Rural Housing Problems In Imo State (A Case Study Of Ikeduru L.G.A)

Project and Seminar Material for Office Technology and Management OTM

Project and Seminar Material for Office Technology and Management OTM


Abstract


Housing is considered and known worldwide as goods of necessity. Every individual is consciously or unconsciously involved in housing. This research work examined the problems of rural housing in Imo state, particularly in Ikeduru. Data was generated through primary and secondary means.

The writer found out among others that the problems of rural housing in IKeduru is due to inadequate building materials, provision and availability of infrastructural, and further recommended that in order to minimize rural housing problems, there should be a provision for setting up of rural housing and habitant development corporation among others.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.1 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 The aim and objective of the study
  • 1.4 Relevance of the study
  • 1.5 Research hypothesis
  • 1.6 Scope of the study

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Literature

  • 2.1 How inadequate building materials affecting building
  • 2.1.1 Subsoil and foundation inadequacies
  • 2.1.2 Dimension Instability
  • 2.1.3 Material decay
  • 2.1.4 Lack of continuity or togetherness
  • 2.1.5 Alternation and misuse
  • 2.1.6 Overall instability
  • 2.1.7 Structural failure from roofing
  • 2.1.8 Building issues with poor framing
  • 2.2 The problem of rural housing with respect of Imo state (a case study of Ikeduru L.G. A)
  • 2.3 The problem of rural housing with respect to Nigeria
  • 2.3.0 Setting up of rural building centre:
  • 2.3.1 Setting up of rural housing And habitat Development Corporation:
  • 2.3.2 National mission for rural housing

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Data sources
  • 3.2 Method/techniques of data collection.
  • 3.3 Method of data analysis
  • 3.4 Hypothesis testing
  • 3.5 Problems statement and hypothesis

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Data analysis

  • 4.1 Houses types classification with age
  • 4.2 Local building materials of construction and technology
  • 4.3 Problems of construction
  • 4.4 Types of building foundation
  • 4.5 Maintenance frequency by house types
  • 4.7. Source of housing finance

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Recommendations
  • References
  • Questionnaire

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Of Study

Housing is one of the three (3) most significant in the sustainability of human existence with considerable economic, social, culture and personal important area.

Housing is need by every individual living in both developed and undeveloped countries of the world.
Government at every level have made it a priority in its policy formulation to check rural urban draft
According, rural development in all its ramification can be used to reverse the trend. Housing is among the participated infrastructural provision in any rural planning policy; many rural area are assuming suburban status due to the basic arrangement that are being provide as well as housing.

For example, 75% of the population in imo state have their own housing accommodation, some of which are of modern building, block of flats, bungalow, self-contained storey building and of old fashioned building-mud houses with thatch roofs. (Imo state housing cooperation (2011).

Imo is a developing state with abundant human and material resources; hence, the quest for rapid development has given rise to act for blunder by successive government with respect to development plans, budget allocation and misplacement of priorities.

The production of housing has influenced largely policies, innovation and the ability to sustain the environment, therefore, good rural housing contribute very significantly in developing the environment.

Housing is one of the economic activities that operate strictly on the law demand and supply.

All these negative development are direct responses to the nation housing shortage and problem.

Rural housing is characterized by numerous problems which can broadly be classified as follows:
A. Socio-Economic Problem:

This leads to high rate of unemployment, high ratio of low wages earners, poverty, high cost of production and increase in cost of building materials etc.

B. Land Tenure System:

This has become a general problem which hinders any meaningful development. It was in a bid to solve this problem that the federal government ventured into the establishment of land use Act 1978, whereby simple land owners are resisted from any vital development, including housing estate that will boost stocks/economy. This is as a result of the change of land ownership, whereby the governments are the legal owners of the land, while the owners are the tenants, struggling to acquire the right of occupancy in order to use the land.

C. Political Problems:

Rural housing problems in Imo state is a much talk about phenomenon, worthy of an academic investigation, hence the case study of Ikeduru local government area, most of the houses are quite in deplorable condition, made up of rural shambles and other make-shift dwellings, which are recognizably unfit for human habitation.

The rural housing has become handicapped by poor environmental quality, inadequate planning and lack of qualified builders with knowledge of appropriate construction techniques.

Dwelling units are not maintained, there are no good access roads to houses, plastering needed for floors in most case are not made available.

The rural housing is virtually devoid of basic social amenities and infrastructural like convenient sources of pipe borne water, sewage and garbage disposal system, other facilities such as market, health centers, social and cultural area for education, recreational areas and community participation management are very important.
The most conspicuous hardship rural housing is facing is a new housing construction, their maintenance, upgrading and rehabilitation of the environment.

Apart from financial returns from agricultural sector a high interest rates, repayment period from commercial bank constitute an enormous problems to housing production.

This situation is even worsened by the rejection of rural houses as collateral or security and others discriminatory activities of the banks.

Therefore, the researcher will aim at examining the local techniques/technology employed in rural housing construction and maintenance or investigating the level of provisions of local materials in relative to high cost of foreign building materials.


1.2 Statement Of Problem

This research work intends to address the problems of rural housing in Ikeduru with regards to socio-economic problem, political problem and problems constituted by land tenure system.


1.3 Aim And Objectives Of The Study

The aim of this research work is to examine the problems of rural housing in Ikeduru.

Objectives:

To achieve the above stated aim, the following objectives will be pursed.

  1. Examine the level of provision of building materials with respect to their cost
  2. To examine the techniques employed in rural housing construction and maintenance
  3. To examine the provision of infrastructure in the study area.
  4. Examine the effect of the problem inadequate housing delivery
  5. Examine the sanitary condition and availability of electric pipe – borne water, and roads that exist in the rural areas

1.4 Relevance Of The Study

The essence of this study is to unveil the problems encountered by the inhabitations of rural houses in rural area, particularly those in Ikeduru L.G.A with a view of drawing the attention of government on the negligence of its duties towards rural houses in rural area. If the finding of this research are given consideration by the appropriate authority, there will be lot of components concerning the problems of rural housing that are being faced today by rural inhabitants in the rural area of Imo state.


1.5 Research Hypothesis

Hypothesis is a set of ideas or thought that is concerned in the mind requiring proof, through experiment and confirmation.

The hypothesis chosen for this research is thus:

  1. H1: Rural housing construction is mainly made up local materials.
  2. H2 Techniques employed in construction are poor and in this case does not confirm to the modern in style which enhanced security and good health.

Rural housing is mainly shelter or residence only and lack healthy environmental and basic infrastructures.


1.6 Scope Of The Study

This research is restricted to selected communities in Ikeduru local government area of Imo state among which are;

  1. Eziama
  2. Owu Amakohia
  3. Ngugu (Ngo)
  4. Amatta
  5. Amaimo
  6. Umudim
  7. Avuvu
  8. Iho (the head quarter)
  9. Ideme

Chapter Five


5.0 Summary Of Findings, Conclusion And Recommendation

This research has been that the housing of the rural population, the disadvantages, poorer and large proportion of Imo state population is not reviewing the amount and type of attention it deserves.

The housing structure and forms in rural communities are product of decades of cultural adaptation to the ecological environment and an embodiment of our artists/architectural heritage. As such, they should be in corporate in the machinery of improving the rural housing so as to ensure a compromise between the traditional pattern of housing and modern pattern, rather than the blighting of rural environment caused by non-traditional house types, especially interm of inappropriate construction techniques and specification employed.

As numerous local building materials abound in our rural areas, it then becomes imperative that careful but deliberate, modernization of these resources to improve their strength and life span should remain a strategy for improving rural housing problems.

Also, rural housing policy and planning, must seen as an integrated part of an overall rural development programmed.

Effort aimed at improving rural housing condition should resists turning the rural areas to new urban centres.

Both the rural and urban areas must exist as compliment of one another and not one swallowing the other. As it has been observed that a state development can be measured only interm of the development of its rural environment of state side, rural housing provides the first index of that development.


5.1 Recommendations

Prior to the third and fourth national development plans, it arranges the areas that where kept in neglect in rural housing even with operation of the government plans.

Rural housing has only be effected through the establishment of settlement sewerages, merging of villages to form available force for the attraction of amenities and services model villages, encouragement of cooperative societies in respective state and at centres.

All these are expected to be achieved through integrated rural development programmes but their achievement are still not encouraging. In this pursuit, rural housing planning has to be given consideration or recognizes as an integral part.

However, depending on the prevailing socio-economic force in Ikeduru local government area, the following principle may guide the planning of rural housing:

  1. Consideration of our resources and natural environment especially the rural landscape.
  2. In some cases where the layout design could be adopted, housing should be designed to accommodate a service of integrated activities in the rural area chiefly agricultural. As most traditional pattern, agricultural activities are always at proximity to their dwelling areas.
  3. The location in space of a house in the village is an important element of density. It is therefore significant that it is therefore significant that it is flexible in design so that it can serve its purpose over several generations in the same place.
  4. In the village layout plans, houses should be bound to the infrastructure that provides proper access, communication and sanitary services as potable water supply and wastes removal. They should also relate to communal facilities such as schools, place of worship and community centres.

Any policy so formulated must seek to improve and ameliorate the structural condition of the existing rural housing stock as well as attract the migrated population general development of the rural communities
Based on these recommendations, the following guidelines are advocated, they includes: financial assistance, technical aid, research into the local building materials, integrated rural development, and of course a sound institutional frameworks.

Financial Assistance

Since lack of adequate fund is the prime hindrance to a better housing standard, it than becomes imperative that the government and its financial agencies should come to their aid. Such as subsiding the rural housing sector, credit inducement facilities for the purchase of building construction items.

Technical Aid

The technical aid involved the granting of professional advice on the techniques of building design and building standard as well as the use of standard plans to reduce cost should be considered. Resident using local material should also be encouraged by using technology.

Research Into Local Building Materials:

The availability and quality of building material are among the primary factors which influence the development of housing construction activities. It is common knowledge that modern building materials are scare and expensive in many villages like that of Ikeduru L.G.A.
Therefore research into the use of local building material should be intensified to reduce housing cost in the country.

Integrated Rural Development Programmed

As well planned institutional framework will go a long way in a reality, It will assist deserving member of the public to obtain loans in any form after satisfying a conditions and also help to ensure replacement. It will arrange public and community participation in the program. It will ensure timely installation of services such as water, electricity and facilities such as school, health centre and so on.

Implementation

The two major alternatives for implementing the rural housing programme are as follows;

a. Rural housing co-operatives:

Each local government should encourage the establishment of rural housing co-operative societies. At the village level, membership of the co-operative society should include house and respectable member of the community. This co-operative society can be monitored through the state housing agencies. Also financial assistance in the form of revolving loans could be chandelled through the federal agriculture and co-operative banks, which in turn would disburse them to members, interest rate repayment period should be reasonable, kept to a level that will enhance the desired improvement.

However, the village housing co-operative should be organized to play the following roles.

  1. Mobilization of individual saving or capital formation and also for providing the collective security needed to attract matching grants from government and to secure ban from building institutions
  2. The purchase of essential building material in bulk of distribution to members. This could be subsidized by government finding.
  3. Ensuring co-coordinated use of local building material by monitoring the activities of builders and controlling the environmental consequences of indiscriminate excavation and free felling.
  4. Re-orientation of people from the old to the new construction towards a home improvement scheme for the rehabilitation of existing housing stock.
  5. Organization and direction of the self help process in building to capture the local people initiatives and their creative genius.
b. Steps of upgrading the infrastructure:

If any tangible success is to achieve in the improvement of housing in the rural areas, steps have to be taken to upgrade the infrastructural facilities in many instance, these facilities are non-existent.

At first, we should address low-cost techniques in the provision of such facilities like water, road, electricity, drainage system. Therefore, the design standard for infrastructures should be such that are easily adaptable housing regards to the requirement of the rural communities involved.

A method of multi-sectoral rural development should be adopted to provide stand pipe for pipe-born water, street lights followed later by individual local lighting.

Also, essential link road should be constructed and maintained by community efforts storm-water, drainage channels should also be constructed following the alignment of roads.


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