School Plant Planning And Effective Learning In Secondary School System
Educational goals and objectives are attainable through appropriate school plant planning. It therefore behooves that school plant is appropriately planned to facilitate the effectiveness of school system. This paper examines conceptual clarification of school plant planning, shows the need for school plant planning in an ideal school system, observes school plant planning process, considers challenges of school plant planning in Nigeria and concludes that the realisation of educational goals and objectives, no doubt, depends on the extent to which government and administrators of schools are able to give school plant planning adequate attention needed. It is
recommended that considerable time be devoted in planning school plant for both intended and existing schools in order to achieve the educational goals and objective
1.1 Background to the Study
Education is believed to be the veritable machinery for the development of a country. This is because of the roles played by educated people in the development of science, social – economic and political structure to improve the individual, families and making the society a batter place to live. In the light of these values, education today must prepare the child to function effectively as an adult in the 21st century. However, Nigerian schools are the least ready to adapt to the onslaught of new information and practices accumulating on daily basis due to the challenges ranging from industrial actions of academic staff, poor school plant planning, lack of fund for infrastructural development and a host of others. This is evident in the suggestion that teachers are handicapped by inadequate training and facilities which made it difficult for the teachers, to prepare students for the new development. The school plant themselves which provide accommodation for teachers and the learners hinder rather than enhance good teaching practices (Aloga, 2014).
School plant planning which include instructional spaces planning, administrative places planning, circulation spaces planning, spaces for conveniences planning and accessories planning are essential in teaching-learning process. The extent to which these spaces could enhance teaching and learning depends on their location within the school compound, their structure, and accessories. It is believed that a well planned school plant will gear up expected outcomes of education that will facilitate good social, political and economic emancipation, effective teaching and learning process and academic performance of the students (Adesina, 2011).
Emphasizing the importance of school plant planning to students academic performance, Oluchukwu (2000) asserted that school plant planning is an essential aspect of educational planning. He went further to explain that unless schools are well suited, buildings adequately constructed and equipment adequately utilized and maintained, much teaching and learning may not take place.
School facilities in most Nigerian schools today are apt to reinforce rote teaching method and further hinder the students’ capacity for independent and creative thinking. The typical school building in Nigeria is usually a simple row of bare classroom structures – often of rectangular shaped walls in which chairs, tables, and students must fight for space. According to Ezeocha (cited in Aloga, 2014) inadequate physical facilities can lead to undesirable personal behaviours, and large group interaction such as sports/games, drama cannot be conducted effectively without adequate physical space and equipment.
While emphasizing the importance of school plants planning to students’ learning outcome, Oyesola (2007) stated that the main objective of school plants planning is to satisfy educational goals which have been pre-determined by educational planners. He emphasized that better planned school plants will enhance better school programmes and the community needs by providing a place for psychological and physical safety for students and teachers and enhancing the good quality and quantity of instruction.
Similarly, Ajayi (2007) maintained that high level of students’ learning outcomes may not be guaranteed where school site planning, instructional space planning, administrative space planning, space of convenience and circulation space planning are not properly undertaken and the plant components themselves are structurally defective, not properly ventilated and not spacious enough for use.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The relevant literature reviewed for this study revealed that many of the Nigeria’s secondary schools face the combined challenges of poor school plant planning, deteriorating conditions, out-of-date design and capacity utilization pressures. These combined deficiencies impair the quality of teaching and learning and also create health and safety problems for staff and students. The effects of poor school plant planning and poor maintenance of school infrastructure are threats to school management, curriculum delivery and students’ academic performance.
The researcher has also observed during visit to some schools for supervision that most schools visited, the school compounds were bushy, have dilapidated buildings with leaking roofs, broken chairs and desks, rough floors and windows without louvers. In some of the schools, the buildings were dirty, no lightning while some are blown off roofs and indication of absence of or little planning. The roads leading to the sports field in some schools were weedy. It appears adequate management and maintenance is not provided on the available school infrastructure. Location of schools seems not to have been a concern to the authorities running them. For instance, it is common to find schools located by commercial and other activities that generate noise such as automobiles, neighbourhood human discussions, discotheques, and so on, to the extent that distract the concentration of learners.
The buildings on the other hand are another source of worry. Most school infrastructures are not regularly painted. They are dilapidated and often in shambles which make schools dull and unattractive; this tantamounts to creating a very hostile study infrastructure not congenial to Nigeria’s children who must take their place as leaders of tomorrow with their counterparts in the developed world. During rains, it is common to see class rooms leaking; school infrastructures flooded with run-off and making the children very uncomfortable. Again, all these seem to be as a result of inadequate or poor planning. These are what this study fully explored in the school infrastructure of Lagos, Nigeria. Hence, this study examined the effect of school plant planning on effective learning in secondary schools in Badagry Local Government Area of Lagos State.
1.3 Objective of the Study
This study was conducted with the following objectives:
- To assess the effect of school plant planning on effective learning in the secondary schools.
- To examine the effect of school plant planning on students’ academic performance.
- To investigate the impact of administrative space planning on students’ learning effectiveness.
- To explore any relationship between instructional space planning and students’ academic performance.
1.4 Research Hypotheses
- Ho: There is a significant relationship between school plant planning and students’ academic performance.
- Hi: There is no significant relationship between school plant planning and students’ academic performance.
- Ho: There is a significant relationship between instructional space planning and students’ academic performance.
- Hi: There is no significant relationship between instructional space planning and students’ academic performance.
1.5 Significance of the Study
It is hoped that this study will advance school plant planning quality for effective achievement in students. This study will no doubt contribute immensely and meaningfully towards improving learning quality and also help attend to other unfavourable working conditions which affect teachers, schools and students as a result of decrease in quality of school plants.
This study will assist the federal, state government, Head teachers, and principals of schools to see the need for improvement of school plant planning quality in order to boost the academic performance of students.
1.6 Scope and Limitation Of The Study
This study is primary concerned and restricted secondary schools in Badagry Local Government Area of Lagos State. Due to shortage of time, the research will not be able to carry out the study in the entire state.
The researcher encountered some constraints, which limited the scope of the study. These constraints include but are not limited to the following.
a) Availability of Research Material:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
1.7 Definition of Terms
School plant refers to everything within the school premises which includes the site, buildings, equipment and all essential structures, permanent and non-permanent as well as machines and laboratory equipment and others.
School Plant Planning:
School plant planning is an integral part of the over-all educational planning. … In his own view, Oyesola (Undated) defined school plant planning as a process in which a congenial site is selected and appropriate structures (buildings) designed and constructed to satisfy the identified educational needs of the students.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concerned with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to reiterate that the objective of this study was the school plant planning and the effective learning in secondary school system.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in evaluating examine the school plant planning and the effective learning in secondary school system..
This study was undertaken to examine the school plant planning and the effective learning in secondary school system. School plant planning and the effective learning in secondary school system is a topic with high priority. School plant quality differs considerably, between countries and also between states. School plants are central to any consideration of schools and School plant is important in any educational system because the quality of school plant in any educational system determines to a great extent the quality of the system itself. For many years, educators and researchers have debated which school variables influence student achievement. The study opened with chapter one where the statement of the problem was clearly defined. The study objectives and research hypotheses were defined and formulated respectively. The study reviewed related and relevant literatures. The chapter two gave the conceptual framework, empirical and theoretical studies. The third chapter described the methodology employed by the researcher in collecting both the primary and the secondary data. The research method employed here is the descriptive survey method. The study analyzed and presented the data collected in tables and the hypotheses were tested using the Chi square method. While the fifth chapter gives the study summary and conclusion.
5.3 Conclusion and Recommendations
As a way of concluding, all said and done, it can clearly be seen that the realization of educational goals and objectives, no doubt, depends on the extent to which government and administrators of schools are able to give school plant planning adequate attention needed. A properly planned school plant will no doubt bring about a conducive learning environment that is psychologically and physically safe for students and school plant as well as enhance quality of instruction which will in turn promote effective teaching and learning process. We also found that there is a significant relationship between school plant planning and students’ academic performance and there is a significant relationship between instructional space planning and students’ academic performance.
Consequent upon the foregoing, the following recommendations are hereby suggested: Considerable time should be devoted in planning school plant for both intended and existing schools. Adequate time should be devoted in developing the educational programme for the intended school before school site selection. In selecting the site for the school, the following important criteria must be taken into consideration; accessibility, geographical location, topography, soil condition, health safety, expansibility and security of lives and properties.
School plant planner needs to provide architect with necessary information or briefings before designing a functional school plant that will suit the intended programme/curriculum and use The government in power should live up to UNESCO’s expectation regarding the 26% budgetary allocation to education for procurement of adequate school plants.
Corruption is a monster that must be stamped out in our society with all sense of seriousness if goals and objectives of education would be achieved as planned. The service of professionals who have adequate knowledge must be sought for to plan school plants especially in an environment that has diverse ethnic groups.
Qualified educational planners are to be in charge of planning school plant either at national or at state/grassroots levels; this certainly would make teaching and learning become effective and efficient in the schools.
Technocrats, bureaucrats, school administrators and school owners should reach a compromise in planning and execution of school plants in a bid to achieving the preconceived objectives of education. Financial institutions should make loans accessible to school owners with considerable interest rates.
Government should create enabling environment for prospective school owners to thrive by making policies that are realistic and achievable for a growing school.
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Frequently Asked Questions
How to manage a school plant?
Management of school plant entails good leadership, effective monitoring of both the users and the plant itself; applying sound maintenance culture of those facilities and other things required for the school plant to give maximum services (Allen, 2015; Ehiametalor, 2001; Castaldi, 1994; Lawanson & Gede, 2011; Xaba, 2012).
What is the best book on school plant planning?
School Plant Planning & Implementation. In Olagboye, A. A., & Fadipe, J. O. (Eds.). Management of Education: Project Monitoring & School Plant maintenance, Ondo NIEPA.to Educational Planning, Ile Ife. University of Ife Press. Olutola, A. D. (1981).
What are the components of school plant?
Class-rooms are the major component of the school plant. There should have a classroom for each section of students and there should be as many classrooms as there are sections in different classes in secondary schools.
How does the absence of school plant affect school system?
Absence of school plant makes teaching ineffective and desired learning will not take place. It becomes necessary to ensure that such plant is properly planned and maintained to facilitate the effectiveness of school system.