The Roles Of The Central Bank In Stabilizing A Depressed Economy
This study on the role of Central Bank in stabilizing a depressed economy was designed with the objectives of ascertaining if the Central Bank of Nigeria is achieving involved in the stabilization of Nigeria economy, to determine if Central bank of Nigeria has control measures over the management of money market and capital market to identify the role of central bank of Nigeria in the formation and implementation of the country and to recommend appropriate measures for improved quality contribution by the Central Bank of Nigeria for the country.
The Central bank is an important institution to a depressed economy like Nigeria, the financial trade and policies formulate and implemented by the Central bank are very important.
Infact if could be regarded as a pillar to the survival of the national economic development without which the economy will be in shamble.
In carrying out a research the research, secondary and primary data was collected and used accordingly. Related literature were reviewed and questionnaires were prepared, distributed and analysed. The use of chi-square technique was used in analyzing the primary data. The findings of the research were reached. Following the findings, appropriate recommendation was stated in order for Central Bank to bring a stable economy should encourage good decisive policy and conclusion was reached hoping that this work will enable the role of Central Bank of Nigeria to be more appreciative.
1.1 Background of the Study
Having chosen this topic to write on, my objectives is to find out the roles played by our financial institutions in our present economic situation whether they being followed in this time of economic recession their effects on the economy and the extents to which they have gone in helping to revamp the economy. Financial institutions.
The historical background or theses financial institution are made up of banking and non-banking institutions.
The historical background of these financial institution is mode of operation which is an important aspect of this study. By their historical background. We can now know the aims purpose, objectives of these financial institution in our economy. In 1st July 1959, the first central bank of Nigeria (C.B.N) which was the apere bank that control other financial institution in the country was established. Commercial bank is the oldest of all banking institutional in Nigeria, it dates back to 1892 when. It was known as the bank of British West Africa (Now First bank of Nigeria) was established. This was followed in 1917 by the Barchys bank (Dominidu, colonia and overseas) (DCO) (Now union bank in 1933. the first successful Indigenous commercial bank was named National bank of Nigeria was established in 1948. African continental bank (ACB) was established by 1960 at independent, these were (12) twelve banks operating in the country with a total number of 160 offices and branches scattered in different locations of the country.
Many specialized credit instutitons have in the past two and half decades developed. These includes the Nigeria Merchant banks, Nigeria industrial development bank (NIDB) Nigeria bank for commerce and industry (NACB) established 1973 and restructured in the 1978 to include the finance of co-operative bank established in the federal mortgage bank of Nigeria constitution in July, 1977, merchant banks then are relatively new business which were trance to 1960 when Philip will Nigeria limited was established. The Non-bank financial institution includes finance companies, the oldest finance Ltd was established in 1959.
Then insurance companies, then first insurance companies were 1921 and was named Royal exchange Assurance company, investment companies unit trust, co-operative societies which have its foundation from the establishment of co-operative stores in 1844 in Britain, its origin in Nigeria banks to the eighteen (18th) century Bureax De change which was establish in 1989 though the decree that the same your and persen provident fund.
It is the desire of all these financial institutions to to create an impact on the Nigeria economy. Also the citizen’s expectant from all these financial institution is to see the roles played by these financial institution in our present economic situations.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In view of the depressed economy, there are bedeviled practices which disturbs central bank in carrying out their roles for the growth of the economy.
Those practices are as fellows below:
- Lack of ability to supply funds (Loan) to the small scales industries (Business)
- The inability to offer interest yielding financial instruments.
- The inability to effectively manger the financial aspect of the economy.
1.3 Objective of the study
The main objective of this study is to examine the role of Central Bank in stabilizing a depressed economy specifically, the study aims
- To determine if Central bank of Nigeria has control measures over the management of money market and capital market
- To identify the role of central bank of Nigeria in the formation and implementation of the country
- To recommend appropriate measures for improved quality contribution by the Central Bank of Nigeria for the country.
1.4 Research Question
- Does Central bank engage themselves in activities that help to develop the economy?
- Does the Central bank regulation have any effect on the roles of central bank as they play in the economy?
- Does long-term borrowing affect the role of Central bank in a depressed economy?
- Is the contribution of financial funds to banks enough to be felt at well as stimulating the economy?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The oxford advanced learners dictionary defined hypothesis as suggestion or idea the is based on know facts and is used as basis for reasoning or further investigation. For the purpose of this study, the hypothesis shall be analyzed in order to prove their level of rejections and acceptance. These are hypothesis which were used.
- Ho: There is no significant relationship between Central bank and economic development.
Hi: There is significant relationship between Central bank and economic development.
- Ho: There is no significant relationship between Central bank and implementation of government policies
Hi: There is a significant relationship between Central bank and implementation of government policies
1.6 Significance of the Study:
The research project is more important to the central banks and department of the central bank of Nigeria, various commercial banks in Nigeria and it will also serve as readable material for further research.
It is necessary for lectures (Teachers) and workers in relation to this study. It is important to student taking courses in accountant, banking and finance and economics to have modern approach to the teaching and understanding the central banks in which they will find interest in.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The research project is designed to cover the roles of Central bank in the development of the economy. It shall cover both the present and past period of Central bank of Nigeria. For easier collection of data central bank Enugu state will be examined for the research.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
I wish to express my difficulties which I encountered when collecting information through the questionnaires
The present fuel price increase was a major limited as it made transportation to these banks and libraries quite difficult.
Besides times and financial constraints, some other factors that militated against this research projects includes:
1. Lack of Books:
The scope of its work was electively affected because of scarcity of books in the relevant areas.
2. Attitude Constraints:
In the case of the questionnaire, some blatantly refused to collect it to gill while those that collected tool a lot of time to fill the required answers. Some fill them haphazardly.
3. Bureautic Constraints:
Under this limitation concrete attempt made to interview or reach top official failed because of redtaptism in running official engagements and procedures in releasing the official or secret of the company.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Summary of Finding
This project have five chapters which talk about the roles which central banks as a whole and treated some findings which were made.
- Whether central bank have made a positive impact in the development of the Nigeria economy.
- To known whether central bank have helped to implement government policies and programmes is Nigeria.
- To find out whether banks engage themselves in activities that help to develop the economy.
Chapter two deals with literature reviews, it treated all necessary fact in central bank and what they will do or not to do so as to improve this system of central bank in Nigeria. And how to calculate the simple percentage and the expected frequency.
Chapter three talks about research methodology and how to calculate the simple percentage and also the frequency.
Chapter four, it also deals on the solving of the findings (hypothesis) that were made in chapter one and by using the percentage method to calculate those finding and by solving some questions from the questionnaire.
Finally the last chapter which is the chapter five deals with the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendation. The conclusion of our researcher which will be made to improve the system of central bank in our country.
Due to the dynamic nature of our environment it is therefore imperative that banks (central bank) should undertake research in order to know exactly what are the roles to play by them in the development of our country’s economy which were depressed now.
This project however has made clear based on the findings, the roles of central bank in a depressed economy.
Having written on the topic, which is the roles of central bank in a depressed economy. I will like to make some recommendations which should be made in order to improve the system of financial in our country.
- They should mind their area of specialization
- They should make sure that adequate credit is channeled to the key productive sectors such as agriculture and manufacturing faster rapid growth and diversification of the economy.
- Central bank should review it monitory strategies over the central banks.
- Their activities should be properly geared towards economic development.
- The banking system must therefore ensure that all available savings are mobilized through the provision through branch banking and mobile banking service.
- Central banker should hold meetings from time to time with the executives of these institutions will a view of correct the economic balance of the country.
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