The Role Of Public Relations In Marketing Organization (A Case Study Of PZ Cussons Nigeria Plc, Aba)
This study was necessitated by the need to find out the role of Public Relations in our marketing organization and to know how well it is used as a promotional tool in the marketing organization, thus this topic “The Role of Public Relations in Marketing Organization”, a case study of PZ Cussons Nigeria Plc, Aba.
In chapter one, we were made to understand that Public Relations has often been understood in effect and that most organization only involved themselves in production of goods and services failing to realize what PR can do in the promotion of those goods and services.
Chapter two has to do with current literature review relevant to the study of Public Relations activities in an organization.
Chapter three indicated the research design, data collection instruments, and the method used. In chapter four, the presentation and analysis of data were presented. The data collected were analyzed based on the responses collected from both the questionnaire and oral interviews classification of sample units were also stated here.
Finally, chapter five presented the summary of findings restatement of the problem, conclusions, recommendations and suggestions for further study.
Table of Contents
- Title page i
- Certification page ii
- Dedication iii
- Acknowledgement iv
- Abstract v
- Table of content
- 1.1 Background of the study
- 1.1.1 Profile of the company
- 1.2 Statement of the problems
- 1.3 Objectives of the study
- 1.4 Research questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the study
- 1.7 Scope and Limitation of the study
- 1.8 Dedication
- 2.1 Definition of Public Relations
- 2.2 Roles of PR in an Organization
- 2.3 Problems of Public Relations
- 2.4 Functions of Public Relations
- 2.5 Public Relations Tools
- 2.6 Responsibilities of Public Relations
- 2.7 Ethnic of Public Relations
- 2.8 Staff selection for public relations Job
- 3.1 The Design of the Study
- 3.2 Area of the Study
- 3.3 Populations of Study
- 3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques
- 3.5 Method of Data Collection
- 3.6 Method of Data Analysis
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Presentation of Data
- 4.2 Test of Hypothesis
- 4.3 Discussion of Findings
Summary, conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Restatement of the Problem
- 5.2 Summary of Findings
- 5.3 Conclusion
- 5.4 Recommendation
- 5.5 Suggestions for further study
List of Tables
- 4.1.1 Questionnaire distribution
- 4.1.ii Respondents gender
- 4.1.iii Respondents marital status
- 4.1.iv Educational Qualification of respondents
- 4.1.v Respondents opinion on the presence of PR department in PZ Cussons, Aba.
- 4.1.vi Respondents opinion on the existence of PR Practice in the organization.
- 4.1.vii Respondents opinion on the promotional mix in use in the organization.
- 4.1.viii Respondents opinion on the effectiveness of the mix in used in the organization.
- 4.1.ix Respondents opinion on the role of the mix in use in the organization.
- 4.1.x Respondents opinion on the cause of ineffectiveness of the promotional mix in use in the organization.
- 4.1.xi Respondents opinion on the understanding of organization.
- 4.1.xii Respondents opinion on managements efforts towards PR in the organization.
- 4.1.xiii Respondents opinion on internal and external public perceptions about the organization
- 4.1.xiv Respondents opinion on the organizational engagement in community development.
- 4.1.xv Respondents opinion on the existence of PR tools in the firm.
- 4.1.xvi Respondents opinion on favorable publicity of the firm.
- 4.1.xvii Respondents opinion on the firm’s corporate image
- 4.1.xviii Respondents opinion on the achievement of the organization aims and objectives without PR
- 4.1.xix Respondents opinion on management present decision about public relations in the organization.
- 4.2.i Contingency Table I
- 4.2.ii Calculation of chi-square I
- 4.2.iii contingency table II
- 4.2.iv Calculation of Chi-square II
- 4.2.v Contingency Table III
- 4.2.vi Calculation of chi-square III
- 4.2.vii Contingency Table iv
- 4.2.viii Calculation of Chi-square iv
1.1 Background of the Study
The role of public relations is very important in our organization. Public relations is an important area of management on which both business and non-business organizations depend directly or indirectly for their continued existence. Public relations touch all aspect of the corporate life and operations of every organization from production and personnel to finance and marketing management.
Public relations has to do with communication, information, internal/external goodwill or reputation and different relationships of all of which every organization needs to continue existing. Public relations holds the key for mutual understanding between the government in contemporary societies and their citizens, other organizations and their international community.
Despite all these things that public relations does, it has remained in many countries, as one of the least understands area of modern management.
Many public relations practitioners have not sufficiently exposed themselves to the right education or body of knowledge in public relations that will make them true professional, some people outside the profession have very narrow derogatory and wrong perceptions of what this management discipline does or is all about. Sometimes, corporate
Bribes are called PR and public relations managers or executives are regarded as mere press or publicity agents, errand boys, party organizers and cover-up gimmicks for experts and cover-up gimmicks for experts that are hired.
It should be noted that public relations activities are done in order to complement the survival goals of any business organization and every non-profit organization. Marketers should strive to understand mechanics of the complementary tool-PR. According to Anyanwu (2005:231), most firms has found it lucrative to engage in public relations related activities because of their size of operations and the associated complex problems. These business organizations depend on one another as well as their customers for survival. If a marketing organization like Pz Nigeria plc, Aba does not meet up with their customer’s orders due to one problem or the other, a problem may exist between the company and its customers. In this case, public relations can perform some magic to resolve the dispute. Anyanwu (2005:231), posit that a public relations conscious firm will immediately communicate the reasons for its inability to meet the orders as stipulated. It will go further to provide assurance to the customers. From the above introduction, we bring in a definition of public relations as “the deliberate planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organization and its public”.
1.1.1 Profile of the Company
The city of Aba is dotted with several factories and industries, a number, which can be favourably, compares to any other city in the country. One of these existing organizations is the Pz Nigeria plc, Aba. Pz industry was incorporated in England in 1994, and it was established in Nigeria in 1999. it is a multinational and public liability company with 60% of its equity share held by Nigerians and 40% held by foreigners. It started as a trading company across the western coast of Africa. It began with the marketing of palm produce, cocoa seeds, groundnuts and other cash crops.
Today, the production capacity of Pz Nigeria plc has extended its brands of laundry soap include Eva, Joy, premier, imperial leather, e.t.c. the company has its sulphonation plant in Lagos where they produce elephant tempo and jet brand of detergents. The Lagos plant also engage in the production of pharmaceutical and perfumes such as Alagbin, Chinese balm, maladin, and other anti-malaria drugs.
The company also engage in the production of some home electrical appliances like air conditioners, hair driers, home theaters, etc. the company also engages in the exportation of raw materials like palm kernel oil, palm kernel cake and glycerine crude to other countries where they are needed for use. Pz product quality is of international standards and its branches are located in about thirty-seven (37) countries in the world today.
The company is made up of many sections and departments that runs its production and marketing activities. The departments in Pz Nigeria plc. Aba is as follows:
- Production department
- Engineering department
- Marketing department
- Purchasing department
- Administration department
- Shipping department
- Finance and account department
- Human resource department.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The study and practice of public relations today in the country is associated with a lot of problems and some of these problems include the following:
- Poor knowledge of the roles of Pr hinders its smooth practice in a market organization.
- The absence of PR department result in the failure to achieve its marketing goals
- Inadequate funding of PR activities negatively affect marketing organization corporate image.
- Lack of basic training by PR practitioners leads to poor marketing output.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The objectives of the study are as follows:
- To carry out a critical analysis of public relations practices in the country viz-a-viz its roles in marketing organizations
- To unveil the causes and implications of the ineffectiveness of the public relations practitioners at his chosen profession.
- This study aims at bringing to the fore, the extent of understanding of public relations in Pz Nigeria plc, Aba in dealing with its internal and external publics.
- This work will also examine the effort of the management of Pz Nigeria plc, Aba in making PR what it should be in the organization.
- This work will find out various tools of public relations used in marketing of goods in Pz Nigeria plc, Aba.
- This study also aims at unveiling the perception the internal and external publics have on Pz plc, Aba.
- Finally, to encourage and advice the Pz Aba on the use of public relations and prefer suggestions in area of defect.
1.4 Research Questions
- Has public relations helped in the achievement of marketing objectives of Pz Nigeria plc, Aba?
- Does the public realize the roles of public relations in promoting goods and in community development in Pz plc Aba?
- Has Pz Aba achieved its major promotions, aims and objectives through the effect of public relations?
- What image does the internal public have of the public relations unit of Pz Aba?
- What are the public relations tools and how have those tools helped in building up good relations between the organization and its public?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The following hypothesis stated in null and alternative forms will be tested to help resolve the problems being studied in this work.
- Ho1: Poor knowledge of the roles of PR does not hinder its smooth practice in marketing organizations.
H1: Poor knowledge of the roles of PR hinders its smooth practice in marketing organizations.
- H2: Absence of PR department does not result in failure to achieve its marketing goals.
H12: Absence of PR department result in failure to achieve its marketing goals.
- H03: inadequate funding of PR activities does not negatively affect marketing organizations corporate image.
H13: inadequate funding of PR activities negatively affect marketing organizations corporate image.
- H04: lack of basic training by PR practitioners does not lead to poor marketing output.
H14: lack of basic training by PR practitioners leads to poor marketing output.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The significance of this research work is overwhelming as it will be of immense benefit to different organizations and individuals.
- This work is very useful especially to the PZ Nigeria plc, Aba in their public relations practice, it enables them look more analytically at the problems facing the practice and also to arrive at a solution towards achieving a more effective and efficient public relations practices.
- It is of great importance to the business organizations that have been dismayed by the way their business fail as they will now have the opportunity of knowing the reasons and the way out.
- This study provides the government with information about the roles and activities of public relations especially in PZ Nigeria plc, Aba.
- This research is of great importance to the academic work as it serves as a source of good information for further research.
- To me, the study is part of the requirement for the award of Higher National Diploma (HND) in marketing.
1.7. Scope and Limitations of the Study
A better result would have been recorded, but for some limiting factors. The restructure of the population to be studied was due to financial and other constraints. Instead of studying the entire population of PZ Nigeria plc, Aba, the researcher decided to restrict his study to only hundred (100) workers In order to reduce cost and to save time.
This study was carried out viz-a-viz other academic pursuits, which could be very engaging. This constrained the time needed to attend to the project squarely. In addition, we do mean to ignore the possibility of this work being prone to personal and other biases of the various people surveyed.
However, efforts were made to surmount the various constraints within possible human limits and thus, arriving at what you are reading now.
1.8 Definition of Terms
This is the process of transmitting facts, ideas, and emotions from a source to a receiver using signals, which are meaningful and relevant to the immediate environment.
Concept of Public:
This can be defined as every one interested in an organization or is affected by those organizations policies, decisions, interest, communication or project and opinion.
This could be referred to as facts or details about something.
This is a set of business activities that facilitates exchange transaction involving economic goods and services for the ultimate purpose of satisfying human needs.
It is a system, and a system is composed of elements or sub-systems so interrelated and integrated that they form a whole and display unique attributes.
This refers to both the internal and external publics of an organization. This is the people working for the organization.
This is the management of an organization designed to elicit from one or more publics, a general positive feeling towards the organization and its products.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendation
5.1 Restatement of the Problem.
- Poor knowledge of the role of PR hinders its smooth practice in marketing organizations
- Absence of PR department result in failure to achieve its marketing goals.
- Inadequate funding of PR activities negatively affect marketing organization corporate image.
- Lack of basic training by PR practitioner’s lead to poor marketing output.
5.2 Summary of Findings
At the end of this research work, the following findings were made:
- That the marketing administrative and human resource department carry out public relations activities. This study reveals that the public relations activities are shared among these departments.
- It was discovered that there is no separate public relations departments in Pz Cussons Nigeria Plc, Aba.
- It was observed that the marketing department takes care of product publicity, using pr in promotion. The human resources department takes care of lobbying, development, press relations and investor relations.
- We found out that because pz cussons Aba does not have a full fledge public relations department to carry out its major promotional mix, the publics have different perception about the organization.
From the study, it was found out that there is no public relations department in PZ cussons, Aba, rather the public relations activities are carried out by the administrative, marketing and human resource department.
Although PZ cussions, Aba knows the importance of public relations, it is being practiced without having a public relations unit or department in the organization Of the many promotion tools in use in PZ, Aba, none has been able to do what public relations could have done for the organization as a marketing firm.
It should be noted that public relations does not only help in promoting sales or in bringing out the corporate image of an organization, it also helps in fostering understanding between staff and management, managements and publics, and infact, within the whole sectors in any organization.
Although public relations is practiced in pz, it is unfortunate that there is no PR outfit to man its whole public relations operations and as such, the various sectors in the firm do not have proper understanding among themselves.
Pz cussons plc, Aba has been trying its best in community development as a means of boosting the corporate image of the organization. But some of the marketing aims and objectives of PZ cussons, Aba have not been achieved because PR has not been given a proper seat in the organization.
Given these different situations, a decisive look was taken at the management in their effort to use public relations as a very strong promotional tool in the marketing of their products. It is glad to note that the management is trying to bring PR to the fore among the promotion tools in use in PZ cussons Aba.
Having the role of public relations in marketing organizations, with a case study of PZ cussons Nigeria plc, Aba undertaken, these recommendations are products of unstructured oral interviews. They are as follows:
- The management should employ experience public relation practitioners and other people in the field that will man the public relation operations of the organization.
- The management should establish a full-fledged public relations department of other existing sections, so as to enable the functions of public relations to be well executed.
- Management should adequately finance the provision of facilities needed in public relations.
- The public relations practitioners with the agreement of PZ cussons, Aba should consider using the following public relations tools
- Special events
- Written materials
- Audio-visual materials
- Corporate identity materials
- Public service activities.
5.5 Suggestions for Further Study
Due to time constraint and other limiting factors in the course of writing this research work, some areas could not be adequately covered, I therefore suggest that further research on this topic be carried out by other researcher.
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