The Role Of Traditional Institution In Nation Building (A Case Study Of Umudim In Ikeduru L.G.A. Imo State)

Project and Seminar Material for Sociology

The Role Of Traditional Institution In Nation Building (A Case Study Of Umudim In Ikeduru L.G.A. Imo State)


Abstract


This research work is an attempt to examine the prospects and part played by traditional rulers in nation building through various community development programmes in Umudim. The objectives of the study are targeted at finding out the community development projects carried out, and assessing the extent of traditional rulers involvement in community development. In the course of the research, four hundred questionnaires were administered based on cluster sampling techniques, where the districts were grouped into smaller unit covering the study area. In the end, the study discovered that traditional rulers engage in fostering nation building through active participation in community development projects in Umudim. The research came up with some recommendations, through which an effective development will be carried out in Umudim.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The role of traditional institutions such as traditional rulers, Town Unions or community association Age grades, the Umuada and women Development groups in Nigeria with the particular reference Umudim, Ikeduru in Imo State. This institutions and agencies act as instrument for coordinating various social-economic activities within such a society and between it and other aims traditional institutions have been social agents as well as mass mobilization facilitators in various communities in Nigeria. Traditional rulers more often than not, negatively affects the development effort of the people and nation building. Traditional institutions should be working cooperatively and collaboratively, and not as cross purposes each of the institutions should confine itself within its area of influence, so that their effort towards the development of their area could be optionally utilized. The traditional institution should be people centered and development Oriented in their mission and vision.

Historical reflection often points to the immutable fact that before the advent of Europeans in Nigeria. The various ethnic groups such as Igbo people, Hausa people and Yoruba people had various strategies for organizing the public affairs of their people as well as ensuring progress and development in their respective areas. There were traditional institutions through which public affairs of the people were organized. In Igbo land the traditional institution are the Umuadas, the Age grades, traditional rulers and Town Union.

The Umuada’s

In the pre-colonial era, among the Igbo people women were held sacred and they participated in collective decisions making on certain sensitive issues that touched on their interest. They do this through an institutional group known as Otu Umuada members the Otu Umuada’s were dynamic, powerful and were well respected by their communities they were at times regarded by some guardians of the village traditions the Umuada’s often intervened whenever the constitution of the village were violated and they impose sanction on offenders.

The Age Grades

The age grades are a very important organ of social structure especially in our traditional Nigerian communities. The formation and membership of an age grade is much revered activity. It is a Universal social institution that is highly appreciated by various communities. Over the years age grades in different communities have distinguished themselves in performing such roles that aim at enhancing the socio economic life of the people. They help in such traditional functions as maintenance of I am and order, settlement of disputes between warning members. Constructions and maintenance of roads and markets, ensuring the cleanliness of local streams and above all, protecting their communities from external aggression.

The age grades system is very strong, non- resident community members cannot avoid going home periodically to participate in the activities of their age grades.

Traditional Rulers

The word traditional rulers “entail the reign of a monarchy or a titled ruler vested with that activity to rule over a people in their affairs of life therefore traditional institutions are headed by traditional rulers and these institutions are very vital in bringing development closer to the rural people. Traditional have succeeded in boosting nation building through the provisions of bore holders, rural roads, formation of cooperative societies, setting up markets, constructions of culverts, constructions of earth dams, mobilizing people for health programmes and residing disputes within their domains. Traditional rulers are the major people provided; they are answerable to a title ruler vested with the authority of governing the affairs of the people.

Town Unions

The tempo reached its crescendo in Igbo land after the civil war when almost all, public facilities such as markets town halls I maternity homes, dispend same and schools were all damaged as a result of the war because of their well known flair for providing amentias for themselves out of communal funds, all these people started from the 1970 to rebuild their schools, health facilities, markets etc. the town union because very necessary for rural development because the people were neglected by the government the town unions are to disseminate information about government policies, mould public opinion, raise fund, expand and extend the utilities, undertake and encourage group farming activities and also help in the maintenance of law and order.

These are to signify how effective the traditional instructions work for the development of the society.


1.2 Statement Of Research Problem

The traditional institutions in Umudim, Ikeduru in Imo State, knowing well of their role and expectations in their area of jurisdiction most often deviate from these roles and expectation which brings about change and usher the community into development thereby fostering nation building. For example instead of the traditional institutions to focus on the needs of the people such as provisions of schools, good reads, pipe borne water etc they do not do it rather deviate if from and think about themselves and their own agenda which do not bring about development in Awomana.


1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The aim and objectives of this study include:

  1. To know the extent of the involvement of traditional rulers in the nation building through community development
  2. To suggest ways to improve and encourage traditional rulers in development projects.
  3. To fund out the constraints faced by traditional ruler in nation building in Umudim, Ikeduru Imo State.

1.4 Significance Of The Study

The study if the role of traditional institutions in nation building is sociologically important because the society is geared towards development, either socially, economically, publically or technologically.

The study is also significant because it will help to find solution to the problems hindering traditional institutions from carrying out commonly development programmes not only in Umudim but also beyond. More so, it will help the government to assist traditional rulers in nation building.

Theatrically, this research work may help members of the public to have vast knowledge about the role of traditional rulers in embanking on community development programmmes, as well as, the problems they encounter in Umudim for sustainable nation building. This may help them to be constructive in their criticism, and may also help subsequent researcher’s top build on it and improve on their work.


1.5.Research Questions

  1. How can this traditional institution effectively get involved in nation building through community development in Umudim?
  2. What type of community development programme that foster nation building have they been able to execute?
  3. What is the nature and specific roles of traditional institutions in the development of the community and how is it expressed containing the Government organization and Non-Governmental organization sectors of development?
  4. What are the mechanisms put in place to ensure that traditional institutions are effective in nation building?

1.6.Hypotheses

  1. Traditional rulers will be infective in nation building in Umudim.
  2. Traditional ruler can make a positive impact in nation building in Umudim.

1.7. Scope Of The Study

This work is limited to determining the role of traditional rulers in nation building, on how they initiate, embank and execute projects in Umudim that has foster nation building, and make useful recommendations on how traditional rulers should have executed community development programme within 2013 to 2015. The study will specifically focus on how traditional rulers get involved in nation building through community development programmes.

The scope of this research is however limited to Umudim, Ikeduru local government in Imo state due to lack of funds and proximity of time.


1.8. Definition Of Terms

The conceptual and operational meaning of the terms listed below.

(1) Development:

Operational meaning: Is regarded as continuous processes of positive changes in the qualities and span life of the person or groups of persons.

It is an advancement of something, people and community. Thus “Development” used in this content is more meaningfully when it has to do with progressive in the quality and living standards of the people pertaining to their aspirations and resources at their disposal.

(2) Role:

Operational meaning: This refers to the part a person or thing plays in a specific situation or operation in this study, it is related to the expected functions that a ruler of a community plays or should play for the benefit of the his subjects and community.

(3) Traditional Ruler:

Operational meaning: A control authority, the reign of a monarchy and the accepted controller by the people over them in their affairs of life in thus study, it means a collectively elected persons selected by the community to pilot the affairs of his people in line with customs and traditions of the community.

(4) Community:

Operational meaning: A place in which an interacting group of people living in the same territory. Town, village, suburb or neighbourhood. In thus study, it means a tract or concern commonly shared by people, children and youths in terms of social relations characterized by personal intimacy, emotional ties and social cohesion.

(5) Nation Building’

Efforts geared at improving and sustaining the social, political and economic state of a country.


Chapter Five


Introduction, Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter forms the concluding part of the study. A brief summary of this work would be conducted, followed by recommendations that would enhance the traditional rulers roles innation building through community development in Umudim in future. The essence of this research work was to essence the role and prospect of traditional rulers in nation building. The chapter one of this works gave a brief introduction of traditional institution, problems were stated, researchable questions were asked, aims and objective was presented. The chapter two of this work presented the reviewed of traditional institution in historical perspective with structural functionalism adopted for the research work.

The chapter three of this work made use of cluster sampling, questionnaire for inhabitant the certain questions in the questionnaire using simple percentage. The chapter four of this work presented the data collected and the analysis which was in line with the research questions. The chapter five of this work would summarize the whole work which gives account to the ensure research work and the conclusion which will present the general impression of the research, and lastly the recommendation would be drawn to proffer solutions and suggestions on how the role of traditional institutions will be elevated


5.2 Summary

From the study it is found that the rolesof traditional rulers in nation building cannot be overemphasized as theyhave succeeded in boosting their various communities through the provisions of broaches, rural roads formation of co-operative society, setting up market, construction of culverts, construction of earth drams, mobilizing people for health programmes and resolving issues within their domains. It was discovered that poor road network, illiteracy and financial consonant were obstacles in nation building efforts in Umudim.

This scenario presented lack of access to long distance community with non-passable roads, lack of understanding of project initiated due to illiteracy as a result of low participation of community members in most projects initiated by traditional rulers.


5.3 Conclusion

The study is aimed at the role and prospects of traditional rulers in nation building with specific emphasis on community development inUmudim. The study revealed precisely that traditional rulers are the major agent in nation building by transforming the attitude of rural people provided they are answerable to a titled ruler vested with the authority of governing the affairs of the people. Based on the findings, the researcher has come with the conclusion that traditional rulers have made a positive impact in their nation building efforts to a degree.


5.4 Recommendations

In this study, the researcher has examined and identified obstacles to nation building efforts embarked upon by traditional rulers in Umudim. The following recommendation is hereby offered for better performance of traditional rulers in community development in the future.

  1. Traditional rulers have to adopt the spirit of yearly dialogue amongst the subject. The outcome of the yearly analogue will creates necessary report towards community development programmes.
  2. Wealthy individuals from Umudim can support the traditional institution to enable traditional rulers embark on gigantic project.
  3. The entire population of community should be sensitized to respond to self-help development project of the community.
  4. The resources realized for community development programme/ project both money and material should be utilized in such a way the people will gain from them.
  5. The spirit of honesty transparency and accountability should be the watch word of any traditional ruler.
  6. Seminars and training programmes like workshop for leadership and development of skills should from time to time be organized to enhance the role of traditional rulers.

The Role Of Traditional Institution In Nation Building (A Case Study Of Umudim In Ikeduru L.G.A. Imo State)


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