The Security Implication Of Election Rigging In 3rd World Countries: A Case Study Of Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Political Science

The Security Implication Of Election Rigging In 3rd World Countries: A Case Study Of Nigeria


Abstract


The study seeks to investigate the Security Implication of Election Rigging in 3rd World Countries: A case study of Nigeria – php. The study employs the use of survey research design. The population of this study consisted of twenty-one (21) staff of Inec Abuja. Data were collected through questionnaire carefully designed and administered to the respondents, as well as through personal interviews. The accuracy of the instrument used in the study was determined through the corrected questionnaire. The research result shows that the low level of security implication of election rigging in Nigeria was strongly disagreed. The situation of electoral turbulence has resulted in the loss of voters confidence in the democratic process in Nigeria. This implies that the security implausibility in Nigeria is very high.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

The rigging of Election involves the interference of the process of election illegally through the increase of the vote proportion of the favoured candidate, reducing the vote proportion of rival candidates or both. The nature of election rigging varies from country to country .While some kinds of election rigging are outlawed in electoral legislation; there are others which a total violation of general laws, including the ban on assault, libel or harassment. However election rigging covers all illegal acts and legal acts which are considered morally unacceptable in election or which are in violation of the principles of democracy. Myagkov, Mikhail G.; Peter C. Ordeshook; Dimitri Shakin (2009).An election which involves the presentation only one candidate, are sometimes regarded as illegal although they may comply with the law and are presented more as referendums. In national elections, a successful election rigging can result in the breakdown of law and order in the society and consequently an overthrow of government. Sometimes a little amount of fraud may be enough to change the result in a narrow election. Election rigging if not checked can reduce voters confidence in the democracy. Each country therefore enshrines in the legal process what are regarded as election rigging and are considered sabotage of the highest degree Alvarez, Michael; Hall, Thad; Hyde, Susan (2008). The research seek to investigate the Security Implication of Election Rigging in 3rd World Countries: A case study of Nigeria –


1.2 Statement of the Problem

While some kinds of election rigging are outlawed in electoral legislation, there are others which a total violation of general laws, including the ban on assault, libel or harassment. However election rigging covers all illegal acts and legal acts which are considered morally unacceptable in election or which are in violation of the principles of democracy. Myagkov, Mikhail G.; Peter C. Ordeshook; Dimitri Shakin (2009).There are great consequences in election rigging if discovered .It could result in physical retaliation, violence or threat of violence. Incidences reveals that voters have been attacked for voting to an opponents in an election while reprisal violence have been meted out to communities regarded to have voted wrongly in an election. In other instances people are denied their basic rights and social amenities for voting for an opponent’s. The problem confronting the research is to determine The Security Implication of Election Rigging in 3rd World Countries: A case study of Nigeria –


1.3 Objectives of the Study

  1. To appraise the general nature of election in 3rd world countries.
  2. To determine the nature of election rigging in 3rd world countries
  3. To appraise the Security Implication of Election Rigging in 3rd World Countries: A case study of Nigeria –

Election rigging covers all illegal acts and legal acts which are considered morally unacceptable in election or which are in violation of the principles of democracy. Myagkov, Mikhail G.; Peter C. Ordeshook; Dimitri Shakin (2009).There are great consequences in election rigging if discovered .It could result in physical retaliation, violence or threat of violence. Incidences reveals that voters have been attacked for voting to an opponents in an election while reprisal violence have been meted out to communities regarded to have voted wrongly in an election. In other instances people are denied their basic rights and social amenities for voting for an opponent’s.


1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is Election Rigging?
  2. What is the security implication of Election rigging in 3rd world countries?
  3. What is the Security Implication of Election Rigging in 3rd Nigeria?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The study shall proffer an appraisal of the Security Implication of Election Rigging in 3rd World Countries: A case study of Nigeria –

The rigging of Election involves the interference of the process of election illegally through the increase of the vote proportion of the favoured candidate, reducing the vote proportion of rival candidates or both. The nature of election rigging varies from country to country .While some kinds of election rigging are outlawed in electoral legislation; there are others which a total violation of general laws, including the ban on assault, libel or harassment. However election rigging covers all illegal acts and legal acts which are considered morally unacceptable in election or which are in violation of the principles of democracy. Myagkov, Mikhail G.; Peter C. Ordeshook; Dimitri Shakin (2009).


1.6 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho The Security Implication of Election Rigging in Nigeria is low
  • Hi The security implication of Election Rigging in Nigeria is high

1.7 Scope of the Study

The study shall focuses on the appraisal of The Security Implication of Election Rigging in 3rd World Countries: A case study of Nigeria –


1.8 Limitations of the Study

The study was confronted by some constraints including logistics and geographical factor.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Election Rigging Defined

The rigging of Election involves the interference of the process of election illegally through the increase of the vote proportion of the favoured candidate, reducing the vote proportion of rival candidates or both. The nature of election rigging varies from country to country .While some kinds of election rigging are outlawed in electoral legislation; there are others which a total violation of general laws, including the ban on assault, libel or harassment. However election rigging covers all illegal acts and legal acts which are considered morally unacceptable in election or which are in violation of the principles of democracy. Myagkov, Mikhail G.; Peter C. Ordeshook; Dimitri Shakin (2009).

Security Defined

The act of providing protection to people and property.

Legal

A process or document which is recognized by the laws or constitution of a place.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

The research result shows that the low level of Security Implication of Election Rigging in Nigeria was strongly disagreed. This implies that the security implication of election rigging in Nigeria is very high. This is evidenced in the many cases of political instability in Nigeria, arising from election rigging, rising cases of public disorder, violence and death casualties during elections. The situation of election turbulence has resulted in the loss of voters’ confidence in the democratic process in Nigeria. Consequently the level of acceptance of election results is low.


5.2 Conclusion

The security implication of election rigging has brought devastating consequences on the electoral process, voters’ confidence, level of acceptability of election results and the political climate in the country. Consequently it is important that adequate measures be adopted to address the rising trend of election rigging in Nigeria.


5.3 Recommendation

The research therefore proffer the following recommendations

  1. That the governments through the senate formulate and implement laws that will eradicate election rigging in the electoral process
  2. That Law enforcement agent be more proactive and tactical in their approach to tackling election rigging in the country
  3. That adequate sensitization be given to the electorate on the benefit of a fair and free election in the country
  4. That the government should provide adequate security measures to protect the electorate in the electoral process.
  5. That strict sanctions and ban be imposed by the law of the country on erring politicians seeking elective offices.

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Discussion of Findings


The research result shows that the low level of Security Implication of Election Rigging in Nigeria was strongly disagreed. This implies that the security implication of election rigging in Nigeria is very high. This is evidenced in the many cases of political instability in Nigeria, arising from election rigging, rising cases of public disorder, violence and death casualties during elections. The situation of election turbulence has resulted in the loss of voters confidence in the democratic process in Nigeria. Consequently the level of acceptance of election results is low.The rigging of election involves the interference of the process of election illegally through the increase of the vote proportion of the favoured candidate, reducing the vote proportion of rival candidates or both. The nature of election rigging varies from country to country .While some kinds of election rigging are outlawed in electoral legislation; there are others which a total violation of general laws, including the ban on assault, libel or harassment. However election rigging covers all illegal acts and legal acts which are considered morally unacceptable in election or which are in violation of the principles of democracy. Myagkov, Mikhail G.; Peter C. Ordeshook; Dimitri Shakin (2009).An election which involves the presentation only one candidate, are sometimes regarded as illegal although they may comply with the law and are presented more as referendums. In national elections, a successful election rigging can result in the breakdown of law and order in the society and consequently an overthrow of government. Sometimes a little amount of fraud may be enough to change the result in a narrow election. Election rigging if not checked can reduce voters confidence in the democracy. Each country therefore enshrines in the legal process what are regarded as election rigging and are considered sabotage of the highest degree

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