School Supervision And Attitude Of Teachers To Work In District IV Of Lagos State
This study examined the effect of supervision on the attitude of teachers to work in district IV of Lagos state. Four Specific purposes of study, four research questions and two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Survey research design was adopted for the study. A structure questionnaire was developed for data collection. The population of the study consist of 263 Head teachers and 3,995 classroom teachers. The entire population of Head teachers was used while 399 teachers were sampled from the total population. The research instrument was face validated by experts in educational administration and planning and other experts from measurement and evaluation. The instrument was distributed and data obtained were analyzed using mean and standard deviation while the two null hypotheses were analyzed using t-test. The major finding of the study shows that Head teachers appraise teachers’ activities through visitation. The finding also revealed that demonstration of reaching methodology is carried out by supervisors to be adopted by teachers as technique of teaching for gaining learners attention. Recommendations were made for further improvement of the study.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
- 4.5 Interpretation of Result
Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Conclusion
- 5.2 Recommendation
- 5.3 Suggestion for Further Studies
1.1 Background of the Study
It is widely agreed that education is an interment of social, economic and political development. No country in the world can witness development without sound education. These facts explain why education is always an important sector that government must not overlook. The sudden explosion of pupils population coupled with attendant increased complexity of school organization and the introduction of the new school basic system of 9-3-4 system of education in the country has indeed necessitate a greater attention of supervision than ever before.
Supervision is a way of stimulating, guiding, improving, refreshing, encouraging and overseeing certain group with the hope of seeking their cooperation in order for supervisors to be successful in their task of supervision. Onasanya (2008) defined supervision as the essential practice of monitoring the performance of school staff noting the merit and demerit and using befitting and amicable techniques to ameliorate the flaws while still improving on the merit thereby increasing the standard of schools and achieving educational goals. If qualitative education is a thing seriously desired in schools, then standard of education can be highly improved, supervision must therefore be accorded high priority. This could be achieved through appraisal of supervisory activities carried out by school supervisors.
Kiefer (2009) viewed appraisal as the process of examining a subject and rating it based on its important and feature determinant of how much or how well functions may have been carried out to ascertain the success or failure of such work through value judgment. Appraisal of school supervision seems to be necessary because it will enable owners of schools to study the structure, academic and administrative setting of the schools system. Supervision itself should not be overlooked because it is concerned with the overall improvement of the teaching/learning process. In particular, at the primary level supervision becomes imperative because of the foundational importance at that level of education. Primary education forms the crux of whatever a child will learn in future. This makes it a concern for all educators to have a qualitative and good supervision of these children at primary school level and for improving teacher’s instruction.
For any work assigned, there must be effective supervision for excellent result. Supervision is an essential part of any organizational set up, Wilhens in Ossai (1998) asserts that supervision of instruction is imperative and crucial for an effective primary school system. The aim of supervision of instruction is the improvement of the total teaching and learning processes. Supervision seeks to ensure quality control, encouraging and helping teachers.
Therefore, supervision of instruction is concerned with ways and means of helping and stimulating teachers to teach effectively and pupils to learn appropriately. It enables the school system to achieve the aims and objectives, for which it has been enacted, Ogunsaju and Fagbamiye (1983).
It is regarded in the school system that only external supervisors are qualified to supervise instructions and regarded as supervisors or inspectors of education; forgetting that the internal supervisors do the bulk of the job, so that when the external ones come, it becomes easier. Internal supervision is conducted by those within an organization. In the school system (secondary and primary) internal supervisors include: The Head teacher (headmaster/headmistress/principal), The Assistant head teacher (vice- principals), Heads of departments (Junior/Senior), Teacher guidance counselor or those delegated by the Head teacher to carry out the supervision practices.
Supervisory role of primary school Head teachers are concerned with critical examination and evaluation of primary school system as a place of learning. Through inspection or supervision, necessary and relevant advice may be given for the improvement of the school. Such advice is usually registered in a report. Supervision practices of school Head also include constant and continuous process of personal guidance based on frequent supervision to a school to give concrete and constructive advice and encouragement to teachers and students to improve the learning and teaching situation in the school. On such visits, attention is paid to one or more aspects of the school and its organization. Example of supervisory role of school Heads include assessment of teaching and learning, assistance in development of needed teaching competencies, examines continuously school instructional goals and assesses teacher’s performance in meeting such goals on regular bases. However, schools Heads require knowledge to effectively carry out supervisory role in school system.
Supervisors are expected to possess relevant knowledge and skills to carry out or perform these roles (Nwaogu, 1980). Ezeocha (1990) upholds that internal supervisor will consequently be “professionally strangled”, if he fails to avail himself with training skills designed to equip him with the equality of an instructional leader. Writing on training programme Eru, in Ossai (1998), maintains that even the best of teachers, if they do not remain abreast with professional advances, they lose their currency and consequently their effectiveness. Wood (1981) has observed that training keeps educators aware of new knowledge and technology in their areas of specialization. A supervisor who must be functional should recall that human resources need be preserved, renewed and cultivated, Desina and Rhodes (1980). In support of the above, Knezevic in Ossai (1998) observed that teachers are not finished products even after completion of preparatory programme which terminates with Bachelors or Masters Degrees. The opinion is supported by Robberts in Ossai (1998) when he asserts that pre-service is inadequate due to the saying that training programme would compensate for the deficiencies in pre-service training if the teachers are to meet any reasonable success in their work. Moreover, in-service training will encourage old teachers in moving ahead, in developing new understanding in trying out ideas and skills Akubue, (1983).
Supervision of school is important. This is because teachers are made more competent and efficient, parents are satisfied with the performances of their children, children are motivated to work harder in order to achieve the required standard, hence in the long run, the goals of education is achieved. Supervision in school therefore is a vital process and combination of activities which is concerned with the teaching and improvement of the teaching in the school framework. Quest for effective supervision becomes more imperative because of the growing complexity in the school system. Thompson in Ossai (1988) opined that supervision becomes necessary because the pace of curricular and methodological changes and the changing place of the school in the society. Another significant factor is the rise in the enrolment trend in primary schools. As a result of this expansion, a lot of strain is brought to beer on the manpower resources of the school system. This view is supported by Ogunsajo (1998), when he asserted that “each year, supervisors are lifted from the classrooms to take up supervisory responsibilities as Heads of schools, without adequate preparations for such positions”. Such inadequate preparations consequently account for the majority of supervisory difficulties which are endemic in school system.
The increase in the number of school has necessitated the appointment of more teachers to the office of Head teachers (Headmaster/mistress). This expanded opportunity for internal supervisors, which has attracted into the profession a new breed of supervisors whose professional competencies are relatively not known. Their effectiveness requires that they be brought to a point of medium professional expertise through in-service training, regular workshop, seminar programmes and adoption of supervisory technique Adiele, (1997). There seems to be various types of supervisory technique that might be adopted by both internal and external supervisor. Ojelabi (1981) identified routine visits, investigation visits and special visit. Of all these technique the aim depends on the reason why supervisor might decide to adopt a particular technique of supervision that may suit the content of the visitation. Supervisor may adopt a punctuality of teachers or how the school is settling down. One of the aims of such technique is to enable the supervisor look into what is happening, the work being done, the human relationship or the appropriate use of the building and the school equipment. Supervisory technique adopted by school supervision could lead to supervisory practice.
Supervisory practice consist of activities carried out by supervisor or team of supervisors for days usually a week or longer, enquiring into every aspect of school programme and examining its buildings and surroundings is referred to as supervisory practices. Such supervisory practices are usually followed by comprehensive report, copies of which are made available to the school ministry. The frequency of the supervisor depends on a number of factors, such as the number of schools in the area, the availability of supervisory staff and the needs of the school.
Supervisory activities of schools could be enhancing for effective academic growth and school administrative structure. According to Onassanya (2008) the quality and quantity of the work must be specified in clean clear terms to the classroom teachers. New and inexperience teachers need to be given the necessary orientation about classroom activities. Teachers could be motivated through the assistance of supervisor in improving instruction.
Implementation of identified ways of improving supervisory practices of school Heads could facilitate the achievement of the educational goals. It however seems that there are factors that militate against successful supervision in Nigeria primary schools. It seems that the government, the teachers, the community, the society, parents, guardians and the students contribute to the problem of effective supervision of schools in Nigeria. It is against this background that this study seeks to determine the effect of school supervision on the attitude of teachers to work in district IV of Lagos state.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
For some years now, it has been observed with keen interest the sharp increase in poor academic performance of student in accounting subject most especially in senior secondary school certificate examination (SSCE), as a result of inadequate supervision. However accounting subject has played and is still playing enterprise like any other human organization requires adequate supervision to ascertain the pre-determined aims and objectives also to increase future businessman the effects of school supervision must be considered. To this extends this research work is structured to investigate the effect of schools supervision on academic performance of secondary school students in Nigeria.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to examine the effect of supervision on the attitude of teachers to work in district IV of Lagos state. Specifically, the study:
- To identify factors that influence good and effectives school supervision in secondary school.
- To access the impact of effective school supervision on the attitude of teachers to work in district IV of Lagos state
- To ascertain the area of strength and weakness of the supervision on the attitude of teachers to work in district IV of Lagos state.
- To find out the quality of teaching-learning materials and necessary skills on the part of the teachers and learners readiness to effect the desire performances.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were raised to guide the study:
- To what extent does regular supervision have relationship with attitude of teachers to work in district IV of Lagos state?
- What is the relationship between class visitations by principals and attitude of teachers to work in district IV of Lagos state?
- To what extent does a Positive or negative remarks by Supervisors have impact on Teacher’s attitude of teachers to work in district IV of Lagos state?
- To what extent does regular instructional supervision have relationship with teacher’s performance in Secondary Schools in Nigeria?
The following null hypotheses formulated were tested at 0.05 level of significance.
- Ho1: There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of Head teachers and teachers with regard to techniques adopted in supervision of primary school.
- Ho2: There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of Head teachers and teachers with regard to facts hindering effective supervision of primary schools.
1.6 Significance of the Study
It is believed that at the completion of this study, the findings will help the following groups: Teachers, Schools’ management, Education board, the Parents Teachers Associations (PTAs), and other researchers interested in supervision of instruction. The findings of this study will help teachers to understand and appreciate the importance of supervision of instruction on effective classroom performance as regards instruction. It will help them understand that instructional supervisors are there to assist them and not to harass them. It will also make them know that the way they perceive supervision of instruction can make or mar their classroom performances. This study will help the schools’ management to have understanding about the teachers’ perception on the influence of instructional supervision on class performance. And this understanding will help them realize that the perception of teachers towards supervision of instruction can make or mar the school activities. Since classroom instruction is one of the major school activities in the school and the school is like a factory that processes the students into finished products. Also, it will help the school management to know the extent to which attendance to conference and seminars improve teachers’ classroom performance. This will make them encourage teachers to participate more in conferences and seminars..
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study focuses on supervisory practices of school Head teachers. The study was carried out among primary school Head teachers and teachers in district IV of Lagos state.
Head teachers and teachers were chosen because they are responsible for carrying out supervisory activities at primary school level as part of their demonstrative and teaching functions. The content area covers techniques of supervision, supervision practices of primary school Heads, factors that hinder effective supervision and ways for improving supervisory practices of primary school Head teachers.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
This research work is specifically on the school supervision and attitude of teachers to work in district iv of Lagos state. In the limitation on research work of this magnitude or nature can be carried out without limitation. Hence, during the course, certain constraints were encountered.
The cost of thorough research is not what can be afforded by a student. The prices of materials needed for this work has gone up and transport fee has also gone up.
The time was one of the limitations in the process of carrying out this research work.
Scarcity of Literature:
The research encountered some problems in collection of literature especially on the bank
History and Operations:
This are hindered the smooth running of this work.
1.9 Operational Definitions of Key Terms
A high school leader entrusted with the responsibility of heading the school with the intention of achieving the goals and objectives set.
Deals with monitoring teachers in relation to instructional related duties such as classroom visitation to observe on teacher lessons delivery, provision of teaching and learning resources, checking of teachers’ professional records like lesson plans, working schemes records of work, preparation of lesson notes and providing assistance and support to teachers to do their work effectively.
1.10 Organizations of the Study
The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.
The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter centres around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives.
Conclusion and Recommendations
This chapter includes a discussion of the findings, implication, recommendations, limitation, conclusion and suggestions for further studies.
In considering supervisors effectiveness in enhancing teachers effectiveness, it is important to note that no set pattern of activities or techniques exists which will always guarantee that the efforts of head teacher as supervisor will render the maximum potential results of the type that might be desired.
Every school is organized, administered and operated according to a philosophy of education which is revealed in many ways: the nature and source of a school purposes, the manner in which the teacher and their resources are utilized, the educational interaction between the teachers the head teachers and the community. All these have direct influence on the effectiveness of the primary school heads and the teachers.
Conversely, dull and uninterested classroom and meager learning materials constitute limitation which evens the most skillful and enthusiastic supervisor will find difficult, if not impossible.
Summary of the Study
The need to supervise the instructional process of teachers in primary school cannot be over emphasized; hence Ezeocha (1985) is of the view that most of the schools activities and the school programmes required supervision.
Supervision of primary school by school Head aims at identifying areas of work that need to be improved upon. Supervision focuses primarily on the management of teachers and the pupils. The supervisee learns during supervision, since the supervisor is more knowledgeable, the head teacher correct and advise the teacher. This is done through friendly interaction. It also enhances personal professional growth of the teacher since interaction and greater knowledge gained at supervision promote personal growth.
On the basis of the findings of this study, the researcher made the following recommendations for improvement bearing the importance of effective supervision to the administration of primary schools in mind.
- Seminar and workshop should b organized by local government educational authority on special skills in assisting head teachers for effective supervision of schools. This will improve teachers instruction to manage large and congested classes for optimal instruction.
- Head teachers should carry out training and re-training of teachers to acquire counseling skills to advise teachers to change unethical behaviour such as giving pupils tests to mark.
- The supervisor should be more knowledgeable than the teacher in the principles of learning and its application.
- The supervisory focus should be based on observational evidence not on unsubstantive value judgment.
- The supervisor should have excellent cognitive attributes in order to lead the supervisor process.
- Supervision of schools should be based on assisting teachers in securing various instructional materials and services.
- Teachers should be provided with the opportunities to prepare evolution for improvement of supervision.
5.3 Suggestions for Further Studies
Based on the findings of the study, the researcher suggests further research be undertaken in such areas as:
- Perceived influence of internal and external supervision on teachers’ classroom performance.
- A replication of the study using South West part of Nigeria as the population. 3. Influence of colleagueship and classroom visitation on teachers’ performance.
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Frequently Asked Questions
What is supervision of teacher?
Supervision of teacher is the means by which subordinate staff of the school are mobilized and motivated towards the full attainment of the goals and objectives of the school they serve.
Does principal’s role supervision affect teachers’ effectiveness?
Teaching and learning are the major activities going on in the school; therefore, there is a need for efficiency and effectiveness. This study is therefore carried out to investigate the effect of principal’s role supervision on teachers’ effectiveness in some secondary school in Water side Local Government Area of Ogun State.
What are the adverse effects of supervision in education?
The adverse effects of supervision may lead to a situation instead of being objective, he will be subjective and this supervision may lead to a situation whereby both the principal and the teachers put in their very best in order to satisfy the supervisor, after which they withdraw their efforts at the end of supervision.
What is the most common determinant of effective supervision?
The most common determinant of effective supervision is teachers and students working rigidly according to the school time table, following rules and regulations. This is followed by neat and decent school environment and proper students management.