Safety Skills Required By Technical College Electrical Installation And Maintenance Works Students In Handling Instructional Resources For Optimal Performance In Their Workshop
In many electrical/electronic workshops in technical college in Rivers State today, the rate of accidents which causes damage to facilities and workshop users is alarming. As a means of reducing accidents occurrences, safety practices and procedures are observed. Hence, this study examines the implementation of safety skills required by technical college electrical installation and maintenance works students in handling instructional resources for optimal performance in their workshop in Rivers State technical colleges.
A descriptive research survey design guided the study. The population of the study consists of 27 respondents (18 teachers and 9 instructors) of electrical/electronic trades. There was no sample and sampling technique due to small population size. Four research questions were answered. The instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire which was validated by two experts. The instrument for the study was partitioned into four sections. Sections A to D were patterned after Likert-5-point rating scale of agreement. A reliability coefficient of 0.85 was established for the instrument using Cronbach Alpha coefficient reliability method. Mean and Standard Deviation were used to answer the research questions.
It was found that power tools not properly grounded and insulated, presence of fire and explosion hazards, working with high voltage without following necessary standards and the use of metal ladder while working on electrical installation are the causes of accident occurrences in electrical/electronic workshops while amputation of affected parts, suffering from psychological trauma, students withdrawal from programmes were some of the effects of accidents.
Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that workshop users should be given proper orientation by school management and government on activities that causes accidents such as unsafe conditions and unsafe acts, workshop users should be inform by relevant authorities such as Nigerian Institute of Safety Professionals (NISP) on the effect of accident occurrences in technical colleges, Safety experts should be employed in technical college to educate the users of the workshop especially on areas concerning accident preventive measures and so on.
Table Of Content
- Title page
- Certification page
- Table of content
- 1.1 Background Of The Study
- 1.2 Statement Of The Problem
- 1.3 Purpose Of The Study
- 1.4 Significance Of The Study
- 1.5 Research Questions
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Conceptual Review
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Review Of Related Empirical Studies
3.0 Research Methodology
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population Of The Study
- 3.3 Instrument Of Data Collection
- 3.4 Data Analysis
4.0 Results And Discussion
- 4.1 Results
- 4.2 Discussion
5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation
- 5.1 Conclusion
- 5.2 Recommendations
1.1 Background Of The Study
Occupational safety is of paramount concern to both workers and students. Students and even parents are much more interested in the level of safety provided in a particular occupation. Graduates who possess required safety skills would always fair better in an occupation, especially technical occupations. The knowledge of safety practice skills by electrical installation students in technical colleges is an essential prerequisite for effective use of tools and machines in the workshop. Skilled electrical worker is not just someone who can perform any electrical job correctly but a worker who can complete every job safely (Oranu, Nwoke and Ogwo 2002). Safety has become a major determinant for effective and successful performance in a job.
In the view of Olaitan, Nwachukwu, Igbo, Onyeamaechi and Ekon (1999), safety is the art of taking precaution for the avoidance or reduction of accidents in order to protect people and property. Oranu, Nkowe and Ogwo (2002) further view safety as the ability to perform every simple task involved in a job without causing damage to tools, equipment or materials used in performing the task. Safety practice is the ability to perform a task with necessary precautionary measures exhibited for the purpose of preventing accidents. Practice means doing something repeatedly in order to improve performance. For students to perform a task with little or no record of accidents in electrical workshop, certain related skills are required by them.
However, Okorie (2000) defined skill as a manual dexterity through repetitive performance of an operation. Skill is a well-established habit of doing something and it involves the acquisition of performance capabilities (Osinem 2008). This implies that skill involves well-established habit of doing things. In this study, skill is the ability of electrical installation students in Technical colleges to establish good habit performance in the workshop by acting, thinking, and behaving well in order to prevent minor and major accidents that is involving in any operation or job that is related to electrical installation and maintenance work.
Electrical installation is one of the trades in technical colleges. It is made up of the following components, domestic and industrial installation; cable joining; battery charging and repairs and winding of electrical machines (NBTE, 2014). In the view of Nwachukwu, Bakare and Jika (2011), electrical installation trade is a vocational course offered by students in technical colleges in order to produce electrical craftsmen and technicians. Electrical installation student is a person who is taking vocational course offered in technical colleges in order to become electrical craftsman. Nwachukwu (2006), opined that electrical installation students learn the basic skills required to operate, maintain, install and repair electrical installation equipment and appliances in technical colleges.
Technical Colleges according to Okoro (2009), are principal vocational institutions in Nigeria which are designed to prepare the individuals to acquire practical skills, knowledge and attitude at sub-professional level, they are also established to train craftsmen in various occupations. Okorie (2001) also saw Technical College as institutions where craftsmen are trained up to obtain the craft certificate of West African Examination Council and advanced craft certificate. Students who have completed the first three years of secondary school education are eligible for admission into Technical Colleges. Technical Colleges are therefore, schools or training institutions where trades are being taught. It is imperative for technical colleges to take into cognizance the safety skills necessary in handling electrical equipment by students to achieve the set objectives of the program.
However in this study, technical college is formal place of learning where theory and practical skills are learned by students from the teacher and instructor who give the instruction.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
Due to loss of tools and machines as well as incessant occurrence of accidents that lead to sustenance of injuries and electric shock, many students have been skeptical to participate in practical activities in electrical workshop and as such, shy away from participation. Yakubu (2004), confirmed that students in Technical Colleges often absent themselves from school during practical lessons. This, according to Yakubu, was attributed to the accidents the students experience in the workshops.
Similarly, damages to tools and machines as well as accidents occurring in electrical workshop in Technical Colleges in Plateau and Kaduna States seem to have instilled fear into the students which has made them to be absent during practical work. The enrolment level into electrical installation trade in the technical colleges is also on decline because parents and students are apprehensive of the frequent accident rate occurring in the colleges. The safety practice skills required by electrical installation students in Technical Colleges in Plateau and Kaduna State which could reduce the occurrence of accident and damages to tools and machines may be lacking.
Most of the tools, equipment and machines damaged due to lack of safety skills by electrical students and some of the machines are imported ones, the parts are costly and not easy to purchase or replace. The magnitude of damaged tools results in the non-performance of many tools, equipment and machines, and the increase in the rate of accidents in the workshops of technical colleges is still alarming and as such, students tend to shy away from electrical installation practical because of fear of accident.
Therefore the problem that this study intends to tackle is the decline in enrolments and the avoidance of practical activities in electrical workshops by students due to fear of electrical accidents. This gave the researcher a great concern to find out the safety skills required by technical college electrical installation students in handling equipment.
1.3 Purpose Of The Study
The main purpose of this study is to determine the safety skills required by technical college electrical installation and maintenance works students in handling instructional resources for optimal performance in their workshop. Specifically, the study seeks to determine:
- The Safety skills required by electrical installation students in handling hand tools in technical colleges in Plateau and Kaduna States.
- The Safety skills required by electrical installation students for operating machine tools in technical colleges in Plateau and Kaduna States.
- The workshop Safety skills required by electrical installation students in Plateau and Kaduna States.
- The personal protective equipment and materials required by students for work in electrical installation workshop in technical colleges in Plateau and Kaduna States.
1.4 Significance Of The Study
The findings of the study will be of benefit to the electrical installation Teachers, Students, Government, Curriculum planners, Workshop Personnel/electrical workers, National Board for Technical Education (NBTE), the society/parents and the researchers.
Electrical installations teachers in technical colleges shall from the findings of this study, when published, see the need to improve the teaching of safety skills and to identify the materials needed for safety practice in electrical installation workshop. The findings will also benefit the teacher to pass across instruction with ease and make it meaningful to the students.
The students will benefit from the findings of this study by receiving standard training on safety skills and the use of safety equipment which will in turn improve their safety and academic performance. The awareness from the findings of the study will help the students to identify the personal safety equipment and making good use of them. The findings would assist the students in their everyday handling and operation of equipment and tools in and outside the workshops.
These findings will benefit the Government through Ministry of Education and Ministry of Science and Technology by using the information provided to come up with measures that will ensure effective supply of safety equipment and recruitment of qualified teachers. The Curriculum planners shall from the findings of this study, when published, discover the need to introduce safety skills practices in the curriculum, so that the students’ of this programme shall possess the consciousness and skill in managing electrical equipment. The finding of the study would assist in the curriculum review and updates in areas that lack safety skills.
The result of the study would help the workshop personnel/electrical workers to effectively guide themselves and the students when working on machine or making use of tools during practical works. Understanding of the result of the study would also help the workshop personnel and workers to take adequate care of tools and equipment in the workshop by keeping them clean and placing them in their proper position in the work area.
The findings of this study could be used by National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) as a quality control body to incorporate suitable programme that can enhance safety practice competencies in electrical electronics profession.
The findings of the study will be of benefit to the society/parents at large, when competent electrical installation students practice safety in handling electrical equipment both at home and in the community. The findings shall benefit the society when skilled graduates of electrical installation practice and educate the public on safety measures to be taken when handling electrical equipment.
The information that would emanate from this study will stimulate similar research efforts in other states of the federation on the practice of safety skills required in their institutions. The results may have far reaching implications for national development in general as new concepts would be discovered on safety skills. The findings of the study would provide information to researchers that may wish to carry out similar research in other field in the future.
1.5 Research Questions
The following research questions are formulated to guide this study:
- What are the Safety skills required of electrical installation students in handling hand tools in technical colleges’ workshops in Plateau and Kaduna States?
- What are the Safety skills required of electrical installation students for operating machines tool in technical colleges’ workshops in Plateau and Kaduna States?
- What are the workshop Safety skills required of electrical installation students in technical colleges in Plateau and Kaduna States?
- What are the personal protective equipment and materials required by students for work in electrical installation workshop in technical colleges in Plateau and Kaduna States?
5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation
In order to eliminate or reduce and minimize the rate of accidents occurrences in electrical/electronic workshops in technical colleges in Rivers State, the researchers concluded that there is urgent need for students and facilitators of electrical/electronic in the college to be introduced to safety practice as regard electrical/electronic and general workshop safety. This exposition will help the students and workshop users to be able to identified activities that are both unsafe conditions and unsafe acts that are capable of causing accidents that may result to loss of lives and damage to properties and possibly its effects on their academic performance while in the college. Possible strategies to minimize accidents occurrences include labeling all dangerous points and faulty equipment with the use of communication hazard board in and outside the workshop premises.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made;
- Workshop users should be given proper orientation by school management and government on activities that causes accidents such as unsafe conditions and unsafe acts. These will reduce accidents occurrences in the workshops and its environment as its users will be conscious of activities to be carried out.
- Workshop users should be informed by relevant authorities such as Nigerian Institute of Safety Professionals (NISP) on the effect of accident occurrences in technical colleges. This will enhance carefulness and alertness in the workshop and its environment for quality instructional delivery in technical colleges.
- Safety experts should be employed in technical college to educate the users of the workshop especially on areas concerning accident preventive measures. This will ensure durability of facilities and improves quality in instructional delivery in the college.
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