The Role Of Science Laboratory Equipment In The Academic Comprehension Of Students In Senior Secondary Schools

Science Education Project And Seminar Material

The Role Of Science Laboratory Equipment In The Academic Comprehension Of Students In Senior Secondary Schools


Abstract


The purpose of this study is to examine the role of science laboratory equipment in the academic comprehension of students in senior secondary schools. Participants were 120 SS III students and five General science teachers in the selected Secondary Schools in Ijebu Ode Local Government Area of Ogun State. Participants completed the availability and utilization of laboratory inventory-type questionnaires. Correlation research design was adopted for the study. The data were analyzed on the basis of the two hypotheses, using Pearson Product Moment Correlation. Result shows that there is significant relationship between the utilization of laboratory equipment and students’ achievement in General science. The result obtained revealed that most Secondary Schools do not have adequate resources for general science instruction and the few available resources are not properly utilized for general science instructions in schools. This has a strong influence on their academic achievement in the subject. The researcher therefore concluded that when general science teachers made used of laboratory equipment adequately and presenting his teaching in a less abstract manner, the achievement of students in the subject will improved exponentially and this will increase the number of students that will apply to science related courses in higher institutions. Thereby leading to the attainment of scientific and technological advancement of the state and the Nation at large. Based on this, it was strongly recommended that Student should be encouraged to fully involve in the practical class activities so that the teaching and learning of general science will real and effective not only for passing an examinations but for the acquisition of skills that will be needed in future. Government and other stakeholders in education should also assist in ensuring that adequate facilities for teaching and learning of General science in our Senior Secondary Schools are provided and that General science teachers should always make requisition for the materials needed and ensure proper utilization of the materials for General science teaching.


Table of Contents


Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the study
  • 1.2 Statement of Problem
  • 1.3 Purpose of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypotheses
  • 1.6 Scope and Delimitation
  • 1.7 Significance of Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms
  • 1.9 Organization of Study

Chapter Two

Review of Related Literature

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 The Concept and Rationale for Teaching Science
  • 2.3 The Concept of Community Secondary Schools
  • 2.4 Approaches of Teaching and Learning Science
  • 2.5 Science Practical as a Teaching Mode
  • 2.6 The Role of Practical Work in Teaching and Learning of Science Subjects
  • 2.7 Practical Sciences in Schools
  • 2.8 Science Laboratory Teaching in Global perspective
  • 2.8 Science Laboratory Teaching in Developing Countries
  • 2.9 Science Laboratory Teaching in Nigeria
  • 2.10 Knowledge Gap

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research design
  • 3.2 Area of study
  • 3.3 Population
  • 3.4 Sample and sampling technique
  • 3.5 Instruments
  • 3.6 Validation of Instrument
  • 3.7 Reliability of Instrument
  • 3.8 Research procedure
  • 3.9 Data Analysis

Chapter Four

Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Result
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Each country develops its own education system, which evolves to meet the challenges of changing times. The Indian education system must also face several new choices, opportunities and challenges to ensure the implementation of a modernized, advanced and quality education system at all levels. The report of the National Indian Knowledge Commission reiterates its commitment to provide excellence in the education system to meet the 21st century knowledge challenges and enhance India’s competitive advantage in the field of knowledge (NKC). , 2009).

Secondary education at all levels serves as a link between basic education and higher education. Therefore, it plays a very important role, because the future of a child depends to a large extent on the type of education he receives at the secondary level. In addition to strengthening the roots of parenting, secondary education can help lead the child to a bright future. The National Education Policy (NPE, 1986) called for strengthening secondary education by promoting environmental awareness and training in science and laboratory equipment.

They share a common but important goal in creating an educational environment that is considered effective for teaching and learning science, recognizing that scientific breakthroughs are the key to progress in all areas of life. Science gives students the means to better understand the world around them. This promotes curiosity and critical thinking. It highlights the relationship between man and nature and reminds us that natural resources are limited and very valuable. Science permeates all areas of activity around us. We are surrounded by its products, from audio players to digital instruments to computers. We all need a scientific culture to survive in this fast-growing world (Eurydice European Unit, 2006).

Researchers also believe that effective science education is essential for: a) Ensuring a satisfactory level of scientific literacy in society as a whole and preparing the next generation of scientists and engineers for the advancement of higher education and higher education. beyond (Committee on Laboratory Science and Equipment, 2006); b) Ensure the future of practical science in schools by discouraging inappropriate methods (Broers, 2006). Secondary science sometimes shows a more “stereotyped” approach to practical activities that should lead to binding or obvious conclusions. Science education addresses seven aspects. Innovation in science education: (future) teachers and teacher educators, development of scientific thought through research, contextual dimensions of science learning, use of information laboratory equipment, science teachers and ” common sense, “response to gender differences and the role of evaluation in determining what is taught

The link between teachers’ knowledge and scientific abilities, the way they teach science and the consequences for students, depends on the development of scientific thought and the teachers themselves (Eurydice European Unit, 2006).

On the other hand, laboratory equipment is also very important because it is used in all areas of life, including education. The educational system, which is the most important factor for development, is increasingly in a hurry to use new technologies to prepare our future generations for the knowledge and skills they will need in the years to come. Our educational system strives to use a variety of laboratory equipment in all fields, including science, administration and research. Laboratory equipment continues to impact academic transactions involving teaching, learning, research and extension activities at universities, colleges and other institutions. The use of mobile phones, televisions, computers, the Internet and machines is part of our daily lives. In fact, we use laboratory equipment for instruction, communication, transportation, information navigation, entertainment and all types of life needs. Due to scientific and laboratory equipment, most processes in human life have been either simplified, adapted and cost-effective.

Laboratory equipmentis used in providing learning experiences and self-directed instructions to a learner using tutorial and simulation packages, with assistance from an attendance in. In developed countries, the use of modern lab equipments as a teaching tool has reached an advanced stage (Akundeye,2005).Science laboratory is a very important resource input for teaching science and is an important predictor of academic achievement. Throwing more light on school facilities and moral guiding provision, Fabunmi (1997) asserted that school facilities when provided will aid teaching learning programme and consequently improve academic achievement of students while the models guiding their provision to schools could take any form as rational bureaucratic and or political model. Whichever model is adopted, according to him, there is always a common feature of differing allocation of facilities to schools. In his words, Ojoawo (1990), however, noted that certain schools are favoured.

The teaching and learning of general science demand lots of time, and a lot of hard work in the area of practical and experimentation. Hence, there is need to carried out an investigation on the availability and utilization of laboratory equipment in Senior Secondary School in Ogun State in order to determine their effects on students achievement in Senior Secondary School General science.


1.2 Statement of Problem

Teachers continue to stick to the traditional method of chalking and speech; the practice that leaves them in the current demand for an improved learning system in the science curriculum. Among the perceived benefits of using laboratory equipment in schools, it is interesting to teach and learn. Distance learning assistance; help teachers be up to date; Improve the quality of work of teachers and students. Capacity development of laboratory equipment staff in secondary schools is low. This affects the performance of high school students in science. It is evident that most schools in the study areas lacked computer teachers. The shortage of computer science teachers may be related to the lack of laboratory equipment and the motivation of teachers to take training programs in laboratory equipment. The use of laboratory equipment in secondary schools poses other problems, including the provision of less standard laboratory equipment, the high cost of standard laboratory equipment, the lack of adaptability to the use of laboratory equipment, laboratory equipment in teaching and learning, lack of constant feeding and lack of perspective The use of laboratory equipment for science teaching in secondary schools is responsible for performance academic objectives of the program. The above comments therefore emphasize the need to examine the impact of laboratory equipment on the academic performance of upper secondary students.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

This research sought to find out to what extent laboratory equipment are available and used in Senior Secondary Schools and how this has affected the achievement of students in General science. However, for the aim of this study to be achieved the following purpose were set up:

  1. To determine the availability and utilization of laboratory equipment for teaching of General science in Senior Secondary Schools;
  2. To assess the achievement of students based on the availability and the usage of laboratory equipment.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the availability and utilization of laboratory equipment for teaching of General science in Senior Secondary Schools?
  2. What is the achievement of students based on the availability and the usage of laboratory equipment?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance

  • H01: There is no significant relationship between availability of laboratory equipment and achievement of students in General science.
  • H02: There is no significant relationship between the utilization laboratory equipment and achievement of students in General science.

1.6 Scope and Delimitation

This study is an assessment of the availability and actual use of laboratory facilities in some selected senior secondary schools in Ijebu-Ode Local Government Area, Ogun State. The study does not intend to evaluate the effectiveness of the uses in the teaching/learning process.

The performance of the students will not be discussed but the status of the facilities will be investigated.


1.7 Significance of Study

The investigator noted that in Jammu and Kashmir, the introduction of laboratory equipment and its use in schools with other parts of the country could not compete. Countries. It was also noted that school authorities and teachers were unwilling to use these tools due to a lack of training, knowledge and sluggishness. In schools, the subject General Natural Sciences (a combination of physics, chemistry and biology) was usually taught as a lecture. Moreover, the use of multimedia to create imagination, to provide scientific concepts, and to provide up-to-date information to enrich the students’ knowledge has hardly been underlined. In fact, the use of modern laboratory equipment to promote science education at school had not reached the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Only a handful of institutions have managed to introduce teaching materials for science education.

With regard to the use of laboratory equipment, it has been found that the media are not very innovative when considered individually or separately. For this reason, the investigator opted for this research study to experiment with laboratory equipment as an innovation in science education at secondary level. The main objective was to examine the possibility of integrating various modern devices available in the field to teach science in the secondary classroom in Nigerian schools. The main assumption for this integration was the belief that a combination of multiple technologies rather than the use of a single laboratory equipment would have a greater impact on classroom science learning in general. Another reason for the integration of laboratory equipment was the need for students and teachers to have knowledge of the 21st century. The most important skill is to know how and when to use the laboratory equipment and select the most appropriate tool for the job. In this study, the examiner assessed the effectiveness of integrating laboratory equipment into learning situations through a well-planned approach in the form of laboratory equipment for teaching general science at secondary level. In local schools, no experimental studies of this kind have been conducted or reported.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Assessment:

In simple term, assessment means examination or testing of laboratory facilities.

Laboratory Facilities:

This term means all forms of educational equipment that are used to perform experiments which makes learning more easy or simple.

Laboratory Practice:

This involves the manipulation of apparatus in an experimentally determined environment to either find out the true theoretical assumption or to disapprove such assumptions.

Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination:

The examination taken at the end of the senior secondary school programme.

Instructional Media:

Instructional media is a way or act in which information is being transferred to another through the use of materials or equipment or aids.

Technology:

Technology is the application of principles in science to everyday human activities on the science of individual arts.


1.9 Organization of Study

The study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one deals with the study’s introduction and gives a background to the study. Chapter two reviews related and relevant literature. The chapter three gives the research methodology while the chapter four gives the study’s analysis and interpretation of data. The study concludes with chapter five which deals on the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

This study was carried out on the role of science laboratory equipment in the academic comprehension of students in senior secondary schools. The achievement of students in General science in Senior Secondary Schools can be improve if there is adequate provision and proper utilization of available laboratory equipment as there is a strong correlation between the variables. It is regrettable that in most of our Schools today, General science lessons are taught without the use of Laboratory neither the teacher exposed the Students to any practical demonstration. This and other are some of the factors responsible for the mass failure encounter in the Subject. For Nigeria as a nation to be developed in area of science and technology, the teaching of general science must be supported by adequate provision of material resources, required for effective instruction and proper utilization of those resources is needed. This will no doubt boost the student’s academic achievement in General science and other sciences.


5.2 Recommendations

In the light of this study therefore, the following recommendations are made to the government, school heads and general science teachers.

  1. That the government should enforce, encourage, train and monitor general science teachers in senior secondary schools in using, effectively ,the supplied laboratory equipment in order to enhance teaching ability of the teacher and also improve the learning attitude of students in general science.
  2. There should be a strict adherence to the implementation of the education policy concerning provision of material resources for science teaching.
  3. Government and all stake holders in education should assist in ensuring that adequate facilities for teaching and learning general science are provided in the secondary schools.
  4. Government should provide specialized laboratories for general science practical and refurbish dilapidated ones, employ enough laboratory custodians for proper use and management of the laboratories.
  5. General science teachers should make requisitions of materials for general science teaching and ensure proper utilization of them. They should also relate general science teaching to our natural environment by improvisation for effectiveness in the teaching of general science.
  6. Workshops should be organized for the teachers to learn how to use some of the modern equipment.

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