School Management In Community Secondary Schools
1.1 Background to the Study
The role of principals in the management of secondary schools is vital for the realization of educational goals since principal are involved in the implementation of educational policies and programs. One of the primary functions of secondary school principals, according to Idoko (2005), is management and maintenance of school plant.
Management of secondary school had been criticized as an ineffective in managing teachers to prepare competent individuals, who can demonstrate competencies in work and life (Benson, 2005). Heads of schools have been accused of devoting less attention in empowering teachers to dis empowering them with their condescending attitude, which demoralize and lower their work performance (Wedgwood, 2007). Because of lack of management skills, many teachers in secondary schools in Nigeria teach and supervise students’ learning poorly, with the results in poor performance (MOEVT, 2010). The truth is that, the mass failure of our students in secondary schools is the direct reflection of incompetent school leaders; teacher low morale and performance is an index of a combined failure of head of school, who has failed to manage teaching (Ndimbo, 2013).
School Management has a very wide scope than that of Education itself (Kabunga & Iramba, 2011). This is because school management is working towards the achievement of Educational goals of which mainly is Academic Performance of students. The release of examination results have been sending shock waves to the community and educational stakeholders to the extent of becoming fatal, Ndimbo (2013). School management has been urged to take up ownership of the agenda by finding ways to transforming their schools to assume their initial valued role, Olomi et al (2013).
Uko Esther S., (2015) reflected on the role of school heads and came up with the following idea: it is related to how proficient and creative a school head is which contributes to the overall academic performance. According to Uko, effective school management is very important in up keeping making use and sustenance of facilities as they enhance effective productivity by the teachers and overall performance by the students. Influence of time management on students’ academic performance was a study carried out by F. Aduke (2015) who suggested that, there is a considerable association between time management and academic performance. Even Principals need to have proper usage of time so as to be effective on the job. Aduke also found out that there is a relationship between delaying activities and academic performance, with lack of preparation of daily goals, which affect academic performance.
The secondary education is regarded as an important stage in the development of a person socially, economically, politically, emotionally and physically. For this reason proper management of community secondary schools is very crucial in developing human capital so as to boost economic growth and eliminate poverty.
It is true that students need to be self-disciplined in managing their time so as to improve their academic performance. That Management and students should prioritize their time by not spending much time on social activities. Activities that need to be attended at a particular time should be done immediately instead of dillydallying with time thinking that there is enough time in the future. Honigh and Hooye, (2014) researched on the management strategy of teacher collaboration.
Teaching in secondary school had been criticized as an ineffective in preparing competent individuals. They failed to demonstrate competencies in work and life (Benson, 2005). Teachers had been accused of devoting less attention in conceptual teaching to procedural knowledge, which further lead to memorization of facts rather than concept formation (Wedgwood, 2007). This led to poor achievement in examinations where by majority of the students couldn’t manage to join high level education (MOEVT, 2010). The truth is that, candidate’s performance is the 6 reflection of many parameters of the learning process; low performance is an index of a combined failure of school system, which is management Ndimbo, (2013).
The Dutch heads of schools and teachers were interviewed on the research question, which was titled. “To what extent do teachers collaborate?” The findings were that teachers in Primary schools collaborate more than those in Secondary schools, but they both agree on receiving support from their heads of schools. All these studies show that school management is striving very hard into making sure that academic performance is raised as number one activity in their job descriptions. However, there has been a stable deterioration of academic performance in secondary schools worldwide. The deterioration of academic performance means poor performing of students in academic activities including national examinations.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Secondary education standard in Nigeria has been deterioration for some time due to different factor. Among them include failure or inability of the teachers to teach appropriately, poor teaching poor learning environment (Lumpkin, 2013) unqualified teachers and bad or inefficient management. Deterioration on the number of qualified teachers was found to be among the causes of academic deterioration. It is suggested that teacher training must be strengthened or changed on how they value education and invest in it.
That included developing the standards to ensure high quality candidates enter teacher education courses to remove negative attitude towards teaching on the part of teachers, managerial competencies should be the first thing that qualifies teachers to head a school or promotes them to be a principal in secondary school but today politics has taken over everything. This however prompted the principal to investigate school management most especially in community secondary schools in Oyo state.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of this study is to find out how community secondary school is been managed in Oyo state, specifically the study intends to;
- To find out how competent secondary school principal and head teachers are in Oyo state
- Investigate the factors that consider a teacher competence for a managerial position
- Analyze the effect of school management on academic performance of students
- To find out the challenges community school management encounter
- Proffer strategies community school management needs to improve their managerial work
1.4 Research Question
- How competent secondary school principal and head teachers in Oyo state
- What are the factors that consider a teacher competence for a managerial position
- Is there any significant effect of school management on academic performance of students
- What are the challenges community school management encounter
- What are the strategies community school management needs to improve their managerial work
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Ho: there is no significant effect of school management on academic performance of students no
Hi: there is significant effect of school management on academic performance of students no
1.6 Significance of the Study
The outcome and findings of school management on academic performance will be elaborated. The heads of 17 schools and teacher’s capability that leads to academic performance will be stated. Also exploration on how student’s involvement in learning process, teacher motivation and involvement in managerial activities that contributes to academic performance will be revealed.
Findings in this study are expected to add salt to existing literature on the subject matter and stimulate further research on the problem. The study too recommends as to which means can be best used in improving school management effect on students’ academic performance.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This research work will be conducted in Oyo state, community secondary schools in Oyo west Lga will be used as case study for this research.
1.8 Delimitation of the Study
Finance for the general research work will be a challenge during the course of study. Correspondents also might not be able to complete or willing to submit the questionnaires given to them.
However, it is believed that these constraints will be worked on by making the best use of the available materials and spending more than the necessary time in the research work. Therefore, it is strongly believed that despite these constraint, its effect on this research report will be minimal, thus, making the objective and significance of the study achievable.
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List of Related Works
Frequently Asked Questions
How can community participation in school management improve school management?
Community participation in school management has great potentials for removing mistrust and distance between people and schools by nurturing transparency of information and a culture of mutual respect and by jointly pursuing improvement of school by sharing vision, process, and results.
What is school-based management?
School-Based Management (SBM), discussed in the next section, is a typical example of promoting community participation in school management under the “new policy agenda” described in the previous section. Nevertheless, various types of SBM exist in the types and levels of devolved power.
What does a school community need?
Also, when geographical communities are divided into different cultural, ethnic, or linguistic identity groups, a school community needs rigorous coordination over the language of instruction, school events, and the membership of the school management body (e.g., school management committee, school council, and school board).
What is school community in education?
There is no common definition of community and its function in education of developing countries. If there is a school within a walking distance for most people, school community is likely to overlap with the geographical community. However, this is hardly the case in many developing countries.