School Infrastructure As A Contributory Factor To Effective Teaching And Learning In Secondary Schools
The study attempted to investigate the relationship between school infrastructure as a contributory factor to effective teaching and learning in secondary schools in Lagos State. In this study relevant related literature review was carried out under sub-headings. The research survey design was used in order to assess the opinions of the respondents with the use of the questionnaire and the sampling technique.
A total of 200 (two hundred) respondents were sampled for the study. Two null hypotheses were formulated and tested in this study, the independent t-test for hypothesis one and three, while hypotheses was tested using the pearson product moment coefficient statistical tool at 0.05 level of significance.At the end of the analysis, the following results emerged:
- Hypothesis one revealed that there is a significant relationship between facilities and students’ academic performance in the schools.
- Hypothesis two found that there is a significant difference between the academic performance of students who attended schools where there are facilities and those whose schools do not have facilities.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background to the Study
Facility means the system which supports the operation of an organisation or an institution to carry its daily activities and to promote growth and development in such organisation or institution.
Facility refers to the entire environment of the school or an organisation, it refers to both the physical and material resources available to the students and teachers in the school to facilitate their learning and teaching process. The classrooms; the libraries and the laboratories for sciences are the three main areas of facilities identified in the school system or environment. (Onyeji, 1990)
Yeloye (1990) states that in terms of the availability of the libraries as one of the school infrastructure, a great many of our secondary schools have no functional libraries, and where some libraries are found, there are no new or current books that are relevant to the current secondary school programmes. In effect there are no library facilities in most of the secondary schools in Nigeria, especially in Lagos State.
The importance and uses of the library cannot be under-rated. Libraries and books give great assistance to both the teachers and the learners. In a situation whereby our secondary school students are left with no choice to make their text books as the only source of knowledge, the danger of exposing them to obsolete knowledge in old books donated by the British Council several years ago as one normally finds in the old secondary schools should not be overlooked. According to Dada (1994), any one who is familiar with secondary school classrooms in Nigeria, especially in Lagos State, will agree that no meaningful teaching/learning activities can effectively take place in most of them, even if teachers are God-sent and the learners are celetial pack of highly intelligent personalities, the problem is that where there are classrooms, they are overcrowded to the extent that rooms originally meant for between 30 and 40 students, take between 60 and 80 students with a good number of them sitting on windows. In this situation, neither the teacher nor the students can move freely as expected in our secondary school classrooms. This is why many teachers do not give assignments to such large number of students regularly as expected. And this has affected students academic performance drastically.
On science laboraories, Olarewaju (1994) claims that only few schools have science laboratories which are well equipped to carry out scientific experiments in courses such as biology, physics, and chemistry. A good number of schools teach biology or chemistry as if they are non-science subjects without laboratory. Some other schools which are so during, teach the three branches of science without laboratories in the hope that they would use other schools, laboratories during their examinations or compel students to contribute money for purchase of science equipment through the school Parents Teachers Association (PTA). It should be noted that the greater failure rate is in science because our schools lack the essential science to the students but rather, resort to the theoretical science without the use of laboratory. The contention is that the nation has been unfair not only to students in our secondary schools but also to herself. This s because no nation can develop technology through theoretical teaching of science subjects, under poor educational facilities, no meaningful teaching and learning can take place, and the normal refrain in the educational circle is that all is well with our secondary schools. The main purpose of this study is find out the possible influence school infrastructure have on student performance in social studies in secondary schools in Mushin Local Government Area of Lagos State. Subsequently, the researcher will attempt to identify the contribution of some elements that constitutes these facilities and their impact on students academic performance.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The importance of school infrastructure or amenities in the development and growth of the educational sector cannot be overemphasized. Many schools in Nigeria today do not have certain school infrastructure that can make the teaching and learning to be easier and enjoyable to both the teachers and the students.
Often times, there has been a constant outcry of the inadequate provision or non-provision of the school infrastructure, especially, the laboratories, the classrooms (buildings) and the libraries which are the main school infrastructure that aid teaching and learning process, for example due to lack of necessary equipment in the school, teachers in the science fields find it difficult to experiment and carryout practical teaching in the school, and the resultant effect is that most science students fail their science related subjects in the external and internal examinations.
Due to lack of provision of libraries, and sufficient classrooms in the school, year after year, the academic performance of students both in arts and science courses continued to go down. This is because the teachers are not able to utilise the instructional materials to present their teaching thoroughly for the better understanding by the students. Infact the inadequate provision or the non-availability of school infrastructure in our secondary schools is what prompted the investigation of this study.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The major purpose of this study is to examine the influence of school infrastructure as a contributory factor to effective teaching and learning in secondary schools in Lagos state area council. Other objectives of the study include:
- To find out whether there is relationship between school infrastructure and students’ academic performance.
- To find out whether there is no adequate provision of facilities in our secondary schools.
- To identify the causes of inadequate provision of school infrastructure in our secondary schools.
- To proffer solutions to the problems of inadequate provision of facilities in the secondary schools.
1.4 Research Questions
These research questions were raised for the study.
- Is there any relationship between school infrastructure and students’ academic performance?
- Are the facilities in our secondary schools adequate or inadequate?
- How can we identify the causes of inadequate provision of facilities in our schools?
- To what extent can the problems of inadequate facilities in the schools be solved?.
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The following hypotheses were formulated for the study:
- There will be no significant relationship between facilities and students academic performance in the schools.
- There will be no significant difference between the academic performance of students who attended schools where there are facilities and those who schools do not have facilities.
1.6 Significant of the Study
This study will be beneficial to the following people:
- It is hoped that students will benefit from this study because they would be able to have proper insight and understanding that non provision of infrastructures in the secondary schools will adversely affect their academic performance.
- Teachers it is hoped would, through the study come to terms with the fact that the provision of adequate infrastructures will help both students and teachers to facilitate the teaching and learning processes.
- The school authorities would utilize the findings and recommendations of this study to find solution to the problem of inadequate provision of infrastructures in our secondary schools. They would through this study understand better the effect of inadequate provision of infrastructures in our schools, on the teachers work performance and the academic performance of students.
- It would be of benefit to parents because it will enable them to understand the effect of inadequate infrastructures on academic and work performance of both students and teachers. With the finding and recommendations of this study parents would help the school authorities to find lasting solutions to the problem of inadequate provision of infrastructures in our schools.
- The society will benefit from the study because when there is adequate provision of infrastructure in the schools teachers would work better to produce better crop of students for the society.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study will cover the relationship between school infrastructure as a contributory factor to effective teaching and learning in secondary schools in Mushin Local Government area of Lagos State. Sourcing of good materials for literature review and other information collection posed a hindrance to the study.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.
1.9 Definition of Terms
To avoid ambiguity and misconception, certain terms that are used in the study are explained below.
This refers to all provision which include physical materials or equipment within the environment of the school which help to facilitate effective teaching –learning process and educational goals.
This refers to the extent to which a student, teacher or institution have attained their educational goals.
This is the power to have an important effect on someone or something.
1.10 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
This chapter contains summary of the study findings, conclusion drawn from the findings and recommendation.
5.1 Summary of the Study
This was carried out to find out the influence of school infrastructure as a contributory factor to effective teaching and learning in secondary schools in Lagos Sate with the view of findings out whether there is a positive relationship between school infrastructures and student’s performance in Social studies.
Descriptive survey design was employed in this study. The population of the study consists of schools in Mushin Local Government Area of Lagos State. Random sampling method was used to select 200 students from five schools chosen for this study. Questionnaire was used as instrument. The data was collected and analyzed using correlation, regression and simple percentage. The result obtained shows the school infrastructures greatly affects student academic in
Based on the research findings and data analysis, the researcher was able to conclude that school infrastructures constitutes on integral part of the education system.
Schools facilities have a positive effect on student academic performance in Social studies. Availability of the facilities in adequate quality and quantity is capable of enhancing performance of educational goals
From the foregoing, the following recommendations are worthy of note:
- Relevant and adequate facilities must be supplied to schools at the right time. The Government and other stakeholders should set asidesubstantial amount of money for provision of such facilities.
- The ministry of Education should not register schools which operate without a science laboratory until all the necessary laboratory requirement are met by school management.
- Only qualified and competent teacher should be employed to teach social studies student so that there can be maximum utilization of facilities to enhance academic performance
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