The Role Of Print Media In Sports (Football) Development In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Federal Polytechnic Nekede)

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

The Role Of Print Media In Sports (Football) Development In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Federal Polytechnic Nekede)


This project work the role of the print media  as an instrument for sport  development focus on Nigeria, is a research in how development communication can be used for sport  development. Several years after independence Nigeria like every other country in the third world have remained started in their development.

Times upon times, volumes upon volumes have been written and published by experts and even non- experts on the concept of communication for development. Yet the so-called less developed or developing counties have not made any significant progress in their growth and development. Whey is this so? And how can this trend be reversed for third world nations like Nigeria?

The objectives of this study as stated in chapter one is to give a good definition of what sport  development is in addition it also seeks to measure how the Nigerian print media  have contributed their own quote to the development process and recommend a systematic way in which the print media  communication in the country.

The research methodology for this study is survey. In this case a questionnaire was designed for the purpose and personal visits to the Federal Polytechnic Nekede.

The results of the study presented in chapter four justify the research hypothesis. The print media  is an effective tool for sport  development if properly organized for effective development communication. Chapter five contains a summary and conclusion of the project.

Table Of Content

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Cover page
  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgment
  • Table of content

Chapter One


  • 1.1 Background of the research problem
  • 1.2 Statement of research problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the study
  • 1.4 Significance of the study
  • 1.5 Research question
  • 1.6 Research hypothesis
  • 1.7 Scope of the study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the study
  • 1.9 Conceptual and operational definition

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Sources of literature
  • 2.2 Theoretical framework
  • 2.3 Communication and development
  • 2.4 Constraints of development communication in Nigeria
  • 2.5 Organising the Nigerian print mediafor effective development communication
  • 2.6 Summary

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research method
  • 3.2 Research design
  • 3.3 Area of the study
  • 3.4 Samples and Sampling procedure
  • 3.5 Sources of Data
  • 3.6 Instrument for Data collection
  • 3.7 Validity and reliability of Instrument
  • 3.8 Administration of instruments
  • 3.9 Method of Data analysis
  • 3.10 Expected results

Chapter Four

Data Presentation & Analysis

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Data analysis
  • 4.3 Analysis of results
  • 4.4 Discussion

Chapter Five

Summary and Recommendations for Further Study

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • Bibliography

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Development can simply be defined according to cited in Nwodus and Ukozor (2003:1) as the improvement of the quality of life for any set of people. For example ruralities, urbanities and slumites. That is why communication experts and professionals can talk about community development, rural development, and sport  development. These developments include other forms of development and technological development, such as economic development, socio-cultural development and technological development and of course, educational development in developing countries like Hate, Latin America and Nigeria.

Books, papers seminars, workshops and much has been published and said by professionals in the field of social development. But there is still a sharp contrast between the different economics of the countries of the world. That is why Nwodu and Ukozor (2003;6) say, ‚Äúthe contemporary world operates in two distinctive broad social divides. Based on these apparent social divides, all the nations of the world are hardly perceived as equals. Abott cited in Nwodu and Ukozor (2003:6) also agrees to this when he says, ‚Äúour world is full of sharp contrasts, one of the sharpest is that between the poorest¬† nations and the richest nations‚ÄĚ.

The world of homo sapiens is cateogrised into developed and developing nations. Thus while fewer and several wealthy nations of Europe, North America and a few Asian countries like Japan fall among the developed nations category, there are more nations like Africa, Latin America, and a greater percentage of Asian countries which fall under the category of developing nations. Even with much being published on social development in this information age, the so-called less developed or developing countries have remained generally stunted. Their development have been snail speed. And there is no noticeable development for the betterment of the citizens of these nations.

Whey is this so? Could it be that those at the helm of affairs in these nations and their cabinet in all sections of development have not been reading these publications? Could it be that the leaders or rather those concerned do not read or use the knowledge contained in these publications? Could it also be that there is not enough information or research work in the area of social development in developing nations? How can this trend be changed? Can communication through the print media  bring the long desired development in developing nation? If so, how? This is he reason for this research work.

Brief History of Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri

The Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri was established by Edict No. 16 of 1978 it opened for classes on 15th December, 1978 at a temporary site in the premises of the government trade centre along Egbu road, Owerri with initial of 275 students.

In 1980, the College of Education as was it name then was moved to it permanent site in Nekede Owerri. The name of the College was later changed to Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri.

In 1987 by the Edict No. 6 of 1987 it was further renamed Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri by the Federal Amendment of Decree 1993 of 1st January, 1993. It motto: Knowledge and skill for service which has been demonstrated by the quality of graduates and professional that the school has produced over they years.

The Polytechnic offers  full and part time National Diploma (ND), Higher National Diploma (HND) and certificate programme their website is

1.2 Statement Of Research Problem

From the background to the problem outlined above, it is an oblivious fact that the Nigeria¬† falls under the category of developing countries. Ever since Nigeria¬† gained her independence she has had no noticeable development or rather should I say her development has been at ‚Äúsnail speed‚ÄĚ. How can this ugly situation be changed? Does the print media¬† have a role to play in changing the situation? if so, how can communication through the print media¬† be used to bring development to the Nigerian society?

Communication and development are twin concepts that are inseparable. One cannot exist without the other. Each of these concepts needs each other to thrive ‚Äď in other words communication is central to any development, programme in a country. The print media¬† is one of the levels of communication. What role can the media play in bringing development in Nigeria? Since communication is a key to sport¬† development.

1.3 Objectives Of The Study

  1. In view of the problem defined above, the project seeks to outline the role of the print media in Sport  development in Nigeria .
  2. It also seeks to measure the progress of Nigeria ‚Äės sport development by explaining what sport development is.
  3. The project also emphasizes rural development as the core of sport
  4. It also seeks to show the medium that is most other media which complement the print media in sport development programmes.

Accordingly, the emerging research question seeks to determine the ways in which the print media  can be instrumental to sport  development. Development which not only affects urban areas but also the grassroots of the rural areas.           

1.4 Significance Of The Study

This study becomes significant because it explains how the print media  can be utilized for sport  development. In Nigeria the print media  have acquired enough hardware for efficient dissemination of information to the grassroots. There are coefficient radio and television stations located at the state capitals and Lagos. The Federal capital, Abuja, is getting its share of the hardware. But trained personnel are needed to use the available hardwares to disseminate pertinent programmes.

These programme materials and the message couched in them are the softewares. Unfortunately, the availability of adequate hardwares and softwares at the sources of news dissemination does not guarantee sport  development. There is no systematic approach to the use of the print media  for sport  development. In addition to this mot of Nigerias print media  structures are located within the urban areas. In this regard however, this study is imperative. The reason being that its aim is to show how the print media  in Nigeria  can be organized to transmit development messages to the target audience.

1.5 Research Questions

  1. Is there any relationship between communication and sport development?
  2. Can the print media be used for sport  development?
  3. How far or much has the Nigerian print media been able to promote sport  development?
  4. How can the print media be structured for sport  development?
  5. How can the print media be used as a social development agent?

1.6 Research Hypothesis

  1. Ha1: There is a significant relationship between the print media  and sport  development in third world countries like Nigeria.
    Ho1: There is no significant relationship between the print media  and sport  development in third world countries like Nigeria.
  2. Ha2: The development  of rural settlements is prvotal to sport  development in developing countries like Nigeria .
    Ho2: The development  of rural settlements is not prvotal to sport  development in developing countries like Nigeria
  3. Ha3: The print media  needs rural traditional medial to reinforce its messages for effective rural social development.
    Ho3: The print media  dotes not rural traditional medial to reinforce its messages for effective rural social development.
  4. Ha4: The print media  in Nigeria  has been effective in disseminating developmental messages to both urban and rural settlement for the past five (5) years.
    Ho4: The print media  in Nigeria  has not been effective in disseminating developmental messages to both urban and rural settlement for the past five (5) years.

1.7  Scope Of Study

The scope of study is Owerri, the establishment is Federal Polytechnic Nekede .

1.8 Limitation Of The Study

Limitation: A research carried out by human beings is bound to have limitations. This research deals principally on the effects of internet on Nigerian students.

The study is limited by many factors among them are:

  1. Limitation of researchers both in financial and time resources: This research work is not funded by government research agencies or academic bodies but is strictly funded through the financial strength of the researchers who are full time students with no source of income except the merger allowances from their parents and guidance. This financial constraint has affected the researchers in no small measure as any good research is based on fund and time which the researchers were not lucky to have.
  2. Another limitation was the lack of co-operation from the respondents in the process of administering the questionnaire and conducting interviews.
  3. Secrecy

Although these factors exist, determination and effort will be made for relevance of the study.

1.9 Conceptual And Operational Definition Of Terms

A. Communication

Communication according to the ordinary man on the street means getting your ideas across or making yourself understood. These are not wrong, but in the context of this project it is much more than this.

Several communication scholars have tried to define communication from several perspectives: According to Darnce (1970) cited in Ndolo (1998:1) communication is the process by which we understand others and in term endeavour to be understood by them. it is dynamic, constantly changing and shifting in response to the total situation.

Agee et al, 1998 defines communication as the act of transmitting information, ideas and attitudes from one person to another. In other words transmission of information, ideas, and attitudes to one or more of an individual’s senses of sight, sound, touch, taste or smell.

According to Onho (1991) communication is an activity or process that entails mutual sharing or exchange of ideas, information, feelings, emotions and reactions.

Common to all the above definitions is that communication is a process of understanding and sharing of ideas, feelings and meaning or managing of messages between people.

In the process of communication one can identify five basic elements. These elements are people, channel, messages, Noise and feedback. Without these elements there can be no communication.

B. Levels Of Communication

There are four major levels in which communication occurs. These are intrapersonal, interpersonal group and mass communication.

Intrapersonal communication refers to an individuals through processes or it means communicating with oneself. The sender and receiver are one and the same person. The message is personalized and the feedback is immediate.

Interpersonal communication is face-to-face communication between one person and at least one other person. It can be dyadic or triadic. The sender is one person while the receiver can be one or more. The message is usually personalized and the feedback is immediate.

Group communication is divided into two categories small group and public speaking. Small group is hen three or fifteen (15) people formalize heir relationships by coming together to combine talents and concerns in order to achieve a purpose, solve a problem or make a decision. The sender at a time is one person and the receiver can be up to fifteen. The message is personalized to the group and the feedback is immediate. Public speaking is when one person speaks to many. That is a sender using the power of speech to inform, persuade and act as a catalyst for change. The sender is one person  while the receiver which is referred to as an audience  is large, diversified, heterogeneous and faceless.

Mass communication is the fourth level in which communication occurs. It is simply defined as the process of transmitting information, ideas and attitudes to many people, usually through technological devices. The messages transmitted by this level of communication can be received by different people in different geographical locations simultaneously.

The medium of mass communication are the radio, television, newspapers, magazines and books. Those who constitute the source sending or initiating print media  messages are conglomeration of professionals that include writers, cameramen, reporters, audio and video technicians, directors, floor managers, editors, production technicians, machine operators who prepare and send messages through a mass medium to a huge audience.

C. The Traditional Print Media

Long before the advent of cannibalism and the subsequent emergence of the modern print media , Nigerians in spite of their great linguistic diversity, were communicating with and among each other. They used smoke signals, the village town crier, talking drums, long brass horns, open village markets, age groups and oral narratives. These forms of mass communication is what is refered to as the traditional media. Though some of these media are no longer in use most are still being used for communication in the rural areas.

Oral tradition still dominates rural settlements in Nigeria  today. It continues to be a very important means of handing over information from generation to generation. It includes songs, proverbs, legends, religious liturgy, bakads, invocations and folk tales.

The talking drum is an extinction of the oral tradition and can vary from membranosphones like the hour ‚Äď glass ‚Äď shaped drum of the yorubas to the large tom-toms or slit drums of the Igbos. They used to all meetings at sacrificial festivals and for making some official announcements.

Gongs are conical shaped instruemtns used for much the same reasons as the drums. They can be single or double gongs and are sometimes accompanied by the voice of the town ‚Äď crier.

The voice of the town crier is usually heard in the early hours of the morning or in the evenings. He announces  important meetings, ceremonies, messages and imminent troubles.

D. Development

To the ordinary man on the street development means the provision of tangible social infrastructure like roads, hospitals, schools, and decent pipe-borne water, constant power supply and other social amenities.

Professionals like economists view development as change that realistically enhances people‚Äôs earnings in addition to raising their living standards via large ‚Äď scale production of goods and services. In the perspective of philosphphers, development is viewed as the attainment of meaningful degree of alertness and the sophistication of human faculties to the level of the individual in society can not only reason well but also, adopt a logical approach to issues arising from human society.

From the above laymen and professional perception of development one can infer that development as a concept is a continuous change that impact  meaningfully on all the ramifications of peoples lives. Okunna (2002:294A) cited in Nwodu and Ukozor (2003:2) summarizes the meaning of development this way “Development should bring change, this change should be for the better; the change should be for the benefit of the majority of the people; and the process should be participatory, that is, involve people as closely as possible.

It is form this angle that this project perceives development.

E. Sport Development

According to Liwis Ramiro Beltran cited in Nwuneli (1985: 185) cited in Nwodu and Ukozor (2003:4) Sport  development is a directed and widely participatory process of deep and accelerated socio-political change geared towards producing substantial changes in the economy, the technology, the ecology and the overall culture of a country, so that the moral and material advancement of the majority of its population can be obtained within conditions of generalized equality, dignity, justice and liberty.

From the above definition one can say that developmental efforts at sport  level must be all- embracing as well as all-encompassing. It focuses on the overall socio-economic, cultural, political and environmental transformation of the entire nation. Sport  development is not limited to the urban settlements or rural areas it embraces the living conditions of both the urban and rural dwellers.

Chapter Five

Summary And Recommendations For Further Study

5.1 Summary

In summary this study has been able to show what sport development is, emphasis rural development and urban development as pivotal to sport development and recommend the medium most effective for sport development.
Discussions of social development in a nation often border much on sport development. Intrinsically, most social development in most developing nations like Nigeria is usually directed towards the major cities to the detriment of the rural areas which constitute the majority of the nation’s population. The snag is that this conscious effort of targeting urban areas with developmental projects has created the impression that sport development is synonymous with urban development which is wrong.

The fact is that sport development is a macrocosm that embeds urban development. It entails both urban and rural development of a nation. It is gross misconception to think that a country is developing sporty when the rural settlements are not feeling or experiencing the impact of development.

Communication and development are twin concepts which are inseparable. Each one needs the other to thrive. In this vein communication is vital to the development of any nation. This study has been able to establish that development communication is the kind of communication necessary for the development of third world countries like Nigeria. It owes its evolution from the development media theory. This philosophy originated from the 1980 release of the ‚ÄúMcBride Report‚ÄĚ by the United Nations Educational scientific and cultural organization (UNESCO) which called for the establishment of a New Information Order. The NWIO perspective endorsed by UNESCO advanced the importance of media in carrying out a research developmental tasks within nations that have not had the economic and social benefits of industrialized countries, since the other media theories could not do this.
Having seen the relevance of development communication or communication for development according to Okuna (2002:293b) what media is most effective for sport development? This study has shown that the multimedia approach is the most effective media for sport development. This approach according to Nwodu and Ukozor (2003:75) is what communication researchers, scholars and practitioners have recommended for effective publication and promotion of development programmes.

The multimedia approach sees the traditional and the modern print media as crucial to the promotion of developmental programmes. This is so because, regardless of their appeal, they complement each other in the business of development.

5.2 Conclusion

In measuring the progress of the Nigerian print media in promoting development programmes, this project has shown that educational institutions have taken giant strides towards transmitting development messages to the hinterlands. Through their programmes they have been able to disseminate development messages in the very language of their target audience.

Finally through this project I have been able to establish that the way the print media can be organized for sport development is by localizing the print media in such a manner that they would easily be available and accessible to all stakeholders in sport development. This can be done in three basic ways; physical decentralization, decentralization of media content and decentralization of media reach.

5.3 Recommendations

The following suggestions are offered:

  1. More studies should be carried out to find out how a two way communication or a feedback system can be established in rural settlements. This will enable social development agent’s measure and evaluate the impact of their development communication campaign and also make adjustment where necessary.
  2. This study has shown that the traditional print media is a potent organ for complementing the modern print media messages for development but the problem is there is lack of proper organization of the traditional channels of communication into specific groupings and according to their specific message content. More studies should be carried out in this area.

The Role Of Print Media In Sports (Football) Development In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Federal Polytechnic Nekede)

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