The Role Of Vocational Education In The Economic Development Of Oredo Local Government Area, Edo State
This study was carried out to find out the role of vocational education in economic development in Edo State. Chapter one gave the insight into the background of vocational education courses, which are geared towards self-reliance or self-employment while related literature was review in chapter two. The chapter three described the design and methodology. It treated the significance, purpose and problems of this study including the research question, which were administered, and the result analyzed in chapter four. The study was then summarized in chapter five and from the results in chapter four, conclusion and recommendations were made. It is observed that students generally lack the zeal, interest and aptitude in learning vocational and technical education courses. To accomplish this, three departments were randomly selected in School of Education, Ekiadolor Benin and they numbered one hundred. The instrument used in collecting data was the questionnaire for the students alone without the teachers. Simple percentage was used to analyze data collected from this respondents.
1.1 Background of Study
According to Akenbi (2000) vocational education is the acquisition of basic skills, which enable an individual to be gainfully employed in any sectors of the economy. For any country to obtain any level of development, vocational education must be put into consideration. Western education started in Nigeria when the Christian Missionaries came. During this period, they were mostly interested in teaching the word of God, converting souls and preaching the gospel. Some people were not able to fellowship, some could not walk, see or hear, therefore, they were taught how to make basket and this occupied them, aids were given to them, active/alive and to make them feel at home.
Before the arrival of the missionary, vocational training had started at home, children helping their mothers to cook, boys helping their father at farm. The colonial administration participated in vocational/technical education given as a separate plan outside that vocational education involves such field as agricultural education, business education, marketing or distributive education, trade and industrial education. Vocational education comprises of vocational and technical training, which is given in schools a class under public supervision and control. The development of skills is perhaps the foundation on which vocation education is laid the assertion has been authorize to the unanimous agreement of the three groups sample to the fact that vocational education is designed to develop skills abilities understanding and attitude of individuals. This agrees with the definition of committee on research and publication of American vocation association (1954). The primary purpose of embarking on skill development is to enable someone to do some work.
Olatain (1984) says vocational education refers to systematic learning experience, which are designed to enable individuals for gainful employment in recognized occupation as semi skilled workers or technical or professionals. It equally included guidance and counselling in connecting with training and other instruction directly related through an occupation. The benefits derives from various vocational education cannot be over emphasized. It is the pride of the nation to develop more vocational education in order to activate maximum technologically.
Thorp et al (1930) in their reports they expressed the view that the aim and objective of vocational education are as follows;
- The aim of technical education must be to provide or the requirements of industry, commerce and society and to adjust itself to the changing needs of the territory. The curriculum and organization must be adopted to meet national and local demands and must not adhere to firm and immutable forms.
- Large number of men and women engaged in industry and commerce and in professional and auxiliary, occupation lack the specialized knowledge and training which would allow them to be efficient in their vocation and fit to accept greater resp0onsibility, the course must be arranged so they can improve their knowledge and efficiency while continuing employment.
- Special attention must be given to the training of teachers and personnel and for institutions engaged into training of teachers particularly for secondary schools and technical institutions and for institutions engaged in the training of primary school teachers also for person engaged in social activities such as youth and community center work or in community development generally.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Vocational education has been known as a veritable discipline for the attainment of self-reliance and can be seen in different dimensions. The various skills acquisition centres in the state are expected to produce man power at craftsmanship and apprenticeship levels. And it has been ascertained that facilities, staff, finance etc are either lacking or not sufficiently provided to achieve the expected desires. Although many technical schools and other skill acquisition centre like college of education, polytechnics are available in Edo state for the above purposes what is not clear now is that to what extent is “vocational education helping in economic development of Edo State”.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The objective of study is to investigate the problems facing vocational education in Oredo Local Government Area. it is also to investigate the following specific objectives;
- To know if non-availability of finance is affecting the development of vocational education in Oredo Local Government Area.
- To know if vocational education is really helping individual to be self-reliance.
- To know if inadequate infrastructural facilities is affecting the development of vocational education.
- To know if the local government is really helping teachers and students of vocational education etc.
1.4 Research Hypotheses
- H0: vocational education is not really helping individual to be self-reliance.
- H1: vocational education is really helping individual to be self-reliance.
- H0: inadequate infrastructural facilities are not affecting the development of vocational education.
- H1: inadequate infrastructural facilities are affecting the development of vocational education.
1.5 Significance of Study
This study will be of great importance to this development of new and old vocational and technical education schools in Oredo Local Government Area. The study will also contribute immensely to the exploration of the vocation education in Oredo Local Government Area and suggest possible solution to the problems identified.
Also, it will be significant to heads and director of the existing vocation and technical education schools because it will expose other unnecessary roles and problems that led to the total collapse of subsequent vocational and technical schools in order to avoid them and ensure efficiency and maximum prosperity.
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The study will be narrowed to school of Vocational and Technical Education, or College of Vocational and technical Studies which offer vocational courses which are; Agricultural Education, Business Education and Home Economics Education. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) Availability of Research Material:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
This is the education or sort of formal training programme that trains students for work in a particular trade. It is also the education that prepares people for specific trades, crafts, and careers at various levels.
This is an instruction about crop production, livestock, management, soil and water conservation and various other aspect of agriculture.
Vocational and Technical Education:
Is an organized educational activities that offer a sequence of courses that provides individuals with the academic and technical knowledge.
Apprenticeship is an agreement between a person (an apprentice) who wants to learn a skill and an employer who needs a skilled worker. Apprenticeship combines on the job experience with technical classroom training.
Trade and Industrial Education:
This education prepares people for careers in a variety of trades including carpentry, masonry, electrical and construction management.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain the role of vocational education in the economic development of Oredo local government area Edo state
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of vocational education in the economic development
This study was on the role of vocational education in the economic development of Oredo local government area Edo state. Three objectives were raised which included: To know if non-availability of finance is affecting the development of vocational education in Oredo Local Government Area, to know if vocational education is really helping individual to be self-reliance, to know if inadequate infrastructural facilities is affecting the development of vocational education, to know if the local government is really helping teachers and students of vocational education etc. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected Colleges of Education (Technical) in Oredo local government of Edo state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up heads of department, lecturers, senior lecturers and junior lecturers were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
It has been established that the organizers of vocational and technical education centres in Nigeria have been focusing on how to satisfy the basic physiological needs of the participants while training, mentoring and motivating them for self development and self fulfilment. An authentic vocational and technical education needs to be designed for and organized around the contextual economic opportunities. It is also discovered that economic and social freedom are interrelated, one cannot thrive without the other. Without economic growth social freedom cannot be attained. The purpose of vocational and technical education, therefore, is to provide adequate skill and knowledge to interested participants to be able to cope with the incessant job scarcity in the society, and such skill acquired through this system of education will surely provide social value for participants in order to achieve their country’s developmental goals. If the youth are trained adequately, they will become more productive; a source of skilled manpower and not a burden on the society. They can perform their duty with diligence, effectiveness and best professionalism, and they can as well contribute positively to national development of their country. From the economic and social standpoint, livelihood sustenance and economic development require a sound vocational and technical education that is intended to meet a wide range of human needs.
It is recommended that the existing policy on education in Nigeria should be amended to guarantee the survival of vocational training method to the point where a great number participant will be in a position to pass on the indigenous knowledge acquired therein to the coming generations, and at the same time adapt to modern technology. Furthermore, the vocational and technical training techniques and introduction of workshop practice to students in Nigerian schools should be carried to a level where both will have a symbiotic relationship with other existing courses.
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