Sea Ranching And Restocking Sandfish In Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Fishery and Aquaculture

Sea Ranching And Restocking Sandfish In Nigeria


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background To The Study

Holothuria scabra, or the sandfish, is a species of sea cucumber in the family Holothuriidae. It was placed in the subgenus Metriatyla by Rowe in 1969 and is the type species of the subgenus. Sandfish are harvested and processed and eaten in several coastal communities all over the world. Sea cucumbers are marine invertebrates and are closely related to sea urchins and starfish. All these groups tend to have radial symmetry and have a water vascular system that operates by hydrostatic pressure, enabling them to move around by use of many suckers known as tube feet. Sea cucumbers are usually leathery, gherkin-shaped animals with a cluster of feeding tentacles at one end surrounding the mouth. The sandfish is greyish-black on the upper side with dark-coloured wrinkles but paler on the underside. It grows up to four centimetres long, is broader than it is high and has a pliable skin. It is covered by calcareous spicules in the form of tablets and buttons. In many areas the fisheries have declined over the years because of over fishing, so ranching, aquaculture and hatchery rearing are being attempted (FAO, 2005).
Sandfish stocks are being increased in some areas by being bred in tanks at hatcheries. Spawning is induced by temperature shock and the fertilized eggs incubated for a day.

The auricularian larvae that hatch from the eggs are fed on microalgae for nine days after which time they develop into doliolarian larvae. These are fed on diatoms and after five days settle as pentactular larvae onto diatom-coated plates. Juveniles are grown on in tanks and may reach one to two centimetres in three months. They are then moved to larger ponds for a few months before being released into suitable habitats for ranching or restocking (Adams, 2008). Sea ranching is a culture method whereby juvenile animals, generally produced in hatcheries but could also be wild-caught, are introduced into the natural environment and allowed to grow without containment structures. The environment provides the animals with everything they need and no additional feed is required (Adams, 2008). Sea ranching of sandfish where hatchery-produced juveniles are placed on the sea bed and allowed to grow to marketable size, is being trialed in the West African sub-region.

Juvenile sandfish are produced in hatcheries. sea cucumber ranching is only viable if the culture area is closed to commercial trawl fishing while the animals grow and if the animals remain in the specified culture area until harvest. Sandfish are normally harvested by hand either by diving or hand harvesting at low tide in shallow water. Aquaculture, in a variety of forms, is needed to redress the problem of low yields from inshore invertebrate fisheries including the sandfish (Bell, 1999). Aquaculture can be used to increase productivity in a way that the cultured juveniles can be released into the wild to restore stocks to levels at which they provide substantial, sustainable yields. This process is known as “restocking”. This phenomenon occurs when the natural supply of juveniles fails to reach the carrying capacity of the habitat, even when there are great numbers of breeding adults. Other important features of the sea ranching and restocking sandfish in Nigeria are that it causes little damage to the environment, and does not conflict with the subsistence food requirements of villagers (Dalzell, Adams and Polunin, 1996).

The method being developed for the restocking of sandfish involves the propagation of juveniles in hatcheries for release in the wild. Other methods for restocking sandfish have been proposed, including collection, rearing and transplantation of postlarvae; induced fission; and translocation of adults. However, these methods are not suitable for the large-scale restocking of sandfish. Collection of wild juveniles is not practical because they are difficult to find, even though the settlement habitat of postlarvae has now been identified (Mercier, Battaglene and Hamel, 2000; Hamel et al., 2001). In addition, their abundance is likely to be limited as a result of overfishing, and methods for collecting them at settlement would still involve the use of aquaculture facilities for grow-out. Induced fission is not considered to be an option as it only works for a few generally lower-value species of sandfish and is a slow and labour-intensive way to increase numbers. Finally, the translocation of adults would only be effective where their propagules are retained, and at best would benefit some localities at the expense of others. The methods that have been developed for the propagation of juvenile sandfish can be adopted in Nigeria.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

There is now general recognition that the fastest way to restore the productivity of severely depleted sandfish for the benefit of the coastal communities in Nigeria may well be to rebuild the stocks by releasing cultured juveniles, and to combine this intervention with other forms of management that will protect the released animals until they, and their progeny, replenish the population to a level at which it can be managed sustainably through sea ranching and restocking. However, as a means of maximizing the productivity of sandfish in Nigeria where there is recruitment limitation, sea ranching and restocking can be the best approach which is to be examined in this study.


1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The following are the objectives of this study:

  1. To examine the process of sea ranching and restocking of sandfish in Nigeria.
  2. To examine the prospects of sea ranching and restocking of sandfish in Nigeria.
  3. To identify the limitations of sea ranching and restocking of sandfish in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the process of sea ranching and restocking of sandfish in Nigeria?
  2. What are the prospects of sea ranching and restocking of sandfish in Nigeria?
  3. What are the limitations of sea ranching and restocking of sandfish in Nigeria?

1.5 Significance Of The Study

The following are the objectives of this study:

  1. The results from this study will reveal how Nigeria can tap into sea ranching restocking of sandfish being practiced in other advanced countries for the purpose of economic development especially the coastal communities.
  2. This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area

1.6 Scope / Limitations Of The Study

This study will cover the process, prospects and limitations of sea ranching and restocking of sandfish in Nigeria with special focus on the coastal communities.

Limitation Of Study
Financial constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


Sea Ranching And Restocking Sandfish In Nigeria


Project Material Download

3,000 Naira


The complete material will be sent to you in just 2 steps.

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make payment of ₦3,000: through USSD Transfer, Bank Mobile App, ATM Transfer, or POS Transfer to:

Access Bank PlcAccount No.: 0811003731
Name: Samphina Academy
Account Type: Current

Or Click Here to pay with Debit Card

FOR CLIENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA:
Click Here to pay with Debit Card ($15)
GHANA – Make Payment of 60 GHS to MTN MoMo, 0553978005, Douglas Osabutey 

  PAY WITH CRYPTOCURRENCY


Step Two Purchase

Send the following details through Text Message or WhatsApp Messenger | +234-8143831497

  • Payment Details 
  • Email Address 
  • Sea Ranching And Restocking Sandfish In Nigeria

The complete material will be sent to your email address after receiving your payment information | T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


You may also like:

⚠️ Need a different topic? Perform a quick search



Get A Complete Business Plan For Any Business In Nigeria

Business Plan for Businesses in Nigeria

  Business Plans in Nigeria


Disclaimer


This research material “Sea Ranching And Restocking Sandfish In Nigeria” is for research purposes and should be used as a guide in developing your research project / seminar work. For no reason should you copy word for word (verbatim) as samphina.com.ng will not be liable for any who copied the material.

The aim of providing this material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works. According to Austin Kleon “All creative work builds on what came before”.

samphina.com.ng is only providing this material “Sea Ranching And Restocking Sandfish In Nigeria” as a reference for your research. The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own research. Use it as a guidance purpose only.

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.