Rural Infrastructure Development As A Solution To Rural-Urban Migration
This study aims to examine rural infrastructure development as a solution to rural-urban migration. The study was conducted in Oshogbo Local Government Area of Kogi State, Nigeria. A total of 200 members of the LGA were selected randomly by the researcher as the population of the study. The questionnaires contained about 16 structured questions which were divided into sections A and B. The end being the use of the required data to understand the various situations it is with a view to making valuable recommendations and contributions.
1.1 Background to the Study
Man is a social being who cannot stay in a place according to William’s theory on clash of pyramids. This is especially were most things needed are not in site.
The fulani’s who are known to be the normadic people migrated from Mali according to Mgbogunje (1996). These people settled where they found green vegetation to feed their cattle. They keep moving and taking refuge from one place to another in search of betterment. People who now form communities, state and countries today were migrant from one continent or the other.
The major problem facing Lokoja local government area of Kogi State and some other parastatals of similar magnitude is not merely the scarcity of well trained manpower but their inability to effectively utilize the skill of the few available one’s. The ability to manage involves a lot more than the technical and conceptual skills, and this has to do with the managers ability to work and interact effectively with other members of the organization. In order to spur other members of the organization to strive willingly to accomplish the organizational task, the administrator who manages people must be able to put in place the necessary motivational techniques which can galvanize subordinate to low productivity. The level of productivity is therefore determined by individual rewards and needs.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Over years, people have showed considerable concern from all walks of life for the development of rural areas both in advanced and developing countries. The crux of the matter, however, is that the new nations of west Africa with particular reference to Nigeria have given priority to their urban population as they leave the rural population frustrated in such areas as provision of social amenities, recreational centres or facilities, higher education, and employment opportunities among others.
This has led to the problem of rural migration, which this research is designed to address. The problem that causes rural urban migration is slated below: poor access road, poor school/colleges, high level of poverty, lack of recreational centres, poor electricity etc.
1.3 Scope of the Study
The topic of this research project will be treated within the cycle of the case study but other relevant issues concerning the topic outside the case study will be used to compare or justify the topic as wide range phenomenon.
It will look at the effects of rural urban migration both on the case study and outside the case study in general.
Relevant solutions to the problems of rural areas will be preferred.
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The main objectives of the following can be seen in the below:
- To throw more light on the rural infrastructural development as a solution to rural urban migration
- To encourage people to stay and develop their communities
- To suggest way by which rural urban migration can be checked and minimized and reduced to the barest minimum
- To suggest ways by which the government can encourage the development of rural areas.
1.5 Research Hypotheses
For the purpose of satisfying the demands of this study, the following research hypotheses are to be looked into:
- H0: the provision of rural infrastructure does not cause any reduction in rural-urban migration
H1: the provision of rural infrastructure does cause reduction in rural-urban migration
- H02: rural-urban migration cause inefficiency in public service
H2: rural-urban migration does not cause inefficiency in public service
1.6 Significance of the Study
Research of this kind is important in many ways to a good number of people, government and other developmental institutions.
- Firstly, it will add value to an existing literature on rural development and urbanization.
- Secondly, it will assist all students within the realm of social science particularly those in public administration and regional planning department.
- Thirdly, the study will be of immense value to government particularly the policy makers at all level on how best to develop rural areas.
- Finally, other people who may wish to conduct research on rural-urban migration as it affects educational development at the rural level will equally find this work very helpful or useful.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
In this process of embarking on this research study, the following problem were encountered.
There was no adequate time for the researcher to cope with the demands of the study
This researcher was unable to get adequate information in the course of the study
This is also another limitation of this rigorous work. That is, the researcher does not have adequate time to travel from one geographical location to the other
Lack of adequate fund is also another problem of this rigorous work.
1.8 Definition of Relevant Terms
The following key terms will be defined briefly:
Emize (1979) See development as involving progression, movement and of advance towards something better. Its improvement on the material and non material aspect of life.
Simply mean the result of an action, the outcomes, the impression produced (Chambers mini dictionary of mark costable 1989).
According to Ayodele (1995), it is the movement of people from one place e.g. village to cities are towns, or movement from one country to another country.
According to Oxford mini dictionary (1999), it simply refers to remedy to rural diseases or trouble
Rural infrastructural development:
This simply mean creation of infrastructures that assist in developing a place such as dam, road, communication network, electricity etc.
This is an area that lack some development maturity e.g. in population size, occupation, communication, information, education system, nature etc.
1.9 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study etc.
- Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter.
- Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design and methods adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to examine rural infrastructure development as a solution to rural-urban migration
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges rural-urban migration
Sustainable development of rural communities must be ensured. This is to manage the development of rural area in a way to satisfy the present social, economic, and environmental goals of cities without compromising the future satisfaction. This helps to overcome the limitations of past human settlement policies and satisfy the growing demand for democratic governance at all level. Finally, using the mineral resources; products of the rural communities and their cultural heritage can be a source of development for the communities. This can be actualized by sitting of manufacturing plant that will need to operate with those mineral resources in those communities where they are found and making adequate policies and provision of other infrastructural facilities available so as to encourage the production of the manufacturing plant and the export of its produce.
Most communities in Nigeria in the past decade has remained in a state of absolute under development, especially at the local government level. The state has failed to record development that is commensurate to its vast human, material and financial resources. It has being a tale of woes, and recurring decimal of poor and visionless leadership, and political instability. The consequences are the failure of the state to maintain and provide the basic needs of its populace. Over the years there have been frequent outcries of increased population in the urban areas as a result of rural- urban migration and its attendant adverse consequences.
Sequel to the research findings of this study therefore, it has become pertinent to make the following recommendations. It is considered in the view of the researcher that it they are taken seriously, and implemented with a genuine sense of purpose and deep commitment; that they will go a long way in enhancing the management of rural – urban migration and programmes set up by the state government.
Both the people and government must co-operate. There can be no even development if people do not support government efforts. Likewise if the government cannot communicate to its citizen what it intends to achieve through its transparency and public accountability, then we still have a long way to go.
The government should make use of a bottom-up approach or management technique. If ideas and policy statement can come from the grassroots or masses then government will be able to know what the people really need. Then programmes and policies will address the needs of the people instead of the selfish interest of privileged few in the state. The government should make use of “best-practice method”. This will help bring out the best of the best.
Hence projects and awarding of contracts should not be based on political patronage but on who can best deliver on the job. Hence it must employ well qualified and competent technical and scientific staff.
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