Security Challenges And Its Implication For Business Activities In Kaduna State

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Security Challenges And Its Implication For Business Activities In Kaduna State


Abstract


Insecurity and terrorism has been a major dare to the Nigerian government in recent times. The actions and activities of the Islamic sect known as Boko Haram had led to enormous loss of lives and properties in the country, particularly in the Northern part of Nigeria. Some of these activities include intimidation, bombings, suicide attacks, sporadic gunfire of unarmed, blameless and innocent Nigerian citizens, burning of police stations and churches, kidnapping, raping of school girls and women. Nigeria has also been included amongst one of the terrorist countries of the world. This has serious implications for national development. Though government had made worried hard work to deal with these challenges masqueraded by terrorism and insecurity in the country but the rate of insurgency and insecurity is still disturbing. This study therefore, investigated the effects of insecurity on business activities in kaduna state. Data used for this study was sourced from questionnaire, using simple percentage and tables. The result showed that the insecurity disaster poses a significant threat to Nigeria’s economy and that the military is the best option and solution in tackling the insecurity menace in Nigeria. The study recommended the following; government should declare war on terrorism and seek support from international communities who have in the time past faced this kind on challenged and were capable to tackle it. Nigerian Military ought to be empowered further with arms to wrestle this insurgency. The government is advised to beef up security in the country to curb the threat of insecurity.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Interpretation of Result

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Nigeria in recent times has witnessed an unprecedented level of insecurity. This has made national security threat to be a major issue for the government and has prompted huge allocation of the national budget to security. In order to ameliorate the incidence of crime, the federal government has embarked on criminalization of terrorism by passing the Anti-Terrorism Act in 2011, installation of Computer-based Closed Circuit Television cameras (CCTV) in some parts of the country, enhancement of surveillance as well as investigation of criminal related offences, heightening of physical security measures around the country aimed at deterring or disrupting potential attacks, strengthening of security agencies through the provision of security facilities and the development and broadcast of security tips in mass media (Azazi, 2011). Despite these efforts, the level of insecurity in the country is still high. In addition, Nigeria has consistently ranked low in the Global Peace Index (GPI, 2012), signifying a worsened state of insecurity in the country. Hence, Adagba, et al (2012), Uhunmwuangho and Aluforo (2011) are of the view that the efforts of government have not yielded enough positive result. With the lingering security challenges and the inability of the security apparatus of the government to guarantee safety and security in the country, the question that borders everyone in Nigeria today is that “can there be security?” Is security of lives and properties achievable? Apparently, the security situation in Nigeria appears or at least have remained insurmountable and many people have argued that government at all levels has not done enough by not confronting the situation head on and dealing with it decisively, others have argued that the situation has a political undertone or inclination calculated to serve the interest of certain political gods, who have been dissatisfied and disgruntled about the political manifestations in the country.

Some scholars in conceptualizing security placed emphasis on the absence of threats to peace, stability, national cohesion, political and socio-economic objectives of a country (Igbuzor, 2011; Oche, 2001; Nwanegbo and Odigbo, 2013). Thus, there is a general consensus in the contemporary literature that security is vital for national cohesion, peace and sustainable development. It is therefore apparent that national security is a desideratum, sine qua non for economic growth and development of any country (Oladeji and Folorunso, 2007).

In reviewing the concept of Nigeria’s economy, we will be able to establish a relationship between Terrorism and Nigeria’s economy. Economy is regarded as the wealth and resources of a country or region especially in terms of population and consumption of goods and services (Anyenwa and Oaikhenar, 2000). It is an entire network of producers, distributors, and consumers of goods and services in a local, regional or national community e.g. Nigeria’s economy. Meanwhile the Nigerian economy especially in the Northern part of the country has been under serious attack due to the activities of the insurgents. Farmers who predominantly engage in subsistence farming in the Northern part of the country (Borno, Yobe, and Bauchi) no longer feel safe to go about their farming activities and by implication this has led to the increased rate of food starvation in that part of the country.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The emergence of Boko Haram insurgency has introduced a terrorist dimension, hitherto unknown, into the criminal space in Nigeria. Series of bombings have been carried out by the sect, as well as taking hostage of innocent citizens. Even the United Nations Building in Abuja was not spared in the bombing spree. In rich as well as poor countries, terrorism exerts a heavy toll on national economies. It is inevitable that the economic impact of terrorism would be more felt in unsophisticated mono-cultural low-income economies than they would be felt in highly advanced, diversified industrial economies. Therefore, the continued rise in terrorism activities in the country, if not checked, may result in greater investor apathy for the country and resulting in low inflow of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), and would make institutional investors look for other stable economies to invest their money. On the state of the country, when people feel insecure, their appetite to invest, to buy or rent from the product of investment reduces; and that is why all over the world, any country that radiates an environment of insecurity naturally repels investment initiatives from both the international community and its own local investors. Hence, terrorism is a threat to the economic, political and social security of a nation and a major factor associated with underdevelopment; because it discourages both local and foreign investments, reduces the quality of life, destroys human and social capital, damages relationship between citizens and the states, thus undermining democracy, rule of law and the ability of the country to promote development (Adebayo, 2013). It was on this note that this study seeks to examine the impact of Boko Haram insurgency on the economy of the affected states in Nigeria.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The general objective of this study is to examine Security Challenges And Its Implication For Business Activities In Kaduna State.

While the specific objective is outlined as follows:

  1. To assess the correlation between insecurity and economy
  2. To assess ways the security crisis poses a threat to Business Activities In Kaduna State
  3. To assess the implications of security crisis on Business Activities In Kaduna State

1.4 Research Question

In this light, the study will be guided by the following research question.

  1. What is the correlation between insecurity and economy?
  2. In what ways do insecurity constitutes challenges to the Business Activities In Kaduna State?
  3. What are the impacts of Boko Haram insurgency on Business Activities In Kaduna State?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The significance of this study is that it will act as a guide to the government in their quest to improve the economy in the affected region and enhances knowledge on the impact and types of threat it constituted judging from the fact that terrorism is currently a prevailing cankerworm and it is very spontaneous and typical. This study will help proffer solutions and theoretically will be useful to writers, scholars, journalists etc, in order to add to their existing knowledge what they already know about terrorism and Nigeria’s economy, particularly with regards to the Boko Haram terrorist activities.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study on terrorism and Nigeria’s economy, an assessment of the insecurity and insurgency will cover the activities of the Boko Haram sect in Kaduna states.


1.7 Limitations of the Study

Financial constraint:

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, newspapers, magazines, journals etc.). More so, there is scarcity of relevant materials on the issue due to its evolving and spontaneous nature.

Time constraint:

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work. However despite these constraint, the researcher was able to overcome these challenges and made sure that the work was completed successfully.


1.8 Definition of Terms

This entails stating the meaning of various concepts used earlier, so as to give a better understanding of the meaning and also give a vivid picture of these concepts in the minds of the readers. According to Janct (2004:107), definition of terms used in a research is operation. Works are defined as they are used by the researcher. This means that researcher uses certain words in the way they fit to the study, which may be different from the ordinary dictionary meaning. For an operational understanding of the term used within this study, the definitions are as follows:

Terrorism:

This is an illegitimate means of attempting to effect political change by the indiscriminate use of violence. Also it is the use of violence to achieve political objectives.

Boko Haram:

The term Boko Haram is a derivation of Hausa world ―Boko meaning ―Animist western or otherwise non-Islamic education, while Haram is a word with Arabic origin that figuratively means ―sin but literally, forbidden‘. In order words, Boko Harm means ―western education is forbidden or is a sin (Wkipedia, Boko Haram, 29/10/2016:1) Boko Haram is very controversial Nigeria militant Islamic group that seeks for the imposition of sharia law in the entire northern states of Nigeria. The name officially of the group is jama‘atu Alis-sunna Lidda‘awth wal jihad, which in Arabic translated to people committed to the propagation of the teaching of prophet and jihad literally therefore, the group means ―Association of sunnis for the propagation of Islam and for Holy war.
Insurgence: This is defined as a political battle waged among a cooperative or acquiescence populace in order for a group of outsiders to take over (or at least undermine) the government of a nation.

Menace:

Menace means a possible danger, a threat, or an act of threatening. It also means something that threatens to cause evil, harm, injury etc. This also means the show of an intention to inflict evil, an indication of a probable evil or catastrophe to come.

Economy:

This refers to the wealth and resources of a country, especially in terms of production and consumption of goods and service. It is also the state of a country or region in terms of the production and consumption of goods and services and the supply of money.

Security:

Security can be defined to mean ― the total sum of action and measures, including legislative and operational procedures, adopted to ensure peace, stability and the general wellbeing of a nation and its citizens (Shinikaiye, 2004:2).

Sect:

Sect can be seen as a body of persons distinguished by pecularities of faith and practice form other bodies adhering to the same general system. Specially, the adherents collectively of a particular creed or confession, a domination or older form of faith or believe (Britanic world language dictionary).

Peace:

Peace is generally defined as the absence of war, conflict, anxiety, suffering and violence and absolute peaceful co-existence. However, peace connotes more than a mere absence of war hostilities because an absence of conflict is inevitable. Therefore, peace could be defined as a political condition that ensure justice and social stability through formal or informal institutions, practices and norms (Howard, 1987).

Domestic Terrorism:

Domestic Terrorism is the commission of terrorist attacks in a state by forces inside or originating from the state, as opposed to terrorist attacks by forces external to the state. In other words, domestic terrorism is a terrorist act practice in one‘s own country against her own people (online dictionary).

Violence:

Violence is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the international use of physical force of power, threatened or actual against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injuries, death psychological harm, mal development or deprivation. (Wikipedia, WHO).


1.9 Organization of the Study

The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.

The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter centres around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on Terrorism And Nigeria’s Economy, An Assessment Of The insecurity, Borno State as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on Terrorism And Nigeria’s Economy, An Assessment Of The insecurity, Borno State as case study. This chapter summarizes the whole research process and concludes with recommendations. A brief summary of the whole study is given. It also provides a summary of the main findings of the study, conclusions of the study, recommendations and suggestions for further research pertinent to the political economy of insecurity in Nigeria, Borno state as a case study. The study highlights the effects of insecurity on socioeconomic activities in Borno State, Nigeria. The result showed that Ideology and funding are the significant basic factors that propelled the Boko Haram sect in Nigeria. The Boko Haram disaster poses a significant threat to Nigeria’s economy and that the military is the best option and solution in tackling the Boko Haram menace in Nigeria.


5.3 Conclusions

With respect to the analysis and the findings of this study, the following conclusions emerged;

The result showed that Ideology and funding are the significant basic factors that propelled the Boko Haram sect in Nigeria. The Boko Haram disaster poses a significant threat to Nigeria’s economy and that the military is the best option and solution in tackling the Boko Haram menace in Nigeria


5.4 Recommendation

The researchers on the this study recommended the following;

  1. That the Government should declare war on terrorism and seek support from international communities who have in the time past faced this kind on challenged and were capable to tackle it.
  2. That the Nigerian Military ought to be empowered further with arms to wrestle this insurgency.
  3. That the Government should beef up security in the country to curb the threat of insecurity.
  4. That the sensitization of the people of the North Eastern part of the Country against the ideology of Boko Haram and the dangers of insurgency and terrorist activities be increased.
  5. That the Government should unmask those behind the funding of Boko Haram activities.

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