Roles Of Radio And Interpersonal Communication In The Eradication Of Guinea Worm
Guinea worm disease is a disease that has eaten deep into the bone marrow of most developing countries especially in the rural areas of these countries, though efforts has been made and still being made it has to be treated or fought severely for it to be entirely eradicated. That is why the researcher embarked on this research to study and bring out the roles of radio and interpersonal communication in the eradication of guinea worm using Nkalagu community as a case study. The work will be divided into five chapters to allow it to be treated better. Chapter one will comprise or contain from the brief introduction of the study to the scope and limitation of the research. Chapter two will be reviewing relevant literatures on the roles of radio and interpersonal communication in the eradication of guinea worm. Chapter three will deal on the methodology and strategies that will be used in the collection of data for the research, then this data that has been collected will be carefully and clearly presented in tables and interpreted in chapter four while chapter five will give the summary, conclusion and recommendations for further study.
Table of Contents
- Title Page
- Approval Page
- Table of Contents
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of Research Problem
- 1.3 Objectives of the Study
- 1.4 Significant of the Study
- 1.5 Research Questions
- 1.6 Research Hypotheses
- 1.7 Operational and Conceptual Definition of Terms
- 1.8 Assumptions of the Study
- 1.9 The Scope and Limitations of the Study
- 2.1 Sources of Literature
- 2.2 Literature Review
- 2.2.1 A Brief Overview of Communication
- 2.2.2 The History of Radio: An Electronic Medium of Mass Communication
- 2.2.3 A Brief History of Interpersonal Communication
- 2.2.4 A Brief History of Guinea Worm
- 2.2.5 Life Cycle of Dracunculus Medinensis
- 2.2.6 Treatment of Guinea Worm
- 2.2.7 Social and Economic Impact of Guineaworm
- 2.2.8 Endemic Areas
- 2.2.9 Declaring Guinea Worm Disease Eradicable
- 2.2.10 the Roles Radio Has Played in the Eradication of Guineaworm in Nkalagu
- 2.2.11 the Roles Interpersonal Communication Has Played in the Eradication of Guinea Worm in Nkalagu
- 2.2.12 With Efforts Made So Far Does Guinea Worm Still Exist?
- 2.2.13 Barriers of the Eradication of Guinea Worm
- 2.2.14 Suggestions on the Ideal Roles of Radio and Interpersonal Communication in the Eradication of Guinea Worm in Nkalagu
- 2.3 Theoretical Framework
- 2.4 Summary of Literature
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Area of the Study
- 3.3 Population of the Study
- 3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques
- 3.5 Instrument for Data Collection
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Validity of the Instrument
- 3.8 Method of Data Analysis
Data Analysis and Result
- 4.1 Data Analysis
- 4.2 Test of Hypotheses
- 4.3 Discussion and Interpretation of Result
Summary Conclusion and Recommendations
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendations
1.1 Background of the Study
Guinea worm disease also known as DRACUNCULIASIS or MEDINA WORM is a very serious disease that has been a thorn in the flesh of man.
It is one of the most documented human parasites with tales of its behaviour reaching as far back as the second century B.C. This disease which has been in many places but mostly significant in Africa countries like Sudan, Mali, Ghana, Ethiopia and Nigeria is only contracted when a person drinks any water that has been contaminated with the larvae or walks unprotected in infected waters.
Nevertheless in Nigeria especially in Nkalagu community in Ebonyi State this disease affected more people due to the fact that they drink from ponds, Streams and rivers without getting the water treated. The rate of the disease drew the attention of the media who noticed that many people contract this disease out of ignorance and lack of social amenities, like bore hole and pipe borne water in the community, the media used radio because of it’s characteristics of breaking all language barriers, cheaper to afford and wide reach to tell the people precautionary measures to take so as not to contract this disease.
The radio also created awareness to the government and other people to come to the aid of Nkalagu people with infrastructure and fund for treatment of infected persons, then they used interpersonal communication to organize seminars and talks shows where the people are being educated on everything they need to know about the disease and how to prevent it from reoccurring.
The study of the roles of interpersonal communication and radio in Nkalagu, in the eradication of guinea worm is necessary because the previous efforts though reduced, did not eradicate this disease, so the researcher using Nkalagu community want to establish and document their ideal roles in eradication of this disease so that it will serve as a reference material in case of any further occurrence in the community of any other place, and also enhance the quest and fight for eradication.
1.2 Statement of Research Problem
In Nkalagu community in Ebonyi state people suffer from guinea worm disease because they drink from ponds and streams, and the media using interpersonal communication and radio have failed in their quest to eradicate this disease, that is why the researcher embarked on this research to find out the main roles they play or the ideal roles they are meant to play towards the total eradication of this disease.
1.3 Objectives or Purpose of the Study
Every movement by man requires focus that is why the objectives of this study are:
- To ascertain or discover how interpersonal communication and radio educate and expose man to his environment
- To ascertain the roles of both interpersonal communication and radio towards the eradication of guinea worm in Nkalagu community.
- To find out how effective they are in their eradication roles or programmes.
- To examine the problems and prospectects of interpersonal communication and radio in the eradication of guinea worm in Nkalagu.
1.4 Significance of the Study
This study is aimed at exposing the roles of interpersonal communication and radio in the eradication of guinea worm especially in Nkalagu community.
From this the knowledge of the ruralites will be widened to initiate and carryout eradication programmes or projects on their own when the need arises.
To students as well especially those of them in the health sector, they can learn on how communication enhances the eradication of guinea worm in rural areas.
For organizations especially Word Health Organization (WHO), United Nation International Children Emergency Fund (UNICEF) and others who fight or are fighting seriously against this disease to see that it is eradicated, this work will guide them on the best way to approach eradication programmes especially in rural areas where the disease is rampant by exposing to them how effective and easier interpersonal communication and radio will make the whole programme.
In conclusion the government as the last resort in a country should see to it that they get rural dwellers involved in any of the project they are embarking on especially eradication projects because they constitute 70% of the populace.
1.5 Research Questions
- Is communication necessary in the effort of eradicating guinea worm?
- Are radio and interpersonal communication suitable as media of communication for this eradication exercise?
- Is radio more effective than interpersonal communication in reporting each new case or development of the disease anywhere?
- Is interpersonal communication more persuasive than radio in educating the rural dwellers on preventive and simple control measures?
- Is interpersonal communication more effective than radio in treatment of infected persons?
- Can radio be of far reach and generally understandable than interpersonal communication when it comes to message transmission?.
1.6 Research Hypotheses
The following hypothetical statements are to be tested
- H1: Communication is necessary in the effort of eradicating guinea worn
Ho: Communication is not necessary in the effort of eradicating guinea worn
- H2: Radio and interpersonal communication are suitable as media of communication for this eradication exercise.
Ho: Radio and interpersonal communication are not suitable as media of communication for this eradication exercise.
- H3: Radio is more effective than interpersonal communication in reporting each new case or development of the disease any where.
Ho: Radio is not more effective than interpersonal communication in reporting each new case or development of the disease any where.
- H4: Interpersonal communication is more persuasive than radio in educating the rural dwellers on preventive and simple control measures of guinea worm.
Ho: Interpersonal communication is not more persuasive than radio in educating the rural dwellers on preventive and simple control measures of guinea worm.
- H5: Interpersonal communication is more effective than radio in treatment of infected persons.
Ho: Interpersonal communication is not more effective than radio in treatment of infected persons.
- H6: Radio can be of far reach and generally understandable than interpersonal communication when it comes to message transmission.
Ho: Radio can not be of far reach and generally understandable than interpersonal communication when it comes to message transmission.
1.7 Operational and Conceptual Definition of Terms
It is important to note before going further that the researcher put up a working definition of the following terms.
Role, Radio, Interpersonal Communication, Eradication and Guinea worm as anchors through which this research work is conducted.
According to oxford advanced learners dictionary role is the function or position that somebody has or is expected to have in an organization, in a relationship or in a society.
Operationally: Roles are functions that radio and inter personal communication are expected to perform towards the eradication of guinea worm in Nkalagu.
According to Okunna in her introduction to mass communication radio is an audio medium of broadcasting in electronics family that has the capacity to cut through the barriers of illiteracy and infrastructural facilities which could limit the ability of the print media to reach large audience.
Operationally: Radio is an audio medium of broadcasting in electronics family, which has the capacity to cut through the barriers of illiteracy and infrastructural facilities in the eradication of guinea worm in Nkalagu community.
3. Interpersonal Communication:
Is viewed by Miller as a type of communication that occurs between or among a small group of communicators usually in two face setting with opportunity for immediate feedback.
Operationally: It is a type of communication that occurs between stakeholders and other personnel’s sent for seminars or talk shows in eradication of guinea worm programme, and the members of the society or community the programme is meant for usually in two face setting with opportunity for immediate feedback.
4. Guinea worm:
It is a parasitic infection caused by nematode dracunculus medinensis, it is also knows as dracunculiasis or medina worm.
Operationally: This is a parasitic infection caused by nematode dracunculus medinensis, and it is the disease that its eradication in Nkalagu is being talked about.
1.8 Assumptions of the Study
In this study it is assumed that any role played by radio and interpersonal communication in the eradication of guinea worm in Nkalagu is a welcome development.
It is assumed that radio and interpersonal communication encourages or enhances guinea worm eradication in Nkalagu community.
That interpersonal communication and radio carryout adequate coverage of the ruralities in guinea worm eradication programme in Nkalagu community
That there is no language barrier in the use of radio and interpersonal communication in eradication of guinea worm in Nkalagu community.
That Nkalagu community dwellers receive willingly all the health programmes by the government and organizations and the ones aired on radio concerning guinea worm eradication.
And finally that the use of native language by radio and personnel’s sent or selected by the community to interpret to them in their native language what is being said during lecturers, seminars and talks shows, encourages the participation of more people in the eradication programme and their co-operation too.
1.9 The Scope and Limitations of the Study
The scope of the study is to use the people of Nkalagu community to determine the roles interpersonal communication and radio play in the eradication of guinea worm.
The residents of Nkalagu community have suffered seriously and continuously from this disease for many years, and most of the time those that suffer from this disease constitute children under 5 – 10 years, teenagers under 10 – 18 years and adults from 18 and above.
Due to the fact that most of them are illiterates and most of them children, the use of radio that cuts across language barriers and interpersonal communication made the study easier.
This areas was chosen by the researcher so that it will enable her generate data that will bring answers to the research questions.
It was also used because it has the environmental criteria required for the study.
Despite these things there are problems that the researcher is bound to encounter.
The money the researcher has may not be adequate for the project and it will make her unable to go far and wide, and to subscribe to get information that are needed for the project.
It is another problem because a specific time was given to the researcher for the execution of this project, the work may be rushed to meet up with time given and he may not have enough time to relax and do the work perfectly.
During the collection of data due to the bad roads in the area the researchers movements to the remotest parts of the community may be hindered.
Some of the people will not be polite enough to answer questions when asked and many of them may not comply with the researcher leading to difficulties in gathering of answers from the respondents.
The quality of the response may be adversely influenced by the level of education of the respondents.
Summary Conclusion and Recommendations
The main goal of this study is to find out the roles of interpersonal communication and radio towards the eradication of guinea worm. The study revealed that interpersonal communication and radio are major sources of information available for rural dwellers because of their characteristics. Radio is readily available, has a far reach, affordable and portable and interpersonal communication is what we do in our everyday lives and it appeals, because majority of the people in rural areas are illiterate and dialet is freely used in interpersonal communication.
The study also revealed that interpersonal communication is more persuasive than radio in educating the rural dwellers on preventive and simple control measures of guinea worm since it involves a face to face contact.
In addition interpersonal communication is revealed to be more effective for administration of treatment to infected persons by community health workers.
Finally radio with its advantage of communicating to a large audience simultaneously is more suitable in reporting or bringing to the notice of health workers each new case or development of the disease anywhere.
The responses and results of the research revealed some points that must be touched in the conclusion. The first points is that radio and interpersonal communication are major sources of information for the rural people, that is why they are the only media that can be used to foster the eradication of guinea worm since guinea worm is dominant in the rural areas
Secondly it was discovered that interpersonal communication is more persuasive than radio because face to face interaction with people make them feel, believe and react immediately to what they are told. But again radio is more effective and less stressful in information dissemination to all the segments of the population .
5.3 Recommendations for Further Studies
Looking at the outcome of the study it is a practical evidence that most people of this country dwell in rural areas as a result of natural cause, as a result of this most of them can only get information through the local radio, community newspapers that are springing up in the communities and then extension workers or village based workers that may be sent to organize seminar or conference for them through interpersonal communication. The researcher recommends that the above channels and other mass communication channels like books, magazines and television should be harnessed to carry out or disseminate information about guinea worm and how to eradicate it in the rural areas of developing countries, since communication is power you find out that the more people know about this disease and damage it does to people the more serious and eager they will be to work together towards its eradication.
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