Role Of Music In Traditional Festival

Project and Seminar Material for Theatre Arts

Role Of Music In Traditional Festival


Abstract


Every society in Africa is identified with a kind of traditional festival which exists in oral tradition. Ol贸kogb猫 is a religious festival practiced among P贸ny脿n community in Yagba-West Local Government Area of Kogi State. Music is a central figure during the festival. The place of music during the festival informs this paper. It was revealed that Ol贸kogb猫 music entertains, rebukes, satire enlivens the spirit and is used as a force for the community unity. This paper is anchored on Structural-functionalism theory as propounded by Kingsley Davis. The paper employed the interview of 5 key informants in its methodology; it also employed content and context analysis of the songs. It was discovered that the music discourages the degeneration of personal or corporate morals, promotes social equity and fights injustice and enforces rule of law. The researcher recommends that the governments, corporate bodies, Non-Government organizations should help salvage Ol贸kogb猫 festival. Also musicologists and researchers should commit time to document the various segment of the festival for posterity.

Key words: Ol贸kogb猫 Festival, Music Performance, P贸ny脿n Community, Musical Functions


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

An accurate and concise definition of music is fundamental to being able to discuss, categorize, and otherwise consider what we understand as being music. “Explications of the concept of music usually begin with the idea that music is organized sound. They go on to note that this characterization is too broad, since there are many examples of organized sound that are not music, such as human speech, and the sounds non-human animals and machines make” (Kania 2014). Many authorities have suggested definitions, but defining music turns out to be more difficult than might first be imagined. As this article will demonstrate, there is ongoing controversy about how to define music.

The Concise Oxford Dictionary defines music as “the art of combining vocal or instrumental sounds (or both) to produce beauty of form, harmony, and expression of emotion” (Concise Oxford Dictionary 1992). However, the music genres known as Noise music and Musique concrete, for instance, challenge these ideas about what constitutes music’s essential attributes by using sounds not widely considered as musical, like randomly produced electronic distortion, feedback, static, cacophony, and compositional processes using indeterminacy (Priest 2013, 132; Hagerty 2007). A famous example of the dilemma in defining music is modern composer John Cage鈥檚 composition titled 4’33”. The written score has three movements and directs the performer(s) to appear on stage, indicate by gesture or other means when the piece begins, then make no sound and only mark sections and the end by gesture. What is heard are only whatever ambient sounds may occur in the room. Some argue this is not music because, for example, it contains no sounds that are conventionally considered “musical” and the composer and performer(s) exert no control over the organization of the sounds heard (Dodd 2013). Others argue it is music because the conventional definitions of musical sounds are unnecessarily and arbitrarily limited, and control over the organization of the sounds is achieved by the composer and performer(s) through their gestures that divide what is heard into specific sections and a comprehensible form (Gann 2010).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Music has played a role in society since the dawn of man. Said to be the beginning of communication in early civilization, music and dance have influenced how we think, act and treat members of our own society. Song and dance is used in rites of passage ceremonies such as births, weddings and funerals throughout the world. Jamaican and Yoruba cultures have made many contributions to our society. The uses of this music as a vehicle for political issues, values, and beliefs have been used by many musicians from different cultures. The discuss refers to the Contribution of these two contemporary cultures music and their effect on society.

The Yoruba people live mostly in Southwestern Nigeria. Traditionally, the Yoruba organized themselves into networks of related villages, towns and kingdoms; with most of them headed by a king or mayor. (2013) Music and dance have always been an important part of Yoruba culture for those living in Nigeria as well as in the diaspora. Yoruba music and dance are used for many different occasions in life such as religious festivals, royal occasions, and entertainment. Yoruba traditional music focuses on Yoruba deities. Drums and singing are the main elements of Yoruba music. (2013)

Juju music emerged in the 1920’s and is the most well-known form of Yoruba popular contemporary music in Nigeria. Juju has its roots in traditional Yoruba drum based music. Juju is dance music played by large ensembles centered on guitars and drumming. Singing is a major part of Juju music and is inspired by Yoruba poetry, proverbs, praise songs, and the musical character of the language. The culture and music remained the same for decades after colonization and its explorers left Nigeria. However music like culture exact great influence on the behavior of people in the society and a weapon of change and conflict by those who wrongfully manipulate it. Therefore the problem confronting the research is to appraise Role of Music in Traditional Festival


1.2 Objectives of the Study

  1. To determine Role of Music in Traditional Festival

1.3 Research Questions

  1. What is the role of music in traditional festival

1.4 Significance of the Study

The study shall appraise the role of music in traditional festival

Music and dance have influenced how we think, act and treat members of our own society. Song and dance is used in rites of passage ceremonies such as births, weddings and funerals throughout the world. Jamaican and Yoruba cultures have made many contributions to our society. The uses of this music as a vehicle for political issues, values, and beliefs have been used by many musicians from different cultures.


1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho Role of Music in Traditional Festival is negative
  • Hi Role of Music in Traditional Festival is positive

1.6 Scope of the Study

The study focuses on the appraisal of the Role of Music in Traditional Festival


1.7 Limitations of the Study

The study was confronted by some constraints including logistics and geographical factors.


1.8 Definition of Terms

“Explications of the concept of music usually begin with the idea that music is organized sound. The Concise Oxford Dictionary defines music as “the art of combining vocal or instrumental sounds (or both) to produce beauty of form, harmony, and expression of emotion” (Concise Oxford Dictionary 1992)

1. Odo-Aworo:

It is the clan that organizes the festival in Ponyan community

2. Epa:

Is a religious festival in Ponyan community

3. Imole:

This is another form of traditional worship in Ponyan community


Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter presents the summary of the findings, conclusion and recommendations for further studies.


5.2 Summary of the Findings

This study was carried out to find out the role of music in traditional festival with a particular reference to Ponyan community in Yagba-West Local Government Area of Kogi State. To achieve this objective, one research question and one research hypothesis were formulated to guide the researcher. A structured questionnaire was used as the major instruments to obtained data from 92 respondents in Ponyan community in Yagba-West Local Government Area of Kogi State. Out of this number, 81(88%) copies of questionnaire were appropriately completed and returned to the researcher while 11(12%) copies of the questionnaire not were completed and returned to the study.
The data collected from the respondents were analyzed using simple percentage and tables to analyze the research question while Chi-square statistical tool was employed to analyzed the research hypothesis. The findings revealed that the role of music in traditional festival is positive.


5.3 Conclusion

This research work 鈥渢he role of music in traditional festival鈥 examined the origin of Ol贸kogb猫, discussed the performance structure of Ol贸kogb猫 festival and the texts of the songs. It has been discovered that Olokogbe songs are the pivotal and the rallying point of the people鈥檚 unity and oneness.


5.2 Recommendations

  1. The three tiers of government should do well by recognizing and promoting Olokogbe festival as one of the national cultural festival in Nigeria.
  2. Also, NGOs and corporate bodies should collaborate by promoting culture in Ponyan community.
  3. The community leaders should also provide enabling environment to make this festival a tourist attraction.

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