reasons have been advanced for kids’ low performance in mathematics. Students’ interest in mathematics has been linked to the volume of work completed, students’ task orientation and skill acquisition, students’ personality and selfconcept, feelings of inadequacy, motivation and self-confidence, anxiety, a shortage of qualified mathematics teachers, inadequate facilities, equipment, and instructional materials for effective teaching, the use of traditional chalk and talk methods, a large student to teacher ratio, mathematics fright/phobia, and so on. However, in order to improve students’ cognitive and emotional outcomes in mathematics and/or school learning, educational psychologists and mathematics educators have continued to look for factors (personal and environmental) that may be changed in favour of academic achievements. Self concept and motivation appear to be gaining popularity and leading other variables among all the personal and psychological variables that have interested researchers in this field of educational accomplishment (Tella, 2015).

The importance of self concept in any learning programme, including mathematics, cannot be overstated. This is due to the fact that the most significant single factor of a person’s educational success or failure is the matter of what he believes about himself. What each individual thinks and feels about himself or herself is a powerful deciding element in overall adjustment and accomplishment in life. Ukpong (2020) described self concept as the complex and dynamic set of beliefs that one believes true about himself or herself. Sidney expanded the definition of self concept in Oko (2017) to include “all ideas about one’s own nature.” This comprises one’s assumptions about his own talents and flaws, as well as his opportunities for growth and personal experience. It involves what people learn about themselves via experience, introspection, and criticism from others. Cokley (2018) defines academic self-concept as “attitudes, sentiments, and perceptions about one’s intellectual or academic abilities.” According to the same source, academic self-concept is how a student evaluates his or her academic abilities in comparison to other pupils. Students place a high value on academic performance, therefore self-acceptance is mostly dependent on cognitive talents (Cokley 2018). The reasons of mathemaphobia are both internal (hereditary) and external (environment). Age affects self-concept. Age refers to how long someone has been alive on Earth. Secondary level Mathematics necessitates a specific age owing to its abstract components. Piaget, the proponent of cognitive development theory, refers to the ability to reason in abstract terms as formal operations. People who have attained the formal operations level of cognitive development can deal with abstractions, generate hypotheses, and participate in the mental manipulation necessary in Mathematics.

On the other hand, one of the most essential aspects impacting learning, particularly in educationally disadvantaged institutions of higher learning, is a lack of motivation. Awan et al. (2011) describe motivation as an internal condition that motivates, directs, and maintains behaviour, and they feel that there is a significant link between learning and motivation. Students who are motivated to learn about a topic are eager to participate in activities that they believe will help them learn, such as paying close attention to the instruction, taking notes to aid subsequent study, checking their level of understanding, and asking for assistance when they do not understand the material (Pintrich and Schunk 2002). According to Brown et al. (1998), the issue in higher education has always been to excite, generate, and strengthen the motivation of those students whose passion for studying is questionable. Students’ motivation in school and its impact on academic achievement are seen as critical aspects of effective learning. However, a learner’s attitude to education decides how far he or she will go in education. The importance of motivation in a child’s arithmetic education cannot be overstated. That is why Hall (1989) argues that there is a need to encourage students in order to awaken and keep their interest in learning mathematics.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The poor performance in mathematics in Secondary Schools Certificate Examination (SSCE) and the General Certificate of Education (GCE)examinations by students, has become a source of worry to stakeholders in the education sector, especially in view of the nation’s goal to be one of the world’s top 20 economies by 2020. Recent study conducted by Uka (2020) as referenced by report released by the two examination bodies show that poor performance of students in WAEC and NECO exams in recent times, has resulted in an average failure rate in mathematics of 72 per cent, 74 per cent, 74 per cent and 75 per cent in 2008,2009, 2010 and 2011 respectively.

Although many factors may have contributed in no small measure to poor performance of students, the phenomenon may not be totally separated from inadequacies in the personality of learners. This is because according to Ukpong (2020) a person who doubts himself is like a man who enlists in ranks of his enemies and bear arms against himself. He makes his failure certain by being the first person to be convinced of it. Uko (2018) also observed that Mathophobia which accounts for the massive withdrawal of students from the mathematics class may be a symptom of low self concept. Fear stems from a feeling of inadequacy in the face of a challenge which in this case is mathematics. Conversely, students who are unmotivated to learn are not enthusiastic in their learning efforts. They may be inattentive during the lesson and not organize or revise the learning material. Note-taking may be done haphazardly or not at all. They may not monitor their level of understanding or ask for help when they do not understand what is being taught.

Several literature abound on motivation and self-concept, but in recent times, little or no attention has been given to this area regarding its implication on the study of mathematics. Hence the need to investigateself-concept and motivation as correlates of student’s academic performance in mathematics in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to examine self-concept and motivation as correlates of student’s academic performance in mathematics in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area. Other specific objectives includes:

  1. To examine whether self-concept relatively influences student academic achievement in mathematics
  2. To establish whether motivation relatively influences student academic achievement in mathematics
  3. To ascertain the extent at which self-concept and motivation as correlates of student’s academic performance in mathematics in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. Does self-concept relatively influences student academic achievement in mathematics?
  2. Does motivation relatively influences student academic achievement in mathematics?
  3. What is the extent at which self-concept and motivation as correlates of student’s academic performance in mathematics in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

Ho1: Self-concept is not a correlate of student’s academic performance in mathematics.

Ho2: Motivation is not a correlate of student’s academic performance in mathematics.


1.6 Significance of the Study

The study on the relationship between self concept , motivation and performance in mathematics is of immense value to students, teachers , counselors, and the society at large. Students will be guided by the result of the research to follow recommendable remedial procedures in the effort to improve their academic performance in mathematics. The findings will also enlighten the students as to the root cause of the mathophobia which is very rampant in our educational system today. Teachers will be guided by the findings to modify the psychological environment of their classroom for positive impact on the personality of students. The findings will facilitate the development of individualized educational programs(IEP) to help students who are very deficient in mathematics.

The result will provide information to help parents nurture their children in ways that promote high self esteem in view of the impact it is going to have on their children in the future . The findings will also challenge the government to live up to their promise of providing suitable environment for learning at the primary and secondary school levels in order to produce better adjusted students.

Empirically, this research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on self-concept and motivation as correlates of student’s academic performance. The study will further investigate the extent at which self-concept and motivation as correlates of student’s academic performance in mathematics. The study will however be delimited to selected secondary schools in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area, Akwaibom State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scantiness of literature related to self-concept and motivation as correlates of student’s academic performance.. Thus much time and organization was spent by the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials related to the study. More so, the study is limited in scope focusing on secondary schools in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area, Akwaibom State. Therefore findings of this study cannot be used for generalization for other secondary schools within and outside the area of study which creates a research gap and give room for further studies on this topic. Howbeit, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Self-concept:

Self-concept is often defined as the image one have about their bodies, capabilities, impressions and characteristics. It is is a collection of beliefs about oneself.

Student Motivation:

It is a positive reinforcement that stimulate students to show interest in learning mathematics. It driving force that makes a student to act or behave in a particular way as measured by inventory of school motivation developed by Mclerney et al, (1997).

Academic Achievement:

Refers to an accomplishment in academics done successfully with effort, skill or courage as measured by Utrecht work engagement scale developed by Schaufeli, (2003).


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

The broad objective of this study is to examine self-concept and motivation as correlates of student’s academic performance. The study will further investigate the extent at which self-concept and motivation as correlates of student’s academic performance in mathematics. The study will however be delimited to selected secondary schools in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area, Akwaibom State.

This research is reported in five distinct yet interrelated chapters. In the chapter one we describes the study objectives clearly by stating the motive behind this study. Research hypotheses were developed for testing while the scope of this research was defined as well.

The research adopted the survey descriptive design and with the aid of convenience sampling method, the researcher conveniently selected one hundred and fifty (150) participant who are student and teachers in selected secondary schools in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area, Akwaibom State. Self- structure questionnaire was issued to the respondent of which one hundred and forty-one (141) were retrieved and validated for the study. The study made use of of descriptive analysis and inferential statistics where data from field survey was analyzed using simple percentage, mean and standard deviation presented in frequencies and tables. Hypothesis test was conducted using Pearson Correlation Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS v.23).


5.2 Conclusion

Mathematics finds its application in several fields and forms the basis for most scientific subjects. Performance in mathematics therefore is of great interest across all levels of education. Good performance in mathematics is valuable both for students and for a country’s economic wellbeing. In most secondary schools today student finds it difficult to learn mathematics, some manifests as mathematics learners’ disability condition, resentment or feeling of frustration or helplessness which are always expressed on the faces of the learners in mathematics class. This is so because most important single cause of a person’s success or failure in a subject has to do with the question of what he believes about himself .

From the findings of the study, the result reveals that Mathophobia which accounts for the massive withdrawal of students from the mathematics class may be a symptom of low self concept. Also fear stems from a feeling of inadequacy in the face of a challenge which in this case is mathematics.

Finding of the study also reveals that lack of motivation both intrinsic and extrinsic is one of the most critical factors affecting learning of mathematics in secondary schools this is because, Students who are motivated to learn about a topic are keen to engage in activities they believe will help them learn, such as attending carefully to the instruction, taking notes to facilitate subsequent studying, checking their level of understanding and asking for help when they do not understand the material. In contrast, students who are unmotivated to learn are not enthusiastic in their learning efforts. They may be inattentive during the lesson and not organise or revise the learning material. Note-taking may be done haphazardly or not at all. They may not monitor their level of understanding or ask for help when they do not understand what is being taught which in turn lead to poor performance in mathematics


5.4 Recommendation

Haven successfully completed the study, the following recommendations were put forward by the researcher:

  1. Mathematics teachers should focus on motivational strategies that will involve students in academic activities for improving their overall performance.
  2. Students should be provided with sufficient emotional and academic support.
  3. Students should be exposed to self-esteem and positive self-concept enhancement programmes. Student participation in such programmes may lead to an improvement in learning outcomes.
  4. Mathematics teachers should endeavor to relate mathematics concepts to real life situations.
  5. Government should employ more mathematics teachers and supply adequate instructional materials and equip mathematics laboratory for effective teaching and learning of mathematics in Nigerian secondary schools.
  6. Mathematics curriculum planners should ensure that, there is proper integration of the curriculum in all secondary schools in Nigeria
  7. Mathematics Advisory teachers with support from the Ministry of Education should prepare teachers for any change in the curriculum through in-service and workshop trainings for the effective teaching of Mathematics

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