The Role Of Public Relations In Crime Management
The purpose of the study was to assess the role of public relations in crime management in Enugu state, Nigeria. Three specific objectives and research questions were formulated to guide the study. The study considered the internal and external problems of Nigeria police and how the police relations officer has succeeded or failed in resolving problems. Problems such as the welfare of the police, its relationship with the public and how the police manage crime and crises in Enugu State. To achieve this, survey research method was adopted with questionnaire as the instrument to elicit responses from the respondents. Findings drawn from the study revealed positive that police serving in Enugu faces internal and external problems such as poor salary, poor equipment’s at home and offices, insufficient accommodation, poor medical care and poor relationship with the publics; which makes it difficult for the police to manage crisis due to inadequate information from the publics. The study therefore recommended that police should stop extortion, bribery and corruption, brutality, aiding and abating crimes because of their position in the society. The publics should contribute positively to give vital information to the police to fight against crisis. The Police Public Relations Department should handle the internal and external problems through their cordial relationship with the press. Finally the government should take serious maintenance of the police in their welfare, so that they would take their work seriously.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background to the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objectives of the Study
- 1.4 Research Question
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisation of the Study
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Conceptual Review
- 2.2 The Concept of Public Relations
- 2.3 The Concept of Communication as a Tool
- 2.4 The Concept of Police: Why Public Relations in Police?
- 2.5 The Concept of Crime Management in the Nigeria Police
- 2.6 Model and Functions of Public Relations Management
- 2.7 Theoretical Framework
- 2.7.1 Social Responsibility Theory
- 2.7.2 System Theory
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Target Population
- 3.3 Sampling Size and Technique
- 3.4 Instruments for Data Collection
- 3.5 Validity of Instrument
- 3.6 Reliability of Instrument
- 3.7 Method of Data Collection
- 3.8 Method of Data Analysis
4.0 Results and Discussion
- 4.1 Result
- 4.2 Green Management Policy
- 4.3 Green Business Practices
- 4.4 Drivers of Green Business Practices
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background to the Study
According to the 7th edition of Oxford Advance Dictionary, “Public Relations is described as the business of giving the public‟s, information about a particular organization or person in order to create a good impression.”
Following from the description, the police rely upon the general public for minimum level of support to accomplish their mission public information is very vital to the police, because it is a strongly held value in our culture that the informed and educated citizens are the best participants in democratic government.
Alienation exists because the police and society. Attempts have been made to bridge that gap between the police and the citizens. One often hears police officers say that the Community does not understand the role and how to inter-relate with the community.
In the past, police considered themselves as pure administrative officer, enforcing law without discretion. But today police administration recognizes that discretion is an important role. As a result the police officer forgets his exact role in the force, because he uses discretion method.
The Police Public Relation Officer (PPRO) must be skilled in the management tool POSDCORB, which means Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, Coordinating, Reporting and Budgeting. He does these effectively with the cooperation and supervision of the State Commissioner of Police, Deputy Commissioner of police and other senior police officers. Furthermore, the police public relations officer uses the press to enhance good relationship between the public‟s and the Nigeria police Enugu.
Before the independence of Nigeria in 1960, public relations practice was not popular. Economic, social and political awareness program and activities increased the knowledge of public relations.
Public relations practices were introduced into Nigeria from Britain through the vehicle of colonialism. The introduction of public relations practice in Nigeria was done through the initiative of the colonial government and its obedient servants. Being and adjunct of journalism, public relations became an important element in public communication in the colonial days. The pioneers were already enjoying patronage of the people and those in government. The government felt the need for another branch of communication which would convey subtly, its feelings to the people without really going through the rigors of metal composition of communicative acts, during the Second World War (1940), the government urge for more channels of communication. It became more pronounced, especially in the need to present and analyze information about the war. This eventually led the government to establish an office of information.
The British decided to employ the tactics of public relations through mobile cinemas, posters, television programs. These programs were aimed at sensitizing Nigerians on what they were doing for the benefit of the nation as well as what the colonialist expected of Nigerians in return.
Since that time, public relations have been recognized as a profession in Nigeria and in other West Africa States. In 1949 United Africa Company became the first company to have public information unit. This is followed by the establishment of public relations unit by the Samuel Epelle served as the first public relations officer.
In 1963, the Nigerian institute of public relation (NIPR) was established as a regulatory body for PR practice in Nigeria.
The lack of adequate knowledge of public relations, as a career and the absence of its programs for understanding its practice hindered its growth in Nigerian organizations. Until recently when the Federal Republic of Nigeria promulgated Decree No. 16 of June, 1990 which upheld the practice of public relations in Nigeria.
The origin of the Police is a product of social crisis in the society. The word police is derived from the Greek word “polis” meaning that part of non ecclesiastical administration, having to do with safety and order of the state. Police work did not start as a paid profession. It started as a noble, incorruptible profession with considerable responsibility and distinction. It was the justice of the peace system in the society.
The Nigeria, Police began with a thirty-member consul guard formed in Lagos colony is 1861, a 1,200-member armed paramilitary Hausa constabulary was formed.
In 1896 the Lagos police was established. A similar force, the Niger coast constabulary was formed in Calabar in 1984 under the newly proclaimed Niger coast protectorate. In the north, the Royal Niger Company set up the Royal Niger company constabulary in 1888 with headquarters at Lokoja. When the protectorates of Northern and Southern Nigeria were proclaimed in the early 1900s, part of the Royal Niger Company constabulary became the Northern Nigerian police, and part of the Niger coast constabulary became the Southern Nigeria police. Northern and Southern Nigeria were amalgamated in 1914, but their police force (NPF) in lagos. During the colonial period, most police were associated with local government (native authorities). In the 1960s, under the First Republic, these forces were first regionalized and then nationalized.
The 1960 constitution established the Nigerian force as a Federal force charged with the responsibility for maintenance of law and order throughout Nigeria. The command of the Nigerian police force was under the Inspector General of Police (IGP).
Those of the regions were under the command of commissioners of police. Recently the Nigeria Police Force (NPF) dropped the “force” in its name and now answers Nigeria Police (Nigeria police is grouped into departments A-F. “A” department takes care of administration, personnel-promotion, dismissal, transfer, posting, medical budgeting, accounts, public relations and printing. “B” department to “F” have their own respective duties our major concern is “A” department where public relations belongs. There we look into the administration of police department.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Public relations practice, utilizes communication skills and strategies, in order to establish and maintain the several positive linkages among human beings, in the context of society to minimize and eliminate the negative attitudes and behavior.If the citizens do not trust the police, they will not talk to them. They would avoid police contact therefore, if distrust causes avoidance and failure to communicate, the implications for the police organization are really very dramatic. Citizens will not report crime. They will not give statements to officers who are investigating crimes and they will not testify in court.
When the police organization views the community, it has sworn to protect as a dangerous place full of people who are criminals. The police will be carefully guided when they have contact with the citizens they are expected to be protecting. This study will look into the internal and external problems of the Nigeria police and how the police public relations officer has succeeded or failed in resolving problems. Problems such as the welfare of the police, its relationship with the public and how the police manage crime and crisis in Enugu; would be treated.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this study is to assess the role of public relations in crime management in Enugu state, Nigeria.
The specific objectives of the study are to:
- To ascertain the general welfare of the police in Enugu state.
- To determine the extent to which police brutality and extortion damage their image to the public in Enugu state.
- To determine how cordial the relationship between the police and public in Enugu state is.
- To ascertain how police handle crisis and crime management in Enugu state.
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions were formulated from the problem and the objectives of the study;
- What is the general welfare of the police in Enugu state?
- To what extent does police brutality and extortion damage their image to the public in Enugu state?
- How cordial is the relationship between the police and public in Enugu state?
- How does the police handle crisis and crime management in Enugu state?
1.5 Research Questions
- HO1: There is no significant relationship between public relations and crime management in Enugu state, Nigeria
- HA1: There is a significant relationship between public relations and crime management in Enugu state, Nigeria
1.6 Significance of the Study
Public relations creates an understanding through effective communication between the organization, its officers and the public.
This study will help the management to resolve crisis through maintaining effectively public relations. Conditions of living and service will improve reducing bribery, corruption and extortion of fifty naira (#50.00) on the road.
Further beneficiaries are the public and the press. The masses will understand how hard the police are working and cooperate with them in combating crime. The media will be used in sanitizing, educating and mobilizing the public towards police efforts to polices the effectively.
Through the research findings, it would point out the plight of the Nigeria police and take steps to improve their conditions of living.
If these observations are taken into consideration, the image, reputation, respect, trust and dignity of the police will be restored, making it possible and easy for future research to do it better.
1.7 Scope of Study
The areas this study covers are problems facing the Nigeria police, Problems like poor welfare, communication, accommodation and how they relate with the general public and the press, innocent citizens, deviants and criminals in Enugu state. The police public relation officer is located in Police headquarters Enugu secretariat. This study is delimited to assessing the role of public relations in crime management in Enugu state, Nigeria.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
The limitation of the study is that it only catered for public relations in crime management in Enugu state, Nigeria. It would be difficult to capture the variables of the study among other security officials in other states. Also, there was no standardized research instrument to capture the research variables hence, the use of a self-developed questionnaire by the researcher to tackle the pivotal issue of this research work.
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
Public relations is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization to the public in order to affect their public perception.
The official organization that is responsible for protecting people and property. Making people to obey the law, finding out about and solving crimes and catching people who have committed a crime.
Is the attempt to reduce and deter crime and criminals. It is applied specifically to efforts made by governments to reduce crime, enforce the law, and maintain criminal justice.
1.10 Organisation of the Study
This study is organized into five chapters. Chapter one included the background of the study, research problem, research objectives and questions as well as limitation of the study. Chapter two contains the literature review. Chapter three includes the methodology and study area. Chapter Four contains the results and discussion of key findings of the study. Chapter Five finally looks at the summary, conclusions, and recommendations based on the findings.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Summary of the Study
The main aim of the study is to assess the role of public relations in crime management in Enugu state, Nigeria. The research method involved in this study is survey method, which includes use of questionnaire and interview. The study discovered that the Nigeria police serving in Enugu command face reminders problems, which comprise internal and external ones. Both junior and senior staff used in the survey agreed that their internal problems bother on poor welfare is enumerated as poor salary equipment at home and office, poor accommodation, medical care, transportation, communication gadgets, non-promotion exercise among other things. So far the lack those enumerated items and more, police look ineffective and unattractive to the public. There external problems have to do with poor relationship with the public and press. Most often crises arise and police attention is needed the situation. Armed robbery attacks at home, lousiness centers, banks and on roads lead to serious injuries or at times death of policemen as they hunt the hunters [armed robbers]. The public sometimes complain that when they report cases that require maximum security of the police, they most often suspect the complainants and may even disclose the source of the information to the suspect.
The duty of the police public relations officer in Enugu state is to sanitize the image of the police by laying off the bad egg and establishing links with the media for publicity in matters that are of public interest. Hypotheses were generated to guide the study. Literature were reviewed according to the variables and hypotheses under study, to facilitate the discussion of findings.
Research design was adopted for the study. The design was considered most relevant because it allowed the research to make reference, and generalization of the population by studying the sample obtained from the study. The selection was done through the Taro Yamane sampling technique. This was to give equal opportunity to all the members in the population area to be selected to the study. The main instrument used for data collection was the questionnaire designed by the researcher and with the help of the supervisor.
Chi – square (X2) statistical analysis was employed to test the hypothesis directing the study to ascertain whether to accept or reject them. The statistical technique will considered most appropriate because hypothesis were subject to testing at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the analysis indicated that poor welfare affects the work of the police. Therefore police should be paid well and given good accommodation and have access to communication gadgets at all times.
The following conclusions have been drawn from the relevant major findings of the study:
- The police are not being taken good care of the federal government, police service commission and the ministry of the police affairs.
- In most criminal cases, suspects are interrogated and sometime, brutalized in an attempt to find out the truth. Though, innocent ones often fall victim of this circumstances.
- The perception of the junior and senior staff of the Nigeria Police, Enugu metropolis shows that no significant difference exists in crime management, the press. Police relationship is not very cordial in Enugu State.
- The police public relations officer handle coordinate and channel to the appropriate authority all police internal and external problems.
- Extortion, bribery and all other corrupt practices damage seriously image of the Nigeria police.
- The press should learn to be partners in progress with the police than jeopardizing their effort in combating crime.
The following recommendations were made based on the findings of the study;
- The policemen should stop extortion, bribery, fortune, brutality, aiding and abating crimes because of their position in the society.
- Policemen should endeavor to be handy in times of crisis or distress call.
- The public should give information to the police and learn that police are our friends.
- Police should intimate the press often about cases of public interest for public awareness and sensitization.
- The federal government should take serious maintenance of the police and whatever money budgeted for them should be released by the police service commission and ministry of police affairs so that part of the money does not go into the hands of the men at the echelon.
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