The Role Of Technology In Lesson Planning

Final Year Research Project and Seminar Material on Technology Education

The Role Of Technology In Lesson Planning


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the role of technology in lesson planning using some selected secondary schools in Ikeja, Lagos State as a case study. The study was specifically set to determine the level of teachers awareness on the use of technology for lesson planning, ascertain whether the use of technologies promote effective lesson planning among teachers, investigate if using educational technology during lesson planning improves the learning outcome, and determine whether teachers posses adequate technological skills required effective lesson planning using ICT. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of teachers of some selected secondary schools in Ikeja, Lagos State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 229 respondents and 210 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the level of teachers awareness on the use of technology for lesson planning is very low. Furthermore, the result of the findings reveals that the use of educational technology during lesson planning improves the learning outcome. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers should be sensitized on the need for planning their lessons using educational technologies, and they should be trained on the skills required for effective lesson planning using ICT. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Technology in the classroom has altered how students learn beyond teacher teaching and textbooks, as well as how instructors evaluate pupils. Student involvement is increased by technology. If instructors can teach the same subjects in new ways, this technology may give alternative chances and simulations to make learning more engaging. Teachers, for example, diversify their instruction by using a variety of instructional systems and apps. Teaching variations promote the learning process and involvement, which might be difficult to do in a regular classroom. Teachers may utilize technology to optimize their lesson preparation techniques in order to offer collaborative activities with students or among peers.

Individual learning and reflection are encouraged by technology, and kids may develop essential lifetime skills (Mua K.2016).

Teachers can give tailored learning that caters to the demands of various student learning styles and abilities. This change, however, may require time and a significant amount of technical and pedagogical expertise (Ndongfack, M. 2015).

Technology has now torn down the barriers of distance. Through virtual classrooms, an instructor may have pupils from all around the globe. Teachers and students may quickly connect via phones, Skype, and other devices, allowing teaching and learning to take use of many creative platforms. It seem difficult, if not impossible, to discuss excellent education without including the use of ICT. Because of its unique ability to bring the globe together, even the most rural and underprivileged places, ICT is seen as one of the foundations upon which excellent education for everyone may actually become a reality. The goal of using ICT in education from the beginning was to shift the teaching and learning process away from the conventional instructional teacher-centered endeavor and toward a learner-centered approach with active involvement of the learner coach. As a result, it became the teacher’s responsibility to arrange the classroom and provide pupils with additional possibilities and control over their learning, as outlined in her lesson plan. A lesson plan is a road map for a teacher to follow while conducting a lesson. It generally comprises the objective (what students should learn), how the objective will be attained (the method of delivery and process), and a technique to assess how well the objective was fulfilled (usually via homework assignments or testing). It is a thorough description of a lesson’s path of teaching or “learning trajectory.”

A teacher creates a daily lesson plan to facilitate class learning. Details may vary according on the teacher’s preferences, the material being taught, and the students’ requirements. However, the use of technology transforms the lesson preparation process into something like to curriculum design. The primary distinction is in how pupils basically gain skills and information. Technology also influences how people utilize and showcase their newly learned skills and knowledge. It also aids in the assessment and evaluation of their learning. The incorporation of computer usage has an impact on the fundamental framework of a lesson plan. As a result, the purpose of this research is to investigate the influence of technology in lesson preparation.


1.2 Statement of the Research Problems

Today, technology is possibly the most powerful factor shaping the educational landscape. Many schools are demonstrating their support for increased levels of technology in the classroom by providing hardware such as tablets and computers, improving internet connectivity, and implementing programs aimed at improving computer literacy for both teachers and students. Although teachers generally recognize the benefits of educational technologies, they frequently find the smooth and effective integration of new educational technologies difficult, which discourages them from incorporating technology into their lesson planning process. While most teachers are resistant to technological change, this is due to either a lack of exposure to modern facilities or a lack of understanding of the importance of using these technologies in the teaching-learning process. Technology integration presents significant challenges to educators at all levels of school systems, from the acquisition of new technology equipment to the adaptation of curricula and teaching techniques to incorporate new educational tools. However, teachers must transition from the traditional method of lesson planning to the incorporation of technology, as its importance in the twenty-first century cannot be overstated. Technology can assist teachers in developing lessons that allow fast-paced students to delve deeper into the subject or explore related topics while giving slower students more time to understand the material. As a result, this set is designed to investigate the role of technology in lesson planning.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is set to examine the role of technology in lesson planning. Specifically it is aimed at achieving the following objectives:

  1. To determine the level of teachers awareness on the use of technology for lesson planning.
  2. To ascertain whether the use of technologies promote effective lesson planning among teachers.
  3. To investigate if using educational technology during lesson planning improves the learning outcome.
  4. To determine whether teachers posses adequate technological skills required effective lesson planning using ICT.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the level of teachers awareness on the use of technology for lesson planning?
  2. Does the use of technologies promote effective lesson planning among teachers.
  3. Does using educational technology during lesson planning improves the learning outcome?
  4. Does teachers posses adequate technological skills required effective lesson planning using ICT.

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: The use of educative technologies does not promote effective lesson planning by teachers.
  • Ha: The use of educative technologies promotes effective lesson planning by teachers.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be of great significant to teachers, school owners,educational stakeholders and government. To teachers the study will enlighten them to start seeing ICT as a better tool to enhance their pedagogic practices thus there there is need for them to put inculcate it for a continous professional development. To school owners the study will enable them to train their teacher on the use of educational technologies and make available those technologies that will aid the teacher in lesson planning. To stakeholders and Government, the study will enlighten them to start thinking of transforming their national curriculum framework entirely to incorporate the use of ICT in the entire domain.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on the role of technology in lesson planning. It will determine the level of teachers awareness on the use of technology for lesson planning, ascertain whether the use of technologies promote effective lesson planning among teachers, investigate if using educational technology during lesson planning improves the learning outcome, and determine whether teachers posses adequate technological skills required effective lesson planning using ICT.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

The following factors pose a limitation during the course of this research.

Financial Constraint:

Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time Constraint:

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted to research work.

Unwillingness of Respondent:

Owing to the fact that this study is a very sensitive matter, most of the respondents were unwilling to respond accept the instrument while only a few educated and enlightened people accepted the questionnaire and responded accordingly


1.9 Definition of Terms

Lesson Plan:

A lesson plan is a teacher’s daily guide for what students need to learn, how it will be taught, and how learning will be measured. Lesson plans help teachers be more effective in the classroom by providing a detailed outline to follow each class period.

Technology:

Technology is the sum of techniques, skills, methods,tools or machine that can be used by humans.

Educational Technology:

Educational technology is the combined use of computer hardware, software, and educational theory and practice to facilitate learning

Learning Outcome:

Learning outcomes are statements that describe the knowledge or skills students should acquire by the end of a particular assignment, class, course, or program, and help students understand why that knowledge and those skills will be useful to them.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the role of technology in lesson planning using some selected secondary schools in Ikeja, Lagos State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the role of technology in lesson planning using some selected secondary schools in Ikeja, Lagos State as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to determine the level of teachers awareness on the use of technology for lesson planning, ascertain whether the use of technologies promote effective lesson planning among teachers, investigate if using educational technology during lesson planning improves the learning outcome, and determine whether teachers posses adequate technological skills required effective lesson planning using ICT.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 210 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are teachers of some selected secondary schools in Ikeja, Lagos State.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The level of teachers awareness on the use of technology for lesson planning is very low.
  2. The use of technologies promote effective lesson planning among teachers.
  3. The use of educational technology during lesson planning improves the learning outcome.
  4. The teachers does not posses adequate technological skills required effective lesson planning using ICT.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Teachers should be sensitized on the need for planning their lessons using educational technologies, and they should be trained on the skills required for effective lesson planning using ICT.
  2. There is need therefore for the government to make sure that all schools are provided with adequate and constant electricity.
  3. Teachers should also endeavor to buy their own computers and laptops so that they can improve on the art of ICT usage in lesson planning.
  4. There is need for the Ministry of Education to develop ICT content since there is still the challenge of inadequate content especially in regard to lesson planning and curriculum development.

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Frequently Asked Questions


What are the effects of contemporary teaching methods?

The effects of contemporary teaching methods depend on the teachers, the students and the lessons. As proven in this essay, the quality of the teacher will have an effect on the results. The types of students being taught will have an effect.

How effective are the three teaching methods on student academic performance?

The differential effectiveness of the three teaching methods on student academic performance was analysed using the General Linear Model based univariate ANOVA technique. The F (2, 106) statistic (= 10.125; p < 0.05) and the Tukey HSD post-hoc results indicate significant differences on the effectiveness of the three teaching methods.

Why is the teaching method regarded as more effective?

The teaching method is regarded more effective since it does not centralize the flow of knowledge from the lecturer to the student (Lindquist, 1995).The approach also motivates goal-orientated behaviour among students, hence the method is very effective in improving student achievement (Slavin, 1996).

What is a teacher’s style of teaching?

In short, a teacher is given a small selection of methods for teaching students. Over the years, a teacher will add his or her own flourish or style to get through to students. The introduction of contemporary teaching methods gives a teacher even more options. 

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