The Role Of Television In Promoting Agricultural Development In Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

The Role Of Television In Promoting Agricultural Development In Nigeria


Abstract


The primary objective of this study is to examine how television plays a role in promoting agricultural development in Nigeria with specific reference to Enugu State. In carrying out this study, the method in which the researcher used to collect her data was questioner. The target population for the study was media practitioners, development experts, farmers, academicians and the rural dwellers in Enugu metropolis. A sample size of 384 was drawn. The researcher asked research questions and formulated research hypotheses from the research questions for the study, Data were collected, analyzed and interpreted using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. Also chi-square (X2) was used to test data generated from the hypotheses. Table and sample percentage were also used to analyze the result. The result of the study revealed the following:

  • The television facilitate and enhanced agricultural development in Nigeria.
  • That NTA broadcast development information to rural areas in Enugu state.
  • Also, most of the research hypotheses were confirmed positively.

Finally the researcher drew conclusion and recommendation for further studies on the topic.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Development has been defined as a process of change which is aimed at achieving self-reliance and improve the living condition of under privilege majority of the population, (Linden 1989: 36).

The role of media in all aspect of development in any given society cannot be over emphasized. Radio and Television are instruments of mass education. They combined their audio-visual impact to maintain an edge over other forms of mass media. Television can be used in a number of ways to educate, inform, entertain, sensitize as well as generally socialize. As a result of these factors stated above, one can say that for effective agricultural and rural development, the role of Television in achieving them cannot be over stressed.

However, this research work is indeed to examine the role which Television plays in promoting agricultural development in Nigeria.

Agricultural is the central occupation for majority of the people in Nigeria.

The prime target of this study is address the information and communication gap that exist in the country between the farmers and the improved farming method. Conversely, Governments who suppose to carry out this task of promoting and developing agriculture by creating adequate awareness through the media has now diverted all programmes in the political and economic oriented programmes. If these abundant political and economic orientated programmes are playing their expected roles on the target audience, then sufficient and adequate agricultural programmes will no doubt play their expected roles on the farmers.

However, in the aspect of agricultural promotion in Nigeria, the need for television in particular and other forms of mass media in general in ensuring agricultural promotion is as vital as other role played by the media in the development and advancement of a nation. Because television is a powerful instrument of development in all ramification. As a result of this, its use in the overall development of rural or urban areas must be given special attention, to development experts. This is because its power to communicate makes it one of the most efficient means of reading rural and urban dwellers in the society. As Baran (1999: 4) states, “Communication is the transmission of a message from a source to a receiver”. This means that, if appropriate channel or device is not used to communicate to rural areas on agricultural related matters they will find it difficult to adopt the necessary agricultural programme prospects and ideas which will encourage them to develop. Through appropriate use of television to transfer message on the agricultural programme prospects and ideas which will encourage them to ventor into agriculture, it becomes very imperative desired goals and objectives of dealing so effective use of television will definitely guarantee effective means of paying attention to the agricultural needs of farmers especially those residing in the rural areas.

Gerbner (180) cited in Griffin (1991: 301) asserts that;

TV’s power comes from symbolic content of the real life drama show hour after hour, week after week. At its root, television is “story” and a society’s stories give coherent picture of what exist, what is important, what is related to what and what is right. Also to buttress Gerbners point as stated by Griffin (earlier cited). McQuail and Windatil (1981: 36) write that, “The medium image held by the receiver causes expectation of the medium content and may thus be assumed to have an influenced on the receivers choice of content as well as on his way of experiencing it and responding to it.

This means that proper use of Television broadcasting and its content for promoting agriculture all over Nigeria will increase the chances of the rural and urban farmers ability to respond to such agricultural information carried on the television for their own good. It could be said that Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) is a mass medium used to transmit development communication to rural areas in Enugu state. As a result of this feat, it would be generally influenced by its effectiveness to influence the rural and in urban dwellers.


1.2 Statement of the Research Problems

The Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) is a medium owned by the Federal Government of Nigeria. This broadcast station churn out programmes in block and across the weeks and days respectively. But has little of their time allocated to agricultural programmes for the interest of the farming population. Also the Nigeria small scale farmers urgently needs to improve then output and input of agricultural products for overall benefits of the society and also to meet up with the demands of the contemporary society, unfortunately this is a dream yet to be realized. Records of Anambra State Agricultural Development project (ASADEP) profile (1997: 36) shows that agricultural development in most developing countries like Nigeria depicts a slow pace of progress. Many factors are still constraining the achievement of mechanized farming. Other factors militate against effective commercialization and overall development of agriculture in Nigeria but lack of information and awareness on modern technics and innovation by the farmer is a major, if not the most important problem of the agriculture in our society.

Meanwhile, in Nigeria today, not many rural household have television to view or watch different programme aired on television which are meant to promote agricultural development in such rural areas. Also incessant power failure and high cost of buying maintenance of a television set maybe a problem of using television for different purposes by rural areas. Also poor funding of development project and porgrammes by the government, information through the media and centralization of the media are among the problems that necessitate this type of study. Infact, Television by their qualitative characteristics introduces fundamental changes to the society and make possible the increase involvement and participation of people across the boundaries of class, age group and nation. Therefore the pre-models basic role of television which is to inform, educate and entertain can be applied to the field of agricultural development and promotion to put on course for development.

Hence, this project seeks to examine the impact of Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) in the Agricultural development of Enugu state.


1.3 The Objectives of the Study

The objectives of the study are the following:

  1. To ascertain the significant relationship between Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) and Agricultural development of Enugu state.
  2. To find out the impact of Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) on the Agricultural policy of Enugu government.
  3. To ascertain the role of Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) in mobilizing the people toward Agricultural development of Enugu state.
  4. To ascertain the role of Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) in setting agenda for Agricultural development in Enugu state.
  5. To find out how Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) contribute to the Agricultural development of Enugu state.

1.4 Research Question

Based on the objectives above, the following research questions will be carried:

  1. Is there any significant relationship between Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) and Agricultural development in Enugu state?
  2. Does Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) have impact on the Agricultural policy of
    Enugu state government?
  3. To what extent does Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) mobilize the people towards Agricultural development in Enugu state?
  4. To what extent does Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) set agenda for discussion on Agricultural development in Enugu state?

1.5 Significance of the Study

Upon the completion of this project, it will be made available to the students of mass communication, researchers and scholars who are interested in further research work. It will also help to thoroughly evaluate the impact of Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) on Agricultural development in Enugu state. The project will also help to examine the agenda setting roles of Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) on Agricultural development of Enugu state.

In other wards, it will look into the level of prominence the media give to the issues of Agricultural development in Enugu State.


1.6 The Scope of the Study

The study will cover only Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) in Enugu state. It will also focus on their staff as the population of the study. It will also cover the roles of radio and television and its implication on the Agricultural development. In other words, the project will thoroughly research into Agricultural development in Enugu state in relations to the role of the media. It will examine how Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) mobilize the people and set agenda for Agricultural development.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

Inadequate fund and insufficient time may constitute limitation to a thorough research work. This is because embarking on the project of this nature requires adequate time and sufficient fund. Thus, inadequate fund and insufficient time may constitute limitation of this project work, the time and the available fund will be judiciously utilized.

Another factor that may constitute limitation is inaccessibility to adequate and relevant materials. However, effort will be made to gather relevant materials from available libraries and internet for the project.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

This project extensively examined the impact of broadcast media on the Agricultural development of Enugu development of Enugu state using Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) as a study. A research survey method which allowed the use of descriptive analysis to carry out research on 400 respondents.

Chapter one of the project gave the over-all background to the study. it stated the statement of the problem of the study, the objectives, and the research questions and it also featured the significant of the study scope and limitation of the study and operational definition of term to aid the understanding of the research of the project.

Chapter two dealt extensively with review of relevant secondary sources of data: conceptual studies theoretical and empirical studies by scholars and researchers within and outside the field of mass-communication. The developmental theories and relevance was reviewed. An empirical study on the impact of broadcast media on the Agricultural development was thoroughly examined.

Chapter three of the study focused on the research methodology which includes research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sampling procedure, method of data collection, validity and reliability of data instrument and method of data analysis. The researcher adopted survey method which gives room for oral interview while the sampling method was used which allowed all members of the population of the study on equal chance of the study on equal chance of being included in the study.

Chapter four focused on the presentation and the analysis of data collected from questionnaire responded to by respondents. The data were collected and analyzed with arithmetic table and simple percentage using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Total numbers of 400 sets of questionnaire were released and administered, 340 were retrieved from the field while 60 were not returned.


5.2 Conclusion

Since the findings in the analysis show that there is significant relationship between Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) and Agricultural development of Enugu state, hence one cannot divorce roles of the media from the Agricultural development of nations. The same thing goes for the Nigerian Television Authority and the Agricultural development of Enugu.

The above can be achieved through the promotion of the Agricultural policies of the government by the media. They need to promote the policy through their various developmental news reporting, current affairs and programmes.
Conclusion can also be draw how the findings that indeed the media especially Nigerian Television Authority also mobilize the people towards Agricultural development of Enugu state. It is also claim that they give prominent to issues if Agricultural development in Enugu through constraint and consistent developmental Agricultural, programmes. Like food today, finance and economy, labour market, oil and gas forum.

Indeed, Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) has had impact on the Agricultural development of Enugu.


5.3 Recommendations

The recommendation is based on the findings gotten from this study, therefore the following recommendation are given:

  1. The media should endeavour to be involved in the dissemination of news and information in response to a basic human need, which is the “right to know”.
  2. The media are also expected to analyze issues and facts contained in the news, in line with the near and interest of a nation.
  3. The order to ensure a sound Agricultural development through a peaceful national coexistence and progress, the media have before them, the task of discouraging such negative issues as terrorism, ethnicity, dictatorship in leadership and off course discourage embezzlement of public funds, as it is the disturbing trend presently indulged by politicians occupying positions of responsibilities and related public officers in Nigeria.
  4. The responsibility of informing people about development projects and programmes is a major role of media to national development. Such programmes designed and proposed by policy makers could be entirely new to the people, hence, the media need to enlighten, educate and mobilize the people.
  5. Offering solution to problems is a development role of the media, in that, they are not only expected to criticize government officials and condemn their actions, but also as watchdogs of the society, they should review, analyze, appraise or criticize, as the case may be, activities of government agencies and programmes.

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