School Climate And Teacher’s Productivity In Public Senior Secondary School Of Education District Lagos State

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School Climate And Teacher’s Productivity In Public Senior Secondary School Of Education District Lagos State


Abstract


The study was carried out to assess school climate and teacher’s productivity in public senior secondary school of education district Lagos State. The study adopted ex-post factor design. The sample size is 526 respondents representing the entire population of both the principals and teachers in the Education District. A researcher designed questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. Three experts face-validated the instrument while Cronbach Alpha method was used to compute the reliability estimate for the study. Four research questions and hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significant guided the study. A 27 item structured questionnaire was subjected to statistical analysis using mean and standard deviation for the research questions and t-test for the hypotheses. The results of the findings showed that the most common available school climate types in secondary schools are closed, paternal and familiar which does not encourage motivation of teachers. The study identified adequate facilities and equipment, maintenance of school plant and conducive accommodation as important motivational factors for teachers. Other highlights include open climate, adequate attention to teachers’ welfare, recognizing teachers’ worth, ensuring their professional growth and proper delegation of duties are effective strategies for enhancing the influence of school climate on teachers’ productivity.

 


Table of Content


Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Question
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisation of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Concept of School Climate and Types
  • 2.3 Factors that Influence School Climate
  • 2.4 School Climate as a Motivation for Teachers’ Productivity
  • 2.5 Concept of Motivation
  • 2.6 Factors Affecting Teachers’ Motivation
  • 2.7 Importance of Motivation to Teachers’ Productivity
  • 2.8 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.8.1 Abraham Maslow’s Theory of Human Needs
  • 2.8.2 Hertzberg’s Two Factor Model
  • 2.8.3 The Behavioural Science Theory
  • 2.9 Review of Empirical Studies

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population
  • 3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique
  • 3.4 Instrument for Data Collection
  • 3.5 Validity of the Instrument
  • 3.6 Reliability of the Instrument
  • 3.7 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.8 Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Result
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Generally, workers come to organizations with expectations on their personal needs to be met by the organizations. In many organizations like the school, the ability of the teacher to perform effectively is based usually on the conduciveness of the school atmosphere or the prevailing school climate. In order to achieve the goals and objectives of the educational system, there has to be an appropriate and a conducive school climate to ensure teacher effectiveness in the schools. The school climate describes the environment in which teaching and learning take place, which has to be conducive and congenial for everyone to stay and work in relative comfort and security.
The school climate is an orderly environment in which the school family feels valued and able to pursue the school mission from concerns about descriptions and safety. (Mgbodile, 2004). Agusiegbe (2004) defines school climate as teaching and learning environment as the setting, physical and conceptual in which teaching and learning are carried out as deliberately planned. Marshall (2002) describes the school climate as the atmosphere of school that consists of attitude shared by members of group such as the principals, teachers and parents as experiences that affect their behaviour based on their collective perception in the school.

Many scholars have perceived school climate as a very vital aspect of school organization. Hence Chukwunwike (2005), emphasized that poor school climate in secondary schools has affected the influence of teachers tremendously. This has gone along way to reduce the quality of secondary school products. A conducive atmosphere exists when the teachers and the students feel safe, happy, comfortable, wanted, valued, accepted and secured, in order to achieve the objectives of education and for it to have high standard. The principal must adopt appropriate management strategies, these strategies include planning, organizing, coordinating, directing and controlling for effective running of the school. Mgbodile (2007) also states that a well managed school climate can greatly enhance the production of a school which in turn contributes to the achievement of the overall goals of education.
Many scholars have classified and defined school climate in different forms such types as available include: autonomous, controlled, familiar, paternal, open and close. According to Halpin and Croft (1963) autonomous school climate is defined as an atmosphere that allows teachers’ to carry out their duty freely in the school system in order to achieve their goals. Controlled involves an atmosphere of hard work at the expense of social life. This climate tends to be impersonal and task oriented. Familiar climate is an atmosphere of sociability at the expense of task performance while paternal is characterized as one in which the principals discourages the emergence of leadership acts from the teachers. Open climate is an atmosphere that welcomes teachers input into the administration of the school while close climate sees the principal as behaving like all knowing in the affairs of the school and most often does not allow free flow of information and motivation of teachers staff and students in the school.

The important role of motivation especially in the school system cannot be overemphasized. Motivation channels, causes and sustains people’s bahvaviours. It enables the school authorities to influence teachers to perform in the ways that the authorities find desirable. Mgbodile (2004) defines motivation as an inducement, incentive, inspiration, encouragement in order to incite an individual to action. In the same vein, Enyi (2004) sees motivation to mean to move someone to action. In this context, motivation is seen as all the efforts of the school principals in encouraging the teachers in the discharge of their assigned responsibilities in the school.

The principal is the chief executive of the secondary school in Nigeria. (Ogbonna, 2004). Hence, the success or otherwise of the school rests on his ability to evolve, encourage as well as promote harmonious school climate to ensure proper school administration. He is to plan, direct and motivate the teachers in order to achieve the objectives of the school. Alike (1995), sees the principal as someone who supervises the affairs of the school so that it can run very smoothly for effective productivity of teachers. It is how the teachers perceive the principal and the school climate that largely influences their attitude and motivation to work.

The quality of a nation’s educational sector depends considerably on teachers as well as the collective interactions of the internal and external forces that intervene in the fulfillment of the purpose for setting up schools. The effectiveness and stability of the schools is mostly based on their school climate and the satisfaction of teachers (Wentzel and Watkins, 2002). According to Homana, Barber and Torney quality and character of school life or the overall characteristics and atmosphere in the school. It is based on patterns and the safety of the school environment, experiences and principal’s leadership practices (Adeyemi, 2004)

Teachers, as important members of the school play pivotal roles in educating the students. However, where the school climate becomes unfavourable, that is, where the school and physical environments are not safe, the principal leadership is autocratic; this can affect teachers’ job performance and student’s learning outcome. Therefore, the need for effective management of school climate becomes imperative (Ghazi, 2003).

Wentzel and Watkins (2002) established that management of the school climate entails the application of techniques and expertise of efficient organization, planning, direction, and controls to the operations of the school, its students, teachers and immediate environment. It entails the effective administration of the school in order to achieve academic excellence and to erode decadence. This is because the efficiency of a school system depends to a large extent on how human and material resources are motivated and effectively utilized within a conducive environment to enhance teachers’ job performance. However, there is no doubt that, students’ performance in examination is a criterion to gauge teachers’ job performance. Against this backdrop, the current study intends to investigate school climate and teacher’s productivity in public senior secondary school of education district Lagos State.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The issue of poor quality teaching and learning in Nigeria secondary education has been of great concern to the educationists and other citizens. This becomes pertinent because the educational standard have been faced with lack of spirited efforts by the government at instilling discipline in secondary schools, lack of commitment, dedication and loyalty on the part of the principals and teachers, lack of incentives or poor teacher-motivation.
Most schools have dilapidated buildings outdated equipment and facilities, staff irregularity in school attendance, inadequate exercises to students, and lateness to school, and absence from class among others. What is then responsible for this ugly state of affairs in our secondary schools? The principals’ poor attitude towards school improvement and teachers is bound to influence the achievement of school goals.

Evidentially, most public secondary schools in Nigeria are not safe for teaching and learning. School environments are without adequate security while, visitors and students move in and out the school premises at their own leisure. Other obvious issues include hostility among staff, dilapidated building and infrastructure and unfriendly school environment. The attitude of some principals are equally devastating as they issue orders arbitrarily, use abusive languages on teachers and usually take side where there is a problem among staff or students. These exhibitions no doubt have untold effects on teachers job performance which mostly demoralizes them. Another important issue is on principal’s leadership style that is mostly one-sided and not neutral in the disposition of academic matters. It is against this background that the researcher intends to assess school climate and teacher’s productivity in public senior secondary school of education district Lagos State.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The aim of this study is to assess school climate and teacher’s productivity in public senior secondary school of education district Lagos State. Specifically, the objectives of the study include to;

  1. Identify the types of school climate available in public senior secondary schools in education district Lagos State
  2. Identify the factors that influence teachers’ productivity in public senior secondary schools in education district Lagos State
  3. Identify how open school climate influence teachers’ productivity in public senior secondary schools in education district Lagos State
  4. Determine strategies for enhancing the influence of school climate on teachers’ productivity in public senior secondary schools in education district Lagos State

1.4 Research Question

The following research questions are formulated to guide this research:

  1. What are the types of school climate available in public senior secondary schools in education district Lagos State?
  2. What are the factors that influence teachers’ productivity in public senior secondary schools in education district Lagos State?
  3. How does open school climate influence teachers’ productivity in public senior secondary schools in education district Lagos State?
  4. What are the strategies for enhancing the influence of school climate on teachers’ productivity in public senior secondary schools in education district Lagos State?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • HO1: There is no significant influence of school climate on teacher’s productivity in public senior secondary school of education district Lagos State
  • HA1: There is a significant influence of school climate on teacher’s productivity in public senior secondary school of education district Lagos State

1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings of the study would be theoretically significant in advancing knowledge on school climate on teachers’ productivity in public senior secondary schools while it will provide practical benefits to the following: the principals, educational planners, researchers, the students, and the society.

The school principals will use the findings as strategies to be adopted to influence teachers in the school in order to enhance conducive teaching and learning. It will help the principals develop better leadership styles or behaviours that are vital for creating the right of school climate which will facilitate effective teachers-motivation and improve standards of learning.

It would be useful for educational planners and state education commissions for proper formulation of policies with regards to evaluation of school principals and transfer of teachers. It would help to raise the awareness of the government in providing adequate facilities and equipment to schools to ensure motivation of teachers in the schools.

The findings of the study would enrich the literature on school climate on teachers’ motivation for researchers in Enugu State Education Zone in particular and Nigerian in general.

Students would benefit from the findings as it would lead to provision of conducive learning environment. It would enable the students to make appropriate choice of schools to attend that would positively influence their learning in the schools.

Society would use the findings of the study as a means of influencing their involvement in the school management, guiding them on what to do to supplement the efforts of principals, teachers and students in creating appropriate school climate for teachers’ motivation for teaching and learning.


1.7 Scope of Study

The geographical scope covers all the public secondary schools in education district Lagos State. The content scope include, the identification of types of school climate in public secondary school in education district Lagos State, how open and close school climate influence teachers’ productivity, the factors that influence school climate as well as strategies for enhancing the influence of school climate and teachers’ productivity.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of this study, the researcher encountered some limitations. There was unwillingness of respondents to fill the questionnaires. Some of the copies questionnaires were also reported missing and it was severally replaced and this affected the researcher negatively finance wise. Also, the researcher faced time constraints and had to combine the research with other academic activities and coursework. Lastly, the researcher selected public secondary schools in education district Lagos State since all the schools could not be covered.


1.9 Definition of Terms

School Climate:

Refers to social characteristics of a school in terms of relationships among students and staff/teachers, learning and teaching emphasis, values and norms, and shared approaches and practices

Teacher:

Refers to one that teaches especially, one whose occupation is to instruct.

Teacher Productivity:

Being able to bring about high and consistent learning gains in all students taught across all courses or subject areas for which one is responsible over two or more terms of school years.


1.10 Organisation of the Study

This study is organized into five chapters. Chapter one included the background of the study, research problem, research objectives and questions as well as limitation of the study. Chapter two contains the literature review. Chapter three includes the methodology and study area. Chapter Four contains the results and discussion of key findings of the study. Chapter Five finally looks at the summary, conclusions, and recommendations based on the findings.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

The study was carried out to assess school climate and teacher’s productivity in public senior secondary school of Education District Lagos State. The study adopted ex-post factor design. The sample size is 526 respondents representing the entire population of both the principals and teachers in the District. A researcher designed questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. Three experts face-validated the instrument while Cronbach Alpha method was used to compute the reliability estimate for the study. Four research questions guided the study. A 27 item structured questionnaire was subjected to statistical analysis using mean and standard deviation for the research questions and t-test for the hypotheses. The results of the findings showed that the most common available school climate types in secondary schools are closed, paternal and familiar which does not encourage motivation of teachers. The study identified adequate facilities and equipment, maintenance of school plant and conducive accommodation as important motivational factors for teachers.

Other highlights include open climate, adequate attention to teachers’ welfare, recognizing teachers’ worth, ensuring their professional growth and proper delegation of duties are effective strategies for enhancing the influence of school climate on teachers’ productivity. Based on the findings of the study, recommendations were made which include provision of adequate accommodation, provision of school plant maintenance, policy and organization of seminars and workshops to improve teacher’s growth among others.


5.2 Conclusion

Conclusion from the results obtained and investigation into influence of school climate on teachers’ productivity in secondary schools in Education District Lagos State, the researcher came up with the following conclusions. That the most available types of school climate in the secondary schools include close, paternal and familiar. That provision of facilities and equipment, well-equipped library, good structure, effective school plant maintenance and conducive staffroom are important influential factors in teachers’ productivity in the schools.

That open school climate (administration) has a great influence on teachers’ productivity in secondary schools. That encouragement of teacher’s through recognizing their worth, adequate provision of facilities and equipment and effective maintenance by school plants are effective strategies for enhancing the influence of motivation of teachers.

Also that giving adequate attention to the teachers’ welfare, promotion of their professional growth as well as ensuring proper delegation of functions are effective measures for enhancing the influence of school climate on teachers’ productivity in secondary schools. The findings also identified adequate provision of facilities and equipment as well as giving adequate attention to the teachers’ welfare as the most effective factors that influence of school climate on teachers’ productivity.


5.3 Recommendation

Based on the findings of this study, the following are recommended;

  1. Adequate classroom and staffroom accommodation to be provided in the schools.
  2. Effective school plant maintenance policy to be provided to ensure principals maintain school plants efficiently.
  3. Efforts should be made to equip school libraries and laboratory buildings.
  4. The principals to ensure smooth school administration through open school administration.
  5. Schools to be adequately supplied with current teaching or instructional materials to promote staff motivation and performance.
  6. Seminars and workshop to be frequently organized in the zone to help improve the professional growth of the teachers.

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