The Role Of Motivation And Job Satisfaction In Improving The Performance Of Organization

Project and Seminar Material for Human Resource Management (HRM)

The Role Of Motivation And Job Satisfaction In Improving The Performance Of Organization


Abstract


This study is intended to examine the role of motivation on workers performance. The study at hand is based on the relationship between financial incentive and workers performance. The employees made it clear that they will increase their productivity if adequate in incentives are given to them. The main objective of this research are to determine if there is a relationship between motivation and workers performance bearing in mind the conditions, external and internal that affect our local firms. Again, to find out to what extent money act as a behaviour modificator. There has not been a cordial relationship between the workers and employers. In most organization their auditors have been denied of misunderstanding, conflicts, confusion frustration and disputes among employees and employer, most organizations complained of ill-treatment. In this research work the simple size is 70 and the sampling technique is random sample used as probability proportionate i.e. 85 and methods of data collecting is questionnaire. The researchers also went into seeking their views and dissatisfaction in the give establishments. The worker complained about the attitude of the management towards them, their peers earn more, some better-paid worker workless, they are paid and other factors. In order to increase organisation output, the management has an assignment to accomplish, that is setting up an attainable standard of performance and behaviour for all workers to meet, all incentives should be fashioned in way that will make it dependent on final output and then right kind of behaviour. The following recommendations were made amongst others, (i) employees should be given financial incentives after the occurrence of a desired behaviour, or when the established goals are reached. Also it is recommended that this equity must be perceived by management as comparisons made not only within the organization but outside the labour market also.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Motivation refers to those process that influence the arousal, strength or direction of behavior for example depriving oneself of good for a long time results in increase in the strength of your tendency to approach food.

According to Davidoff (1987) it is an internal state that may result from a need. It is to be reviewed as activating or avoiding behavior usually directed towards fulfilling the instigating need. Motivation simply means the determinant of behavior, when we need an answer to a question like (what made you do what you did) the answer we will get is the motive or motivationb.

Job satisfaction is the feeling that an employer has about job. Job satisfaction can be influenced by very many different factors and the determinants of such factors varied.

The behavior consequence of each minanyfactors vary from one individual to another.. for a worker to be satisfied with his job he must have the skill to perform the job, and management on their own should constantly review up wards all employers allowances and promotion and always try to improve the nature of job (Agu E.M et al 1996:32)

The term motivation and job satisfaction is derived from the implicit assumption that motivated and satisfied worker produces more

Motivated and satisfied employers are those who see their job as helping them to accomplish their important goals (stoner 1978 253). It also contributes immensely to the aims and objectives of the organization. man is not self sufficient and thus has to be employed in order to have a source of income and good living. As human beings we have needs and these vary from one individual to another. And as ones needs are satisfied more keeps on emerging. This is borne out of the economic concept that human needs are insatiable.

The concept of motivation and job satisfaction has to do with the total body of feelings than an individual has about his job. The total body feeling involves in effect weighing the sum total of influences the job the nature of the job itself, the pay the promotion prospects the nature of supervising etc. when the sum total of influence are rise to feeling motivation it also leads to satisfaction. Where in told they give rise to feeling of demotivation and dissatisfaction the individual is job dissatisfied. The ability of one to prove one an on any of these influence will lead to satisfaction and conversely making less satisfaction any one of these influence will lead to job dissatisfaction (Iie, 1999: 278)

Generally, there is need for one to satisfied with his job. Some works are very demanding in terms of time, energy and specialized skills. Some employers for example some bank workers close late because of the sensitive nature of their job and taking crucial decisions on customers request for loans and advances with minimum delay.

In fact, as strauss (1978: 283) put it, the average man spent nearly a third of his working hours on job if the job foes not provide challenges with the autonomy, he may suffered frustration with the results that are costly both to himself and his employers.

From the above therefore some basic intrinsic factors are paramount in making a particular job interesting and the making employer’s skills, training job. The author maintains that the extrinsic factors include good salary, allowances, promotion and prestige due to the job. Despite the variation in what makes an individual satisfied, some factors are however inevitable for example, what will make an associate of the chartered institute of bankers (ACIB) or first degree holder satisfied with his job may not necessarily be the same with what motivates a messenger with no qualification, however both will need protection against old age (pension scheme) job security, housing, program, good transport system, a good environment in addition to some intrinsic factors mentioned above. It shold however be noted that what makes a job satisfying or dissatisfying does not depend only on the nature of the job but also on the expectation that individuals have what their job should provide (Webber 1975: 341). The management has a specific taste of knowing what these expectation and setting a uniform and acceptable atmosphere and conditions of service to all employers from different cultural sitting and values diversified interest and educational qualification compiled with varied needs and motives to blend with the compare objective of the organization what necessary having any conflict with union.

The economic importance of job satisfaction of workers to the management cannot be under estimated in areas such as productivity absenteeism, labor turnover etc. lack of staff satisfaction with their jobs will lead to mental and physical frustration. The effect of this singular factor in the bank for an example is that tempted to change over night and variably involve himself in fraudulent practice that is capable of tarnishing not only his image but also the reputation of the bank and subsequent loss of money.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The level of performance of every employee will depends on how the worker is motivated to some psychological needs while some depends on psychological needs. Some are motivated by the combination of both types-psychological and physiological needs some organization tends to neglect motivating their employees. They forget to understand that when an employee is motivated he is bond to produce exceptionally. Thus there is no individual who is neither motivated nor satisfied with his or her job that can produce as required.

Research has been conducted in many establishments to find out how employees are motivated as well as satisfied with their jobs. But there is no such repent in ANCOOR FOODS AND PACKAGING NIGERIA LIMITED, as most of the information available has not been based on field research.

The problem now is what makes an employee to be motivated and satisfied his job.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

  1. To determine the extent to which motivation influences job performance of workers in some Anccor Foods Enugu.
  2. To determine the link between motivation and worker’s performance in Anccor Foods Enugu.
  3. To investigate workers motivational level in some Anccor Foods Enugu.
  4. To identify some factors militating against worker’s performance in Anccor Foods Enugu.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. To what extent do motivation influence job performance of workers in some Anccor Foods Enugu?
  2. What is the relationship between motivation and worker’s performance in Anccor Foods Enugu state?
  3. What are the motivational factors that influence worker performance in Anccor Foods Enugu?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

Hoi: There is no significant relationship between motivation and job performance of workers in some Anccor Foods Enugu.

Ho2: There is no significant relationship between job satisfaction and workers performance in Anccor Foods Enugu.


1.6 Scope of the Study

The research will be limited finding out the role of motivation and job satisfaction among the employees of ANCCOR FOODS ENUGU. This survey study work will be based on their methods of leadership promotion, prospects, remuneration, training incentives security etc.


1.7 Significance of the Study

This survey work is as important as objective and growth of any business organization. No business itself cannot operate without employees. In other to make profit therefore, the employers must work in an understanding and satisfied atmosphere, so that one will not want the effort of other. This study will reveals ways of maintaining an acceptable conducive atmosphere at the work place and variable guarantee peace and harmony. The study will also reveal ways of getting maximum input from the employees which will lead to greater productivity, efficiency and competitiveness.

Among its counter parts in the industry furthermore, the study will contribute to knowledge of ways of reducing constant friction between management and the employees and invariably sustain a good industrial harmony in the organization.

The findings of this research will help in providing relevant information regarding what motivates an employee and how he is satisfied with his job. The findings will form the basic for decision making and for recommendation.


1.8 Definition of the Terms

Job

The work an individual does for a living.

Motivation

It refers to the way, urge drive and needs toward an action.

Job Satisfaction

This is a positive feeling or expectation of an individual concerning this job.

Intrinsic

This is the internal or inbuilt force, which energises individual to perform.

Extrinsic

This is the external reward force or drive imposed which has the power to induce one to perform.

Ego

This is needs which an individual has for a high evaluation of himself, achievement status, recognition and sense of being wanted and appreciated by all.

Physiological Needs

These are basic needs like food, shelter clothing etc.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Summary of Major Findings

  1. The study was carried out solely to identify the effect of motivation on workers’ worker’s performance in Anccor Foods Enugu state. Accordingly, the major findings were derived from data discussion, analysis and interpretations as follows.
  2. The study clearly depicted that the working environment of the company is conducive and suitable. Majority of the worker’s agreed on its conduciveness, suitability but regarding with providing the materials and equipment’s that are need for the job, the company is very poor in supplying those materials timely 48.11% of workers were not satisfied with the availability of materials.
  3. Almost all the respondents believe that the reward and incentive system is not based on performance and they are highly discouraged by the system. This implies that there is biased system in giving rewards to workers. Majority of the workers 42.2% believed that rewards are not given timely.
  4. When workers get recognized and appreciated, they do their best to prove the skill, talents and abilities they have However, All workers’ replied that there is no recognition and appreciation from their boss.
  5. The majority (81.80%) of workers disagreed that there is unsatisfactory relationship among workers and managers of the company, and also the relationship between workers is also discouraging, 34% of them claim that the relationship is poor. 52.6 % of the respondents indicated that there is no complaint handling mechanism in the company.
  6. 30.6 % of respondents strongly agreed that the trainings given in the company improved their skills, knowledge, and encourage them to stay at the company but regarding with the time interval of the training program majority of the respondents (36.9%) take only one training program over the past five years.
  7. 45.9% of respondents strongly disagreed that the financial aspects like bonus, allowance are not satisfying. This implies when individuals are motivated there effort towards the job will decrease.
  8. 98% of workers believed that the promotion system is not fair that makes the worker’s demotivated.
  9. The majority of respondents claim that the base of promotion in the company is based on the performance of the worker’s. Concerning how the evaluation is conducted, the majority of the respondents are evaluated on semi-annually bases. Regarding with feedback time workers replied that they never get there feedback at all.
  10. The study also revealed that the concern of management towards communicating performance standards of the company is very poor.
  11. The results of the descriptive statistical analysis also indicated that, workers were not motivated by the motivational variables. Job security, salary, recognition, management communication style, reward and promotion of the company. However, workers were less motivated with training and working environment.

5.2 Conclusions

Based on the findings, working environment is positively related to worker performance, the researcher conclude that there in fact exists positive relationship between the two. This demonstrates that when working environment is not conducive motivation to perform the job will reduce. There is a negative and insignificant relationship between Job Security and worker Performance. workers are not certain that job security contributed to their performance.

There is positive and significant relationship between salary and worker performance. However workers were not motivated by the attractiveness of the salary because of these reason there is high turnover of bus drivers and fare collectors to other transport organizations. The researcher concluded that since the reward and incentive system of the company is not motivating to workers, the workers were forced to search a better opportunity so there is manpower turnover in the company especially bus drivers. Additionally, the reward is not given on time; this negatively affected the performance of the workers. workers need and want to be appreciated for the work that they do. If they do not feel managers or others are recognizing their contributions, then workers become dissatisfied and unmotivated. workers will normally put more effort than expected if someone will notice their effort. An under-appreciated worker may do less work. Regarding this motivational variable the company worker’s are not motivated and feel like there is no recognition and appreciation for effective worker’s commitment.

Management communication style, it’s not open door style and workers have no chance to easily communicate with the management. Majority of the peoples have no chance to complain and they don’t have the chance to participate in decision making also. There is also unsatisfactory relationship between workers each other. the company is weak in providing adequate training for its workers who have direct interaction with customers and the training is given only on one time basis. For over the past five years, majority of the workers attended only one training program.

Majority of the workers did not agree with the promotion system of the company. Evaluation is done based on performance of the workers, however majority of them indicated it’s based on relationship among workers each other. Regarding with evaluation feedback, the company is not quick to respond. The performance standard is not clearly known by the workers too. The correlation result of the study showed that among the eight motivational factors, management communication style highly affects the performance of workers. Next to that working environment, recognition, reward, promotion, salary, training and job security affect the performance of the workers. The descriptive result of the study indicates that, workers were not motivated with the motivational factors especially job security and salary has the lowest mean value. In conclusion, motivated workers not only influence their work performance but also the whole workers performance in the organizations and business commitment.


5.3 Recommendations

Based on the literature review, interviews and analysis done and the discussion it is clear that workers are not motivated and hence are not performing well which affecting business performance and commitment.
Management communication motivational factor was considered as one of the most important factors influencing worker performance. However worker of the company were found less motivated in terms of this motivational factor.

The company can improve the communication by conducting meetings, performance reviews and feedback on workers performance in the organizations. Communication can be improved through performance management. Performance Management is not only for measurement of performance but provides feedback to the workers. Recognitions either verbally or formally will enhance the self-esteem of the worker. Therefore, Managers should work hard in maintaining the level of satisfaction of workers by using recognition and mechanisms’ to motivate workers.

Training programmes based on training needs assessment should be implemented at Anccor Foods Enugu state. Human resource management should include elements of worker motivation and worker training and development. worker training for workers will both equip them and be an excellent source of worker motivation. Salaries should be determined in accordance with the company job grades and salary scale. the company salary structure shall be designed to provide competitive remuneration by market standard and also offer incentive to grow to a higher step.

Every worker shall have the right to air its grievance when treated unfairly by the administration process. the company should provide the worker a way to express its feelings towards the job. For instance suggestion box should be available for workers to express what they felt. the company should focus on different financial packages and allowances for it’s workers. Allowances and various benefits of the company should be given to workers and should be revised.

The company shall provide the required financial, human, material, time and facility resources for the proper implementation of its organizational goals. Promotion system of the company should be given great attention. When promotions are available in the company, everyone should have equal chance of participating. Finally, the management should examine what really motivates its staff in order to enhance workers’ performance and effectiveness.


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