Safety Management In Building Construction Site (A Case Study Of Zerock Construction Nigeria Limited)

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Project and Seminar Material for Building Technology BT

Project and Seminar Material for Building Technology BT


This project report is dedicated to God Almighty and my parents. Mr. & Mrs Peter E.M Akoma. He also dedicate his work to his Brothers and Sisters at whose expense the research work was accomplished.


The writer appreciates the efforts of his supervisor, Mr. Ebirim A.L for his assistance through corrections and his personal attention to the problems relating to the production of this report.

The writer is also grateful to the Head of Department Bldr. G.C. Ukah, for his moral advice towards the actualization of this report.

He appreciates the effort of Cheybele communications/ Business center, opposite Nekede Secondary school Umuerim Nekede, Owerri – Imo State.


The construction industry is considered as one of the most hazardous industrial sector wherein the construction workers are more prone to accidentals. In developed countries of the world such as United Kingdom and United states of America, there is strict legal enforcement of safety in the construction industry and also in the implementation of safety management systems which are design to minimize ordinate accidents at work places. However, occupational safety in countries. Such as Nigeria. This study investigates the prevalent safety management practices and perceptions in the construction industry in Nigeria.

The study was conducted among construction contractors, and government officials, through method of questionnaire survey, interview and discussion, to solicit and advocates or their opinion towards improving the quality of safest management programme in mostly the banking construction site in Nigeria. Questionnaire copied were prepared and distributed to the sample population (respondents) and data generated showed results of the problems associated with the study and revealed that there are many occupational safety problems in the construction industry in Nigerians. The researcher made a lot of suggestions which are use of indigenous and sample construction can gauge in the presentation of the programme from effective understanding and assimilation of information. This research work is on the safety management in building construction site a case study of the gatson Blinders Nigeria limited Aba.

The researcher during his researcher discovered that there are some problems that affect the implementation of safety management in the construction site. He also suggested solutions and the study proposes some recommendations for safe construction in Nigerians.

Researches were made from construction textbook libraries, lectures and internet etc. observation questionnaire and sample random sample respondents were analyzed and this helped to the effective conclusion and summary of the study.

Table Of Contents

  • Title Page
  • Approval
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgment
  • Table Of Contents
  • List Of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 Background of the study.
  • 1.2 Statement of the research problems.
  • 1.3 Objective of the study.
  • 1.4 Significance of the study.
  • 1.5 Research questions.
  • 1.6 Research Hypothesis.
  • 1.7 Conceptual and operational definition of terms.
  • 1.8 Assumptions of the study.
  • 1.9 Limitation of the study
  • References.

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Review Of The Literature
  • 2.1 Sources of literature
  • 2.2 Review of the related literature
  • 2.2.1 Definition and meaning of safety management in construction.
  • 2.2.2 Characteristics of safety management in construction.
  • 2.2.3 Kinds of safety management in construction.
  • 2.2.4 Roles of safety management in construction.
  • 2.3 Factors affecting safety management in construction.
  • 2.4 Theoretical framework
  • 2.5 Summary of literature
  • References.

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Research Methodology
  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Area of study
  • 3.3 Population of the study
  • 3.4 Research sample and sampling Techniques
  • 3.5 Instruments for the instrument
  • 3.6 Validity of the instrument
  • 3.7 Method of data collection.
  • 3.8 Method of data Analysis.
  • References.

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Presentation And Analysis Of Data
  • 4.1 data presentation and Analysis
  • 4.2 Hypotheses Testing
  • 4.3 Discussion on Findings
  • References.

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations For Further Study.
  • 5.1 Summary.
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations.
  • Bibliography
  • Appendixes.

Chapter One


1.0 Background Of The Study.

Construction is one of the most dangerous occupations. One in six fatal accidents at work occurs on a construction site around the world. Yet the causes of accident are well known and almost all presentable and as other business issues, occupational safety and health (OSH) can be managed in the enterprise. It is commonly known that accidents have serious implications to the construction industry both in financial and humanitarian terms. Construction accidents may cause many problems, such as demotiration of worker, disruption of site activities, delay of project progress and adversely affecting the overall cost, productivity and reputation of the construction industry (Mohammed, 1990).

In Hong Kong, the cost of accidents accounts 8.5% of the total turnover price (Rordlinson 2003) considering the adverse impacts of accidents, construction safety management is of genuine concern to all stakeholders in the construction industry. Government unions and insurers have spent a greatest of time and effort attempting to evolve legislation, rules and regulations to help reduce the large loss of life and luns and the highs number of “ lost work days” (Goldsmith, 1987). In USA, the practice of safety in construction is regulated by governmental safety and Health Administration (OSHA), which provides strict rules and regulations to everyone safety and health reduces accident rates unless craftsmen and management take positive actions to integrated these rules into their everybody activities by implementating a safety management program safety management is an road aimed at removing or minimizing the forces which cause losses through injured workers, damaged equipment and facilities. In Nigeria, the federal ministry of work promise all rules and regulations guiding construction in the country. The different individual commissioners of works in different make up states within the federation also assist in regulation of principles and laws guiding constructional projects in the state.

In most developing countries, including Nigerian safety consideration in construction project delivery is not given a priority, and employment of safety measured during building construction is considered a burden (Mbuya and Lema 2002. the construction industry in Nigerian is one of the fastest growing and largest sectors in the National economy. It is also one of the highest contributing sectors to the national gross domestic product (GDP) next to agriculture. However occupational safety and health in the construction industry in Nigerians is at the very basic level. It lacks all the three fronts of engineering reduction and enforcement (Three E’s) of safety. Safety concerns have been raised, of late and earnest efforts are being made to promote safety in the Nigerian construction industry. The industry, as such needs to assess the safety situation and accordingly plan and implementing safe construction in Nigeria.

Currently, there is a genuine set of data on safety at construction site in Nigeria. Apparently, there are no systematic and organized studies conducted specifically on the safety aspects of the construction industry in Nigeria.

This research study was aimed into assess the existing safety management practices and perception in the Nigerian construction industry. The assessment was useful in providing information in terms of current safety practices administered in Nigeria. Meanwhile the perceptions was useful in finding out what are the main reasons and whether the regulator and construction companies have different perceptions in identifying problems related to safety management.

Historical Background Of Safety Management In Building Constrction Site.

Over the past three decades, the Nigeria construction industry has experience a very high level of industrial accidents, more than any other industries. The Nigerian institute of safety professionals (NISP) was inaugurated in August 1980 as Nigeria society of safety professionals (NSSP) during the annual conference of the National Industrial safety council of the Nigeria (NISCN) as a professional technical arm of the NISCN, NISCN- is a tripartite body comprising the governments of the federation (represented by Director of practices, Federal Ministry of labour of productivity), Employers represented by the Nigeria employers consultative.

The institutes will assist in the control loss of lives and properties and damage to the environment ensuring from mishaps.

Therefore, we need to develop, promote, inculcate and encourage safety knowledge and technical know-how, and enforce standards and ethics in the practice of safety in   among members both individual and corporate harnessing and directing the energies of skilled manpower to protect our resources as for the benefit of our country, Nigeria.

The institute’s major policy thrust is to develop and nurture, dynamic, effective and efficient safety services and practice in Nigeria through training, examination, certificate, recognition, supervision and discipline of safety personnel and consultants. It is also the institutes mission to constantly research and review current safety standard, principles, organization and methods in collaboration with similar international in Nigeria.
At the same tine, the increasing professionalism in the management of projects has placed more and more emphasis on safety, health and welfare issue.

The government has also raised the awareness through a series of measures. Although the over all accident rate dropped down the level of fatalities was still unacceptable Lingard and Johnson (1994) upwards that the annual accident rate per 1000 workers was twice its Us counterpart, more than 20 times that of Japan and nearly 30 times that of Singapore. In recent years, the Nigerian Government has been involved in combating the poor safety programme in Building construction sister. Government has introduced a series safety programme, which consist of both incentive we and mandatory schemes in order to nourish a better safety culture in the institution of safety is to advance the interest of safety management in Building construction site.

Effective safety management will assist Gatson Builders Nigeria Limited to anymore on its management policies, methods of constrction to reduce material wastage and resources and then enhance efficiency in building constrction works. Training programme will be organized by the management of Gatson Builders, to elevate the knowledge of workers and also create a forum for skill acquisition.

Gatson Builder is an autonomous construction company established and the corporate affairs commission (CAC) to operate within the country as an indigenous constrction company. The managing director is a girl Engineer by profession and some years of experience from so many expatriates.

The issue about safety management started during the pre-design stage of the project through proper site insitating soil investigating, soil investigation and analysis. Also in the design stage, the Architect should design a build able, serviceable and maintainable structure to reduce alterations during constrction. The bill of quantity (BOQ) and pricing and estimation analyses for the project will be done by a lost economic or experts to ensure that fund allocated for the project will be enough up to the completion stage to avoid abandonment. Professional should be engage in the constrction stage and quake to be discourage to avoid failure or collapse of the project.

Government Regulations And Legislation.

Although any form of legislation all first seems completed, impact, the law is straight forward. It was formulated by Government to help reduce to provide safe working condition. Health and safety legislation basically requires employers to put in place control measures to ensure that the five basic criteria are met.
These criteria are known as the employers duties requiring employers to;

  1. Ensure that work equipment that has been provided is safe and is maintained in a safe condition.
  2. Ensure that people are provided with adequate information, instruction and training in the tasks that  they are being asked to perform.
  3. Ensure there is good access to and from the workplace and in particular, ensure that recap routes are clear from debris and that good house keeping standards are maintained.
  4. Ensure that people are provided with adequate information, instruction and training in the tasks that they are being asked to perform.
  5. Ensure that the working environment is kept safe and healthy.

A regulatory body was formed in Nigeria to look after the issue of management in all the constrction company operating in the country and to reduce the trend of building of building structural collapse. The Nigerian society of safety professionals (NSSP) through its wring and associates Nigeria institute of safety professionals (NISP) was formulated to enhance professionalism and the quality of work declared at every instance.

Legislation is a government policy put imp lace to check mate the activities, movement, working conditions within the country and its environs. With over 5 million people working in the construction intensity in the Nigeria and with over 3000 people having been killed whistle at work in the industry over the last 25 years, there are always improvements which can be made with regards to health and safety and despite the fact that many improvements have been introduced during that period and continue to be made, there are so many hazards and risks to consider when working on a construction project that health and safety needs are paramount.

There are cases of binding collapse within the country due to professional negligence and inadequate safety management. It is because of thee on going menace that leat to the establishment of legistilation and regulatory body’s to check for safety of both material and mean during construction proceedings. There are numerous pieces of health and safety legislation which construction site must adhere to and specific legistilation relating to the industry itself-some of them are the construction (health safety and welfare) REGULATIONS 1996 (CHSW) and the construction (design and management) regulations 1994 (CDM).

Regulations are rules, policy, formulations and laws set aside by government to monitor the activities of workers in the construction site attitude and sections of employers towards their employers during construction process. In most cases, there sure certain types of accidents that need to be reported to the Health and safety Executive (HSE) or the local planning authority. These statutory reportable case are found in a piece of health and safety law known as the Reporting of injury disease and dangerous occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR). The law requires employers t0 report certain accidents by telephone or via the internet with in 24 hours of the accident occurring. Also, the accident should be reported to the authority on a special form and submitted within 7 days of the accident.

The primary price of legislation which relates to the control of infections diseases at work is the control of substance hazardous to health regulations 2002 (COSHH) and covers any micro- organism which could cause infection, allergy, toxicity or any other danger to human health. There are many biological agents which make up a list drawn up within the regulations and they are each classified into four (4) hazardous groups with HG4 being the most Hazardous.

On the basis of each of the four grouping there are then appropriate regulations and guide lines which must be adhered to in terms of their control and containment. In addition to COSHH, there is also other health and safety legislation allergy, toxicity or any other danger to human health. There are many biological agents which make up a list drawn up within the regulations and they are each classified into four (4) hazardous groups with HG4 being the most Hazardous. On the basis of each of the four grouping there are then appropriate regulations and guide lines which must be adhered to in terms of their control and containment. In addition to COSHH, there is also other health and safety legislation

In place when or coming into contact with potential harmful micro- organisms or biological agents in areas such as working with genetically modified organisms, legistilation with regards to cooling towers and evaporate condensers, anthrax prevention and the infections micro organisms.

Some other bodies are also involved in administering and enforcing health and safety matters regarding construction works.

There are agood number of professionals and their regulatiry bodies in the building constrction industry. These regulatiry bodies make sure that professional institution work with specification provided to upheld professionalism and quality to work produced at the end of each project land over. Some of these regulatory bodies and their institutions are;

ARCON-Architect Regulation Council of Nigeria which regulates the works and activities of architecture that is Nigerian institute of Architectures, CORN- Council of Registered Builders of Nigerian Regulates the Nigerian institute of building (NIOB), COREN- council for the regulation of Engineering in Nigerian regulates the Nigerian society of Engineers (NSE), QSRON as Quantity surveyors registration of Nigeria regulates the Nigerians institute of quantity surveyors and all their activities, CRESV as council of Regulation of Estate surveyors and valuers, TOPREC as town planner regulation council regulates the works of the professional bodies and its regulations.

All these regulatory bodies were authorized and supported by government before their formations and establishments.

Under the health and safety (first Aid) regulation 1981, revised in October 2009, all employers have a duty to provide adequate first aid arrangements for employees and this includes, small business ( less than five employees) and the self employed like private building contractors

Working At Height Regulations.

The working at height legislation (2005) contains the central principles, which will be a useful introduction to new comers. Although the regulations were put into place in 2005, the guidelines are largely common sense. For instance, work must be planned and supervised appropriately. Equipment must be checked before use and Seaford ladders must be used with safety precautions in place. ( like guard rails). Anyone working at height or employing people to work at height should be aware of the basic legislation.its designed to avoid fatalities on the job.

The international labour organization adopted the safety and health in construction convention (No 1 167) and its associated recommendation (No 175) 1988. as a complement to these standards, the code of practice on safety and healthy in construction was approved in 1992. in line with the newest trends in occupational safety and healthy (OSH) management, the ILO developed the guidelines on occupational health and safety management applicable to all sectors and particularly useful in the construction industry as they highlight issues relating to subcontracting.

Essential areas of responsibility set out by the regulations are as follows;

As Leader or Employers you are Responsible for planning supervising and monitoring the work at height. This includes duties such as checking the equipment, and stopping work in poor weather. The employers must also ensure that the person doing the work is competent to do, or is being trained by a competent supervisor.

Fall Presentation:

The leader or employers is responsible for taking measures to prevent falls. This includes providing safety equipment to minimize the distance and consequences of a fall.

Choosing Equipment:

Where it isn’t pratical for work to be carried out from a place or work equipment must be selected to ensure the employee is not put at risk. The choice of equipment will depend on distance negotiated, duration and frequency of thee work, and it should also be chosen with emergency evacuation or rescue in mind. To fulfill their duties employers should be able to show that they have considered all of the potential risks and made an informed decision. The regulations specifies certain equipment or systems for different working situations – check them for more information about your particular area of work.

Cordoning The Danger Areas:

The employer is responsible for identifying danger areas, such as the ground below and around a scaffold, where people may be harmed by filling objects. The areas should be properly equipped and also clearly marked for employees and the public.

Regular Inspection:

Employers are responsible for meeting the complex inspection requirements laid out in the working at Height regulations. Equipment and sites must be regularly inspected and checked before use.

Employee Reporting:

An employee or trip member has responsibilities of properly using equipment and for reporting any situation or equipment that he find to be risky and faulty in other avert accidents and other related work injuries.

Significance Of Safety Management In Building Construction Site.
  1. Safety management in building construction site is of enormous importance to the entire construction and it begins from the pre design, design stage, construction stage up to the completion of the project to assist both the client and the main contractor.
  2. It provides an information to the workers and the construction and on how to be an guide against any practice that may cause accident or injury during the construction process.
  3. the safety protective wears or attire like the land at helps to protect and prevent lead injury from falling objects or from letting the head of the employees or workers.
  4. the application of safety management during construction will ensure appropriate construction methodology is adopted to increase efficiency of the project.
  5. the health, life of workers and constructional materials are protected throughout the construction projects.
  6. it helps to control infections and pollution on the construction site by ensuring that workers put on their safety glasses or goggles to safe guard and protect the eyes against saw dust and debris from affecting his sight.
  7. it provides instructions and education to workers in different operatives to enhance and improve in their methods of executing tasks.
  8. it helps to reduce waste of building construction materials and to maximize profit by th main constructor.
  9. it assist the main contractor and its crews to finish the project within an agreed stipulated time agreed up in the contract document.
  10. it helps to reduce accidents and injuries during and after the construction periods when all the safety protocols are observed and obeyed in accordance to statute.
  11. It ensures that the right type of material is used and also an adequate estimation of cost is properly analyzed to assist in the project delivery.

1.1 Statement Of The Problem

There is deffiency in the application of safety management in most of the building construction site in Nigeria. Due to this professional negligence and ignorance, along most construction companies own, brought about the crucial analysis of safety management in our indigenous construction firms to correct the problem of failure, to apply safety precaution and design stage.

Construction industry in Nigeria has a lot of risk and loss of workers life over the years, so many accidents and injury prone cases are as well recorded evry years. To prevent this trend from reoccurring, safety management system will have to be adopted by all employers, construction experts, supervisor, engineers and all working crews to control this rising incidence from always repeating itself.

Prevention they say is better than cure, it will be of interest for government to continue to remind the issue of safety to all construction company to adopt this in their construction programme. For individual (private) constructions firms and government owned and other foreign expatriated within the industry to succeed in this fight for poor implementation of safety, policy, principles, programme, rules, regulations and legislations will have to be cherished and welcome as a source of remedy to the problem in question.

To reduce death, injury and stress of workers during construction process, adequate training should be given to the workers for proper orientation of work. For instance, building construction sites are made up of so much plant and machinery and operators of this type of equipment should be fully trained and that also is applicable for those workers or drivers who operates vehicles like tippers, tankers ( diesel or fuel) cars both on and off with included are those mechanical equipments like mechanical diggers, cranes, fork lift, truck, caterpillars and so on should all be exposed to practical knowledge for more acquisition of skills.
Despite all efforts put inplace, why does building construction projects collapse?

This question is paramount because each time a structure or building fails or colpase, so many lives are lost at a result of the problem. There are some number factors causing this problem and they are professional negligence, poor supervision of construction projects, poor quality material and Workmanship, selfishness from most contractors to maximize profit and inadequate safety management procedures are all involved. Questionnaire, interviews and participants observations are designed to examine the problem of safety management in building construction industry.

I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic

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How to nail it on the head during your project defence

You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.

Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.

Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.

Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.

Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.

Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.

Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.

Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.

These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.

The structure of a good project work

Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are

1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.

4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.

5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.



Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy ( a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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