Role Of Public Relations In Gender Conflict Resolution

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

Role Of Public Relations In Gender Conflict Resolution


Abstract


This study is on the Role of Public Relations on Gender Conflict Resolution. (A Study of First Bank Nigeria Plc. Emene, Branch) It seeks to study the term gender conflict, in addition to the importance and effective practice of Public Relations. It covers the important roles which a Public Relations practitioner performs on the Bank and also the Qualities of Public Relations practitioner. A critical review of related literature was made. The sample size of 133 was used using Taro Yamane formula. The researcher made use of survey research method. The questionnaire and oral interview was used for data collection. Data was presented in tables and a descriptive approach is adopted in analysis using chi square. Finally, the researcher made some recommendation including, Public Relations practitioners complained that management does not consult them on policy –making plan or even inform important matters. This can be resolve if only the management realize the important roles of the Public Relations.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Gender is a general term that refers to girls, boys, women and men. Gender can also be defined to include the roles of makes and females in the society. A gender perspective in conflict would look at the way in which the considerations of these different groups of people will be dealt with during the transitional justices process. Female’s experience of conflict and transitions however differ from the of males due to gendered patterns that define different roles and experiences during both conflict and post- conflict. Whenever there is interaction between two individuals, there are chances of difference of opinion. Gender and conflict then, refers to the ways women and men are affected in times of conflict.

Conflicting situation is a situation in which two or more values, perspectives and opinions are contradictory in nature, have not yet aligned or agreed upon yet. Conflict may be defined in many ways and can be considered as an expression hostility, negative attitudes, antagonism, aggression, rivalry, and misunderstanding. It is also associated with situation that involves contradictory or irreconcilable interests between two opposing groups. A simple definition of conflict is that it is any tension which is experienced when one person perceived that one’s needs or desires are or are likely to be thwarted or frustrated (Gupta and Joshi, 2008). A conflict is more than just a disagreement. It is a situation in which people perceive a threat (Physical, emotional, power, status etc) to their well – being and is caused by t he differences and clash of personalities – attitudes, beliefs and values and needs, Conflicts are inherent in any interpersonal relationship, its management is integral to the performance of any organization. Conflict management involves acquisition of skills relating to conflict resolution, self –awareness about conflict modes, conflict communication skills, and establishing a structure for management of conflict in your environment. Banking industry is the backbone of any economy. Progress of any country is directly or indirectly influenced by soundness of banking system of the country. In globalized world, trade and commerce would almost be impossible with the availability of suitable banking services.

The handling of conflict resolution in an organization or in the political realm of a state is major function of Public Relations. It is an essential skill of Public Relations manager to prevent gender conflict resolution rather than finding solutions when crisis erupt. The use of fire brigade approach in finding solution to problems that arises in banking sectors is described as “Remedial Public Relations” by Haywood (1984) where as “preventive Publics Relations” is what many scholars advocate in public relations practice. This is “the prevention of crisis in an organization through effective communication network between the organization and its publics in order to engender understanding, acceptance, goodwill, respect, efficiency, good welfare and mutual support ad co-operation”. In order to handle conflict resolution in our organizations, and be in a position to apply Public Relations as a strategic management option for survival and growth, Nwosu (2004) says that Public Relations practitioners should see themselves as managers as well as carryout their functions as skilled and knowledgeable managers in a manner similar to what exit or is the dominant paradigm commercial organizations. This is therefore, the key to the reduction eradication of the unceasing crises in organizations arising from areas management – employee relations management – trade –union relations, cultism organizational politics,, ethnic and sectional chauvinism and personality clashes. In the same vein, researcher reported that male managers preferred power and authority while female managers used communication before resorting to using power (coercion). Also, female supervisors were found to use coercion less than male than male supervisor and often after other resolution styles do not yield desired results (Mulac, Siebold, & Farris, 2000; Lamude & Torres, (2000).

This implies that female supervisors in first Bank tend to ultimately use coercion if necessary. The research reported that subordinates see coercive – based technique as negative while the rewarding, referent and expert – based techniques were seen as positive by the subordinates. Reflecting on conflict management effectiveness
Faniran (2002) and Adekunle (2004) reported that experienced managers were found to be more effective in managing conflict situations than less experienced managers. The authors further reported that working experience rather than gender of the manager has been found to have significantly influenced conflict management effectiveness. Also, the bankers argue that experience male and female managers were found to be equally effective in managing conflict though their attitude may be quite different. First bank solve gender issue by giving all their customers male and female change to exercise their fundamental human right according to bank ethnic. In the current dispensation of Nigeria political realm, gender is a big threat in the society, where the First Lady of Nigeria is fighting tooth and nail for federal government to recognize female in the working sectors. Ladies should be give 50% chance of opportunity. This chapter therefore, focuses on the importance and the acquisition of necessary skills and knowledge in conflict resolution management among organizational heads, and other general crises management skills, including how to handle the media and bad press “during crises in First Bank Plc. Emene, Enugu.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

From the above background, its obvious that gender conflict is a negative element that is highly unwelcomed in the banking sector. Conflict decreases growth and brings about instability in the banking industries. It brings about unhealthy competition among other Mega Banking Sectors. This development is critical as foreign and domestic investors will be sceptical that their huge investment would be safe, fear and insecure as well as lack of trust and confidence will prevail. Thus, for the continuity of development for First Bank to be guaranteed, the need for Public Relations roles in managing conflict in the First Bank can not be over emphasized.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

  1. To find out whether Public Relations play a vital role in conflict resolution between First Bank and other mega banks.
  2. To find out whether racism of gender inequality of income or sex and lack of labour affect the working force of First Bank Plc.
  3. To find out whether unhealthy competition affect the global market of banking industries in First Banks Plc. Emene branch.
  4. To find out whether gender conflict decrease the growth and brings about instability in the banking industries.

1.4 Research Hypotheses

  1. Hoi: public Relations does not play a vital role in conflict resolution
    H0: public Relations play a vital role in conflict resolution
  2. Hi: inequality of income and promotion due to gender does not cause gender crisis in an organistion
    H0: inequality of income and promotion due to gender causes gender crisis in an organistion

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study will benefit many government officials and co-operate organizations in conflict resolution and management as few work have been done on the subject. Also it will serve as a starting point for other researchers who will be interested in the subject of this research. It will also be beneficial to Emene communities and Public Relations experts as more knowledge has been gained from the research. The research of this kind becomes necessary as its finding provides the Public Relations practitioners with comprehensive and broad knowledge of what could be the effect of corporate social responsibility for enhancing community relations. In essence, the study will serve as a useful guide for future researcher to either validate or reject the finding of the study.


1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study is primarily concerned with the role of public relation in gender conflict resolution. This study covers First Bank Plc. The researcher encountered some constraints, which limited the scope of the study. These constraints include but are not limited to the following.

a) Availability of Research Material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.


1.7 Definitions of Terms

Crisis Management:

Black (1999) defined crisis management as the process by which organization deals with any major unpredictable events that threatens to harm the organization, it is responding to unforeseen circumstance with no time to plan ahead.

Management:

Weihrich (1994) opted management as the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individual working together in groups efficiently accomplish selected aims through planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling.

Public Relations:

(1987) also defined Public Relations as the forms of planned communication outward or inward between an organization and it public for the purpose of achieving specific object concerning mutual understanding.

Resolution:

A firm decision to do or not to do something, the quality of being determined or resolute. It also a process of settlement of dispute among smaller and mega banks to gender conflict.

Conflict Resolution:

Conflict resolution conceptualization as the methods and processes involved in facilitating the peaceful ending of conflict.

Gender Conflict:

Gender conflict is based on the cultural beliefs various societies have established concerning the roles men and women play in those societies.


1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  1. Chapter one is concerned with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  2. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  3. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  4. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  5. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to have a critical analysis of the role of public relations in gender conflict resolution.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations are made, which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefitin addressing the challenges of gender conflict.


5.2 Summary

This study aimed at havinga critical analysis of the role of public relations in gender conflict resolution. Four objectiveswere raised to guide this study. Based on the objectives, two hypotheses were posited and tested using a chi-square.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the above findings pertaining to the objectives of the study the following conclusions are drawn.
There are some workplace programs that are playing a direct role in reducing the risk of violence against women for their employees but these aren’t widespread. The biggest barriers to the take-up of these programs are informal cultures of sexism and discrimination in organisations. Some leaders who don’t see why violence against women is a workplace issue. Another problem is allocating the staff time and resources needed to implement prevention activities.


5.4 Recommendation

  1. Workplace initiatives need to go beyond ‘messaging’ and statements endorsing equity and respect, it requires action. This means individual staff and managers are trained to recognise the signs an employee might be experiencing violence, respond appropriately and either refers employees to appropriate support services.
  2. If organisations really want to make a difference, programs need to move beyond responding to violence and provide sustained programs that address gender equality and are tailored to the specific workplace conditions.
  3. Commitment from senior management is a crucial factor in program success. Programs such as the Gender Equality Project developed by the Centre for Ethical Leadership work intensively with executive level staff to raise awareness of unconscious gender bias and identify and transform structural barriers that prevent women from achieving leadership positions in an organisation.

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