Science Process Skills Acquired By Biology Students In Senior Secondary School And Their Academic Achievement

Biology Education Project Material

Science Process Skills Acquired By Biology Students In Senior Secondary School And Their Academic Achievement


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the science process skills acquired by biology students in senior secondary school and their academic achievement using some selected secondary schools in Asaba, Delta state as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to ascertain the science process skills acquired by biology students in senior secondary school, determine whether the acquisition of science process skills promotes biology students academic achievement in senior secondary school, and ascertain the factors contributing to the non-acquisition of science process skills by secondary school biology students. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of biology teachers in some selected secondary schools in Asaba, Delta state. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 57 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the science process skills acquired by biology students in senior secondary school includes; observing/measuring skill, formulating models, hypothesizing, designing experiment, and interpretation of data. The study also revealed that the acquisition of science process skills promotes biology students academic achievement in senior secondary school. Therefore, it is recommended that biology should be taught through experimentation and hands on activities so as to train the students in scientific enquiry and process skills of science. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

In schools, science curriculum focuses upon the science process skills as essential tools that support the students to construct knowledge (Ongowo, 2017). For the students to comprehend the science concepts, laws, principles, theory etc., it becomes essential to develop an ability to link the constructed knowledge and developed skills.

Science process skills nurture the critical thinking as by nature they are investigative and cognitive (Ostlund, 2012). The science processes are the integral part of the teaching of science. Science as a discipline evolves because of theses process skills namely collection transformation and interpretation of data, identifying the variables, defining the variables, describing the relationship between the variables, hypotheses formation, designing experimental designs, data analysis, drawing the conclusions, generalization etc.

Science process skills simplify the learning of science, motivate the students, foster a sense of responsibility among them with respect to learning, enhance the permanency of learning etc. (Carey et al, 2009). The science processes if taught over a period of time and mastered by the students lead to the development of scientific attitude among them. Scientific attitude helps the students in becoming methodological and systematic in their approaches.

In teaching and learning situations, academic achievement is generally measured by continuous assessment or examinations. The outcome of education is academic achievement (Mimrot, 2016). In school scenario, the learning on the part of the students is directly related to academic achievement (Nisar et al, 2017) as a quality school environment is linked with academic achievement (Hattie, 2009).

Methodologically, the teachers must exercise the efforts to improve the academic performance of students by systematically conducting activities, sequentially organizing activities so that students are able to sense the meaning of the task performed. The rationale behind the present descriptive study was to explore how do science process skills support the students in becoming an organized personality and hence ensuring a reliable academic performance that is reflected as academic achievement.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Biology is one of the science subjects that deal with the study of life and structure of living things. It is the study of living things and concerns itself with the study of the structure, behaviour, distribution, origin of plants and animals and their relationship with their environments. Biology is one of the science subjects in senior secondary school education that deals with the study of life (Nzewi, 2008).

The study of biology in senior secondary schools using science process skills acquisition which correlates with their academic achievement thereby making students to have good knowledge of concepts and principles that will enable them face the challenges before and after graduation. There is need therefore to investigate the level of science process skills acquired or possessed by secondary school biology students and how it relates to their academic achievement in biology.

The necessity of the investigation is made clear by researchers like (Adeyemi, 2008; Ige, 2000) who found science process skills to be central to the teaching of science in secondary schools. Science process skills have been found to be a skill devised by the teacher to enhance a meaningful learning of science concepts and theories. Science process skills acquisition have also been found to be a primary vehicle for promoting formal reasoning skills and students understanding, thereby enhancing desired learning outcomes in students.

According to Nwagbo (2008), a number of factors have been identified as contributing to the non-acquisition of science process skills by secondary school students which invariably lead to poor performance. Those factors include: teacher method of teaching, poor equipped science, lack of interest by the students and many more. Nwagbo further observed that teacher-centred approach like lecture method, which places the teacher as the sole possessor of knowledge and the students as passive recipients of knowledge may not enhance achievement or promote positive attitude of students towards biology. Ezeani (2004) pointed out that lecture method does not promote much achievement because it appeals mainly to the sense of hearing which encourages rote learning and regurgitation of information without necessarily aiding the learners to construct their own meaning that are consistent with their prior ideas. This method of teaching does not promote much achievement in biology since it does not immerse the students into problem solving situation thereby, leading to low achievement in biology.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The primary objective of the study is to examine science process skills acquired by biology students in senior secondary school and their academic achievement. The specific objectives is as follows:

  1. Ascertain the science process skills acquired by biology students in senior secondary school.
  2. Determine whether the acquisition of science process skills promotes biology students academic achievement in senior secondary school..
  3. Ascertain the factors contributing to the non-acquisition of science process skills by secondary school biology students.

1.4 Research Question

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What are the science process skills acquired by biology students in senior secondary school?
  2. Does the acquisition of science process skills promote biology students academic achievement in senior secondary school?
  3. What are the factors contributing to the non-acquisition of science process skills by secondary school biology students?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: The acquisition of science process skills does not promotes biology students academic achievement in senior secondary school.
  • Ha: The acquisition of science process skills promotes biology students academic achievement in senior secondary school.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study will sensitize science teachers on the effectiveness of science process teaching approach in biology teaching. Teachers will appreciate science process teaching approach in schools and hopefully use it to develop and improve the acquisition of science process skills of the students when teaching Biology.

School administrators will appreciate the science process teaching approach and provide the teachers with necessary materials required.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on science process skills acquired by biology students in senior secondary school and their academic achievement. Geographically, the study will be carried out in Asaba, Delta state.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

The researcher encountered minor obstacles when conducting the study, as with any human endeavor. The significant constraint was the scarcity of literature on the subject due to the nature of the discourse, so the researcher incurred more financial expenses and spent more time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information and in the data collection process, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Furthermore, the researcher did this investigation alongside other academic activities. Furthermore, the sample size was limited because only a few respondents were chosen to answer the research instrument, therefore the results cannot be generalized to other secondary schools outside the state. Despite the constraints encountered during the research, all elements were minimized in order to provide the best results and make the research effective.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Achievement

The realization of scores in achievement tests. In this study it refers to student attainment scores in chemistry achievement test.

Science Process Skills

These are the rational activities that contribute to students achievement in science in this study.

Science Process Skill Mastery Learning Approach (SPROSMALEA)

This is an integration of science process skills and mastery learning. This approach emphasizes mastery of the selected skills.

Biology

This is the scientific study of natural process of living things. It has two branches Botany and Zoology.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter (chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on science process skills acquired by biology students in senior secondary school and their academic achievement using some selected secondary schools in Asaba, Delta state as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine science process skills acquired by biology students in senior secondary school and their academic achievement using some selected secondary schools in Asaba, Delta state as a case study. The study was specifically set to ascertain the science process skills acquired by biology students in senior secondary school, determine whether the acquisition of science process skills promotes biology students academic achievement in senior secondary school, and ascertain the factors contributing to the non-acquisition of science process skills by secondary school biology students.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are biology teachers in some selected secondary schools in Asaba, Delta state.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. The study establishes that academic achievement in biology improves as the level of science process skills acquired appreciates from low to moderate and high levels. The study establishes that the science process skills acquired by biology students in senior secondary school includes; observing/measuring skill, formulating models, hypothesizing, designing experiment, and interpretation of data.
  2. The acquisition of science process skills promotes biology students academic achievement in senior secondary school.
  3. The factors contributing to the non-acquisition of science process skills by secondary school biology students includes; poor class room management, poor method of teaching, poor equipped science, lack of interest by the students, and attitude of students towards biology.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings the researcher recommends;

  1. Science should be taught through experimentation and hands on activities so as to train the students in scientific enquiry and process skills of science.
  2. Students should be encouraged to design low cost innovative apparatus and experiments to have a deeper understanding of scientific laws and principles.
  3. Teaching of science should not be confined within the four walls of classroom and laboratory. Rather they should be motivated to observe their surroundings and the natural phenomenon for developing the scientific aptitude and basic process skills of science.
  4. Policy makers, curriculum developers and textbook writers and other stakeholders involved in science education should modify the school science curriculum and textbooks so as to give more emphasis on the practical aspects of science.

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