The Role Of Public Administration In Enhancing Democratic Principles In Nigeria
The essence of Public Administration is for the smooth running of the country in terms of helping in the translation, execution, implementation of government’s proposal, policies, programmes, etc. It remains very critical and crucial to national development and democratic stability in developing country.
An efficient public administration acts as catalyst in the development of nations; while on the other hand, its inefficiency can constitute as one the heaviest milestones round the neck of developing nations.
Therefore, it is important to note that the public administration must be efficient to service the democratic nation (Nigeria) for stability and survival of the policy.
As regards to our country Nigeria, it functions very well and smooth if the country is democratically organized and democratic principles also applied. The concept of public administration and its background are contained in this research work.
It is recommended that corruption which has been one of the problems of the country should be avoided and a lot of them are also recommended.
Table Of Content
- Title page
- Approval page
- Table of contents
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objectives of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Significance of the Study
- 1.6 Scope of the Study
- 1.7 Limitation of the Study
- 1.8 Definition of Terms
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Introduction
- 2.2 Conceptualizing Public Administration and Democracy
- 2.3 Principles of Public Administration
- 2.4 The Impact of Public Administration on the Enhancement of Democratic Principles
- 2.5 Functions of Public Administration
- 2.6 Enhancing Democratic Principles in Nigeria, the Role of the Public Administration
- 2.7 Factors Associated with Public Administration Problem in Relating to Enhancing Democratic Principle
3.0 Research Design and Methodology
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Research Design
- 3.3 Sources/Methods of Data Collection
- 3.4 Population and Sample Size
- 3.5 Sample Techniques
- 3.6 Validity and Reliability of Measuring Instrument
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data
- 4.1 Introduction
- 4.2 Presentation of Data
- 4.3 Analysis of Data
- 4.4 Interpretation of Result
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Introduction
- 5.2 Summary of Findings
- 5.3 Conclusion
- 5.4 Recommendations
1.1 Background Of The Study
The Nigeria public administration of 1960 was an offshoot of British prototype for British bequeathed Nigeria with her model of public administration where she granted her independence in that year when Nigeria demanded for political emancipation.
During the period Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe was the governor general representing the queen, while Abubakar Tafawa Balewa served as the prime minister.
Due to some defectives in the 1960, many Nigerians wanted immediate changes to be made in the constitution in order to remove the awkward aspect of the constitution. This prompted the revision of 1960 independent constitution, and ushered in the 1963 republic constitution which made Nigeria a Republic. Some of the features of the immediate independent year could be identified as follows:
- Nigeria was a federation of three regions until 1963 when the fourth region was added.
- The first republic witnessed multi-party system.
- It was a parliamentary democracy
- The prime minister was the head of the executive
The second republic which began with the ascendance of the civilian government of President Sehu Shagari in 1971 abolished the parliamentary system of government.
Although Nigeria shifted away from the practice of the British parliamentary system and adopted the American presidentialism, she still maintains the dual civil service structure.
The second distinguishing feature of the Nigeria presidency was the fact that this constitution formally required the president to obtain advice from or consult with certain executive bodies before making decision on certain issues. The executive bodies were: the council of state, the federal civil service commission, the national defense council, the national economic council, the federal electoral commission, the national defense council, the police service commission, etc.
The third republic came into existence on 27th August 1993; who the departing military president, general Ibraham Babangida instituted the Interim National Government (ING), and placed chief Ernest Shonikan as the head of the Interim National Government until elections scheduled in February 1994.
This administration was unable to reverse Nigerians economic problems or to defuse lingering political tension.
The fourth republic came into existence in Nigeria in May 1999 under the administration of Olusegun Obasanjo after 16 years of consecution military regime. This administration inherited a country suffering economic stagnation and the detraction of most democratic institutions.
This republic ascended power with clear cut goal to improve. They are also dedicated to the re-orientation of the public service to the values of diligence, honesty, well remunerated service, supportive to democratic system reforms to bring effective performance and to enable them contribute to the economic wealth of the country.
Since 1999, the government has increased the salaries of worker twice, while several officials totally deprived of promotion have been promoted (the guardian May, 30 2007). It is believed that all these measures, including the organisation of training and orientation programmes are capable of attaining enlisting the support of the administration for democracy.
1.2 Statement Of Problem
The Nigeria public administration has faced a number of challenges and problems which have considerably undermined its capacity to serve as agent of democratic consolidation.
This work is out to look into the problem that has hindered public administration from enhancing democratic principles as outlined by Ayo; these include the following:
- Problem of coping with public expectation
- Problem of behaving ethically and maintaining constitutional order.
- Problem of quality personnel in the public service
- Problem of political influence by the politicians
- Problem of corruption
These problems highlighted above have been suggested tog the reason for the failure of public administration in displaying its rightful role In Nigeria.
1.3 Objective Of The Study
The research is set out to examine the causes of military in politics in Nigeria in particular and Africa in general. It hopes to examine a brief history of military in politics and also critically examine the military p[residency of General Ibrahim Babangida in Nigeria between 1985 and 1993. besides, the economic and political programmes of the regime, its merits and demerits are also considered. It presents suggestions and possible solutions to military intervention in Nigeria politics.
1.4 Research Questions
- Are there problems militating against public administration in their effort to enhance democratic principle?
- How free are administrators to participate in deciding matters that will lead to free and fair election?
- How often to politicians interfere with the duties of administrators?
- What is the relationship between politician and administrators?
- How often do politicians accept the input of administrators?
1.5 Significance Of The Study
This study is significance to develop the knowledge of public administration towards administration in enhancing democratic principles and directing them on how best to come against them.
It will broaden the knowledge of the general public who come across this work, on the role played by the public administration in enhancing democratic principles through efficient and effective public administrators.
It will also make the public to appreciate the role of public administration in developing and improving this democratic government.
Finally, to student and researchers, it will serve as a reference material to any work wished to carry out.
1.6 Scope Of The Study
This implies to know the effort of public administration in enhancing democratic principles in Nigeria and their challenges, it was traced to the fourth republic which is the contemporary administration.
1.7 Limitation Of The Study
The researcher was faced with some obstacles in the course of carrying out this study as result of some factors such as financial and material constraints which is beyond the researcher’s control.
The time available for this research to be carried out is limited since other activities are bound to infringe and interfere with the time allocated to the project. This time has constantly been depleted by the incessant changes in the school calendar. Also being a student researcher, research is often expected to complete the work within a specific time for it to be successful.
Lack of funds:
This research is contained financially because of the high cost of material. The high cost of transportation occasioned by increased in fuel has not helped matters in any way since one has to travel to places to collect materials for the research. The result is that research fund may be insufficient or inadequate for one to carry out the research as would wish to.
There is a general condition of inadequacy of infrastructure such as; textbooks, libraries, telecommunication equipment, computer network and social amenities that make life comfortable for the researcher. The lack of appropriate textbooks in most libraries is a serious impediment to a research of this nature. Majority if the libraries are not well stocked with the prerequisite textbooks.
1.8 Definition Of Terms
According to Stephen P. Robbins, it is the universal process of efficiently getting activities completed with and through other people. This process concerned with planning, organizing, leading and controlling that take place to accomplish the objectives.
It refers to the coordination of all organized activities having its purpose in the implementation of public policies and programmes through the utilization of human and material. Nnoli perceives Public Administration as the machinery as well as the integral processes through which government reforms its functions.
It is the increased or further improvement of god quality, value of status of somebody of something.
Democratic: W can define democracy as the system of government whereby the people, that is the electorate, exercise governmental power whether directly or indirectly through representatives elected by them periodically.
A guiding role for personal, organisation or departmental behaviour.
5.0 Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation
This chapter concentrates on the summary of findings made in the previous chapters conclusion will also be drawn in this chapter and recommendation made by the researcher.
5.2 Summary Of Findings
There is no need to say that public administration plays critical role in stimulating the nation and its resources to development.
Public administration has to do with the totality of how progress and development are made in to country. It is effective and workable in a democratic society of government that endeavour to serve the interest of all and insular or self serving.
It is worthy to know that democracy with its values enhanced the working of pubic and reposition it to be more effective.
Public administration has really been facing challenges and problems which hinder it from enhancing democratic principles.
Unless the challenges and problems are driven, eliminated, its existence cannot be felt and appreciated in the nation. So effort should be made to put a stop to all these things that cause the dysfunction of public administration, like corruption and others.
Thus far, effort has been made to show that public administration really has played a role in the enhancement of democratic principle in Nigeria.
Despite the fact that public administration witnessed unprecedented challenges, problems and constancy and public administration have a close tie and are very relevant because it is obvious that administration made through democratic procedure, principles always enjoy a wide level of acceptability and sovereign and therefore such administration is expected to last long and achieve its purpose objectives.
The relationship between public administration and democracy must be symbiotic as well as complementary for the overall survival of the polity. In fact, public administrators’ contribution is crucial to the very survival, consolidation, stability and development of democracy as well the society in general.
- The elected public officials are the major obstacles to efficiency and effectiveness of public administration. Most often, they make radical changes in orientation such that will facilitate development in the public administration to fail. In this connection, they should be made to show genuineness of purpose to a more pro-active public administration.
- The present sit-tight of the government on the public administration process should be loosened. Motivation of officials is essential. It has to be re-iterated that public administration is charged with the responsibility to analyze and transform government policies and institution into practical realities.
- The success of the government itself depends on the public administration. It has to be meaningfully enhanced in a stable and developing democracy. It must be professionally competent and free from the malady of corruption.
- The role of public administrators includes challenging anti-democratic forces through policies. They should place qualitative policies before satisfying political office holders while dedication and expertise should be exhibited in their approach towards implementation of government business.
- Democracy must not only be nurtured in such a way that it will act as bulwark of security to the people by promoting economic growth and ushering guarantee peace and security it must also recognize people as the real indices and whose political, social and economic prospective should be guaranteed. This can only be with the effort and sense of mission by the administrators saddled with the responsibility to ensuring the formulation and implementation of policies.
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