Rural Management As A Strategy For Reducing Rural – Urban Migration In Nigeria
Rural resources have a lot of potential which needed to be brought into full production as to uplift the values. These values can only be achieved when other resources like times, money, infrastructure, expertise an d the like are applied. The high demand of products is expected to propel the application of the said resources into maximum production which in turn increase the value of rural environment, confirming value to be a function of profit.
Unfortunately, government policies and programmes in the year past failed to reflect the need for balance rural and urban development. Thus, most development policies and programmes are urban – oriented. As a result rural dwellers have been subjected to poverty, unemployment, poor infrastructure, economic and social defects. Incidentally, rural dweller a stick to migration.
Therefore, this study on Rural Development. As a strategy, for reducing Rural – Urban Migrations in Nigeria, a case study of Auchi, Edo State, seek to identify rural development programmes/projects extent of rural urban migration and factors responsible for rural urban migration in the study area.
From the findings based on the analysed data, integrated Rural Development Strategy has been pin-pointed and recommended as a feasible and viable measure toward minimizing the rate of rural – urban migration in Nigeria at large and Ishielu in particular.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background Of the Study
- 1.2 Aim and Objectives of the Study
- 1.3 Statement of the Problem
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Significance of the Study
- 1.6 Scope of the Study
- 1.7 Limitations of the Study
- 1.8 Definition of Terms
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Introduction
- 2.2 The Concept of Rural Area
- 2.3 The Concept of Management
- 2.4 The Concept of Rural Management
- 2.5 The Concept of Development
- 2.6 The Concept of Rural Development
- 2.7 Rural Development and Management
- 2.7.1 The Need for Rural Development in Nigeria
- 2.8 Classification of Rural Development Programmes
- 2.9 Strategy
- 2.9.1 Rural Development Strategies
- 2.9.2 The Basic Needs Approach
3.0 Research Methodology
- 3.1 The Study Population
- 3.2 Sources of Data Collection
- 3.3 Method of Data Collection
- 3.4 Sample Size and Techniques
- 3.5 Method of Data Presentation and Analysis
4.0 Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Presentation of Data, Analysis and Interpretation of Results
5.0 Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations
- 5.1 Summary of Findings
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendations
1.1 Background of the Study
According to Aniker (1973), rural management is the strategies, policies and programs for the development of rural areas and the promotion and empowering of activities carried out in such areas as rural crafts, fishing, buildings and social infrastructures with the ultimate aim of achieving a fuller utilization of available physical and human resources and yield higher incomes and better living conditions for the rural people and effective participation of the later in the development process.
Nigeria, a country in West African sub-region is blessed with abundant natural and material resources. With an estimated current population of over nine hundred and twenty four thousand (924, 000) square kilometers, Nigeria is unarguably the most populous country in African and one of the largest in terms of geographical area. About seventy percent (70%) of the population depend on agricultural activities for their livelihood and live in rural communities. Currently, over forty million (40,000,000) out of the total population of over one hundred million (100,000,000) people live in urban area. Therefore, the rural area within the geographic entity of the country is whereby majority of the population is found.
The country is passing through a social economic and technological revolution which is separating rural development from merely agricultural development. Rural development and agricultural development have been considered synonymous but agriculture is by no means the only possible occupation for the rural dwellers and therefore there is the need to distinguish between rural management and agricultural development. New and broader views have emerged which distinguished rural lands development and management from merely agricultural development.
Rural land management is not merely agriculture and economic growth alone but also a strategy, policy and program designed to improve the economic and social life of the people in the rural areas. In this vain, it implies a modernization which would not only increases the productive capacity but also change attitude and need to replace the sense of dependence on the natural environment by the desire and a broody to manipulate it.
The above assertion reveals that the ambit of rural management is very wide indeed. It therefore includes generation of new employment, more equitable access to arable lands, equitable distribution of income, wide spread and improvement in health, housing, maintenance of law and order, creation of incentives and opportunities for individuals to realizes their full potentials through education and sharing in the decisions and actions which affect their general lives.
Rural management has been pursued by rural people themselves, government, different institutions and organizations. Though, in rural management we are primarily concerned with people who are engaged in agricultural pursuits, the peoples’ immediate and pressing problems are not all concerned with food. The most pressing need of the rural people were for more roads, schools, community halls, also good drinking water, rural electrification and industrialization amongst others.
Hence, rural development has been approached by the government and people in one or more of the following ways:
- Provision of incentives and means of raising agricultural productivities.
- Providing suitable opportunities for widening the base of gainful employment in the rural areas through such schemes as rural industrialization and other non – farm activities oriented towards local needs.
- Providing rural areas with means and facilities (schools, recreation centres, hospitals, pipe borne water, electricity, etcetera) for realizing with an urban standard of living in their places of residence.
Thus, in discussing the objectives of a sound rural management, (Rural Management Authority) RMA noted the following three important features:
- Improving the standards of living of the rural population which involves mobilization and allocation of resources so as to reach a desirable balance in relation to the welfare and productive services available to the rural sectors.
- Mass participation requires that resources be allocated to low income regions and classes and that the productive and social services actually reach them.
- Creation of employment opportunities.
In addition to, some rural management proponents suggest that the major objectives of rural management should be a non–economic goal that is “rural as quality of life” which gives primacy to environmental quality. Other proponents suggest that the “empowerment” of local citizens is the most appropriate goal for rural management activities that require that local people and institutions develop the capacity to manage rural development.
1.2 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of this research is to examine rural management as a strategy for reducing rural–urban migration in Nigerian having Auchi, Etsako West Local Government Area of Edo State as a case study.
The objectives of this study are as follow:
- To identify the needs why the rural areas should be developed in Nigeria.
- To identify rural development programmes /projects available in the study area.
- To find out why people in the rural areas migrate to urban areas.
- To examine the extent of rural urban – migration.
- To identify the general problem faced by the rural population.
1.3 Statement of the Problem
The statement of the problem is to study rural management as a strategy for reducing rural-urban migration in Nigeria, a case study of Auchi.
Generally in Nigeria, there have been uneven development and glaring inequalities of opportunities between the rural and urban areas. In spite of the fact that the majority of Nigerians are rural dwellers rural areas still have little or no opportunities for education and employment. No doubt rural areas in Nigeria are characterized by poverty, malnutrition, poor communication, illiteracy unproductive agriculture with the use of traditional implements, general low per capital income. Also includes lack of health facilities, public electricity, borehole water and motorable roads which hinder them from evacuating foods and industrial raw materials.
Rural development proper should module all and sundry, unfortunately lack of sufficient fund for programme execution, high cost of building materials and labour, failure to incorporate people affected in planning and in a more serious note, the rural dwellers’ level of understanding is too low that instead of attracting government attention by initiating a project, they expect the government to do everything for them which is impossible. All these factors problems act as a push against the rural dwellers in the study area to the urban areas, where they can enjoy social amenities and infrastructures such as considerable water supply, electricity, health facilities, tarred roads, and abundant job opportunities etcetera. At the end of this study, we shall know how the rural development can be effective means (strategy) for reducing rural – urban migration in Nigeria generally and Auchi Etsako West Local Government Area of Edo State in particular. The preceding sentences, therefore, from the focus of this research give rise to the following research questions;
- Why should rural areas be developed in Nigeria?
- Why do people in the rural areas migrate to the urban areas?
- What are the problems faced by the rural populations?
- What are the likely solutions to the problems posed by migration of people from Auchi community?
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study.
- What kind of rural development programmes / projects are being / have been executed in Auchi?
- Does lack of integrated rural development responsible for rural – urban migration in the study area?
- In what way(s) did the absence of integrated rural development and management affect the standard of living in the study area?
- In your own opinion what are the factors militating against rural development in Auchi?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The significance or needs of this research are as follows:
The study will give relevant advice to the government as well as the people of Auchi on the necessary steps to be taken to solve the problems of rural development and as well minimized rural – urban migration in the study area.
It will also be helpful for future writers who might choose to write on similar topics.
It will also be of help to town planning authorities in the study area concerned for use in connection with making decision bordering on the problems identified in Auchi community.
This study will stand a chance of literature review for further studies and an eye opener on the problems of rural areas and possible way out.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study concentrates on the rural management as a strategy for reducing rural–urban migration in Nigeria with a particular reference to Auchi, Etsako West Local Government Area of Edo state. Such rural developmental ideas that the study covers are; rural electrification, housing development, water supply, interconnected road networks, job creation through industrialization, to mention but a few. Though these are common problems with all our rural areas, but this study only covers Auchi. Hence, any other location mentioned in the course of this study is for emphasis.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
Certain difficulties were encountered in the course of this study. High up among them is the inability to get enough pre-study data in time and financial constraints. So many costs were incurred in the aspect of transformation of data into information, labour and sources of materials.
The inability of current data and where they are available sometimes incomplete and unorganized to the researcher’s given guidelines. Again is the reluctance with which some of these information were made available to the researcher. In most cases (Iyekhe hamlet), the respondents will refuse to make the data available claiming that they are secrets and not meant for the public.
1.8 Definition of Terms
1.8.1 Rural Area:
This is an area or land that is found outside the local, state and federal government headquarters (Murtala, 2014).
Management is the direction and supervision, organizing and controlling of human efforts to achieve set objectives and goals. (Thorncroft, 1965).
A carefully devised plan of action to achieve a goal, or the art of developing or carrying out such a plan. (Ugochukwu, 2011).
1.8.4 Urban Area:
This is an area or land found within the headquarters of a local government, state government and federal capital territory. (Murtala 2014).
This is the act of moving from one place or residence or geographical location to another either on a temporal or permanent basis. (Isah, 2000).
A person who moves from one place to another, especially in order to find work. (Isah, 2000).
Urbanization is defined as the shift of population from rural areas to cities, and the resulting growth of urban areas. (Ugochukwu, 2011).
The Town and Country Planning Act, Cap 240, 1990, defines development as the carrying out of building, engineering, mining or other operations in, on, over or under any land, the making of any material change in the use of any buildings, or other land or the sub-division of land.
1.8.10 Rural Development:
This is a strategy, policy and programme designed to improve the economic and social life of the people in the rural area. (Abbas, 1993).
1.8.11 Rural Management:
Rural management is the organizing and controlling of human efforts to achieve set targets in the rural area. (Ugochukwu, 2011).
1.8.12 Rural-Urban Migration:
This is the movement from rural area to urban area in search for greener pasture or as a result of inadequacy of social amenities and services in the rural area. (Abbas, 1993).
5.0 Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Summary of Findings
It has been observed from the research work that the majority of the people residing in the Auchi are of the age group of 0-5yrs (infant) and of the age group of about 61yrs and above. This shows that majority of the people that fall within the range of active labour of men and women had migrated to the urban areas in search for white collar jobs and better social life which little active labour force are left behind. Some of the old people were believed to be people that had gone round the towns and cities only to come back home at old age.
The study shows that Auchi is dominated by peasant farmers. This is as a result of the fact that the area has large usable area of land to farm on and farming is seen as more lucrative and a source of livelihood in the area. Not to forget the closeness of the farmlands to the various households as one of the factors encouraging such engagements.
It is also noted that those that reside in the community after acquiring their higher education are not much in the study area. That is only those that are in primary and secondary schools dominate the rural areas. Though, one of the reasons why rural dwellers migrate to urban area is to acquire a better education. But surveys had shown that most of them prefer to stay behind in the urban areas after acquiring their educational pursuit and secure better paying jobs.
The study clearly shows that Auchi is not well developed to the standard it ought to have been and so people move away from the community for a better life.
The findings also indicated that majority of the people in Auchi depend on water from the river which is mostly inadequate and unsafe for human consumption. On the other hand, rain water is not dependable while the tap water is not adequately distributed because of lack of physical planning.
It was also observed that the power supply was irregular due to improper planning and management. This problem is also coupled with the result of bad lines and worn out transformers which call for replacement and rejuvenation.
The survey also revealed that though the condition of the road networks in the study area is not too bad, efforts still need to be employed by the government to further link neighbouring communities for inter/intra trading among the people.
Survey further revealed that the main limitation presently faced by the community is the problems of gully erosions which has eaten deep into the town and confiscated some households and streets.
From the survey, it was deduced that most of the government infrastructures are not working. Like the fertilizer company along Igara road. Which was commissioned in 2003.
Field Survey revealed though, some of the primary schools buildings are poor, but the present government of Comrade Governor Adams Aliyu Oshiomhole has done substantial renovations on all government owned primary schools in the study area and also provide free primary education for all.
Lastly, the survey shows that there is hope for improvement in the community if social amenities and infrastructures are provided; rural development programs are set up by agencies concerned to achieve an amiable community.
Rural – urban migration of people has been accepted as a natural phenomenon. However efforts should be directed therefore not at stopping the movement of people from rural to urban area, as this cannot be possible but as controlling this phenomenon to a universally acceptable balance whereby the urban areas does not satisfy with life at the expense of the rural development and management and vice versa. This statement was critically examined so far in the preceding chapters of this research work. The development of Auchi as a rural area and other rural areas in Nigeria at large is as good as developing the entire country; reason being that more than 70% of Nigerians resides in the rural areas. If we talk of rural areas, we talk of the Nigerian populations.
- In order to minimize rural – urban migration, it is recommended that an integrated rural development planning should be pursued with emphasis on the provision of basic amenities as well as provision of employment opportunities in the rural areas through the development and management of agricultural and agro based industries.
- Efforts should be made to solve various problems associated with rural – urban migration. i.e. efforts should be employed to make the rural areas to be as comfortable as in their counterparts (urban) as this will dissuades rural dwellers from moving to the urban areas.
- Establishing farm settlements: In other words to encourage and possibly maximize agricultural productions. The government should set up farm settlements where farmers will come together to work as cooperatives. More foods will be provided as a result of combined efforts and which the researcher believes will provide employment for a number of people as there will be need for staff to work in the various farm settlements.
- The fertilizer company along old Igara road Auchi should be brought back to life as this will assist farmers in their agricultural products, serve as a source of employment opportunities in the community and generally serve as a source of income to the government.
- To redress the existing policies, programmes and attitudes towards rural development, Integrated Rural Development Strategy is proffered by the researcher. This strategy will not only do justice to the rural – urban migration but to other numerous alarming issues in the rural environment. Consequently, the era of initiating agricultural programs as the only way of developing rural areas by the implementation of the strategy should be revisited.
- It is recommended that mobilization of internal and external capital resource to create industries which will provide more employment and cheaper goods and provides the necessary infrastructures such as better road transport, housing and public utilities. It also involves raising the living of the rural people and creating the necessary organization and institution for effective functioning of the more complex rural society. The introduction of modern methods of farming and supervision of rural farming by extension.
- The rural dwellers should be educated on the need for self projects since the government cannot do everything for them.
- Private investors should be encouraged by the government to invest in the rural areas to boost standards of living condition and to encourage the dwellers in the rural areas.
- Government should provide housing and adequate social amenities for the rural dwellers so as to enhance the development of rural areas.
- The government as well as the contractors should desist from the habit of abandonment of projects (like the ‘Udeye’ – big hole Project which has been abandoned in Auchi for over 10 years now) and misappropriation of fund allocated for the construction of basic amenities in the rural areas.
- The government should also provide sound maintenance culture to ensure durability of the facilities provided by itself. A good example is the Okpella cement factory that has been in existence for decades. Because of lack of maintenance culture, it turned out to be producing less than half of what quantity it ought to be producing per day. Some of the finishing and mixing equipments are outdated and thus make labour becomes boring. Mr. ‘Braima Sawuta’ complained.
- Moreover, help should be given to the people to make sure that more rural development programmes of benefit are been organized. Programmes like the Directorate of Food, Road and Rural Infrastructure (DFRRI) which was established by the government with the aim of developing rural areas. This development programme agenda include; road construction, provision of pipe borne water, rural electrification and so on. This has helped in one way or the other to open up the rural areas, and also reduces the rate of rural – urban migration. When development and management programmes are well organized in all areas concerned, it will reduce rural – urban migration, thereby minimizing the problem of urbanization as well as promoting the well being of the rural dwellers in the study area.
- Auchi is seen as a future commercial nerve in the Edo North regions as it leaks the whole of the East and parts of the South to the Northern part of the country. It is suggested that rigorous planning of the town will boost economic activities, introduction of more higher education will draw development to the door step, proper road networks within and outside the town, the major rivers and vast unexhausted lands should be used for resorts, aside this; games should be organized in the rural areas annually to draw people home. All these and much more will encourage people to settle in the rural areas rather than migrating to urban areas.
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