The Role Of Mass Media In Generating Awareness Against Drug Abuse: A Case Study Of Vanguard And Punch Newspaper

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

The Role Of Mass Media In Generating Awareness Against Drug Abuse: A Case Study Of Vanguard And Punch Newspaper


Proposal


One of the greatest problems facing our Nigerian society today is drug abuse. The issue has attracted a lot of attention that all well meanings Nigerians, government, private and public institutions and organisations are seeking the best possible way of controlling or possibly stopping the ugly phenomena which has both great economic, social, political implications in the overall growth and development of our country.

Statistics have shown not only that Nigeria is one of the highest consumer of such illicit drugs in the world but that our youths mostly within the age range of eighteen and twenty eight engage in this pastinc of taking drugs for so many selfish reasons without remorse to its dangerous effects of their health and individual wellbeing.

It is no time with these ugly trend that this research seeks to study the role of the mass media with particular reference to Punch and Vanguard newspaper in creating public awareness on the changes of drug abuse in the society. The research will also ascertain which medium plays greater role in this media function of information, education, modernization and entertainment among others.

A careful study of this topic will go a long way in educating the people particularly our youths on the danger of drug abuse. It will help government, private and public institutions and policy makers in addressing the ugly situation.

To enable the researcher to take careful study of he issue the work will be divided into five chapters with chapter one dealing on the role played by mass media in generating awareness against drug abuse. Chapter two deals with the literature review of some related existing texts on the study, chapter three addressed the method used in the study, chapter four will analysis the data collected in the study, the chapter five will summary and recommend the entire study solutions.

Survey method of research findings ranging from questionnaires, literary, textbooks will be greatly employed. There is no doubt that drug is a menace to the Nigeria society and unless the mass media play its avowed role in creating awareness at this drug abuse, Nigeria will not be a safe place for all.


Abstract


Mass media in organisation aimed at giving news and opinions to a large number of people, retaining these people and building internal and external good will beyond reasonable assumption needed for an organisation to remain and prosper in it. This led to the establishment of the media in Nigeria, vanguard and punch newspaper for instance.

The disparities in the media function thus, informed our study in generating awareness against drug abuse in Nigeria (A case study of Vanguard and Punch newspaper). Equally the electronic media (Television and Radio) were studied too.

Consequently, five hypothesis were formulated. The first hypothesis sought to know if mass media generate awareness of dangers of drug abuse.

The second hypothesis sought to know if the existence of drug use is as a result of insufficient effort by the media.

The third hypothesis sought to know whether the awareness of the effects of drug abuse to the impact of the media the fourth sought to know if drug abuse is commonest among youths. The fifth bordered on capability of mass media in controlling this drug problems in Nigeria.

The chi-square statistical approach was used to test hypothesis after questionnaire were administered to 100 respondents. The five hypothesis received statistical support, showing that people receive information about drug abuse more on electronic media (Television and Radio) followed by the print medium (Newspaper and Magazine).

The project has five chapters in all first two chapters are mainly theoretical framework I which the principals and functions of the media were discussed.

Chapter three explained the survey methodology adopted in the study while chapter four and five are based on empirical findings. Chapter four dealt with data collection and analysis while chapter fie summarizes the empirical result.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Cover page I
  • Title page II
  • Certification III
  • Dedication IV
  • Acknowledgement V
  • Proposal VII
  • Abstract IX
  • Table of contents XIII

Chapter One

1.0 introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of study
  • 1.4 Significance of study
  • 1.5 Research questions
  • 1.6 Research hypothesis
  • 1.7 Conceptual and operational Definition
  • 1.8 Assumptions
  • 1.9 limitation of study

Chapter Two

2.0 literature review

  • 2.1 Source of literature review
  • 2.2 The review
  • 2.3 Summary of literature review

Chapter Three

3.0 Research methodology

  • 3.2 Research design
  • 3.3 Research sample
  • 3.4 Measuring instrument
  • 3.5 Data collection
  • 3.6 Data analysis
  • 3.7 Expected Result

Chapter Four

4.0 Data analysis of result

  • 4.1 Data analysis

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, conclusion and suggestions

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Recommendation for further study
  • Bibliography
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

This research targets the role played by mass media in generating awareness against drug abuse. A case study of vanguard and punch newspaper.

Nigeria has big problems, one of which is that of serious social and economic implication for the society. Nigeria youths constitute not just the high risk group but also the bulk of Nigeria’s army of drug addicts. Studies indicate that a higher percentage of our youths within the age range of eighteen (18) and twenty eight (28) years have tied out drug on the other . a high percentage of those admitted of mental related problems also come from the same group. The drug epidemic is thus gradually eroding the manpower base and future of Nigeria.

In 1984, the Yaba psychiatric Hospital treated ,234 patients and in 1987m, the figure climbed to 12,587 and in 1985, the figure also climbed to 47,725 between January march 1989. It increased to 70,316. But these seem to be just the tip of the iceberg as culling addicts still roam our streets federal by drugs from the various drug joints that now litter our streets.

Drug abuse is one type of deviant behaviour that was previously exclusively associated with the western societies. Before the eighties, this problem has been in existence but today the footage has turned into a frightening reality, a moister that has best ridden our country like a leach and reuse to let go while gradually spreading its tentaclces.

Drug abuse is not just about the creative with a vacant look in its fast blinking eyes, a twittering body and an actered mind but its is about the student who cannot read without taking unsweetened coffee, kolanut or pills. It is about the filter lover who turns to the bottle of salvation, the business executive who must smoke to be able to work, the retrenched worker who floods his veins with “smack” to forget his sorrows and adventures party goes who ties a shift to get a kick because others are doing it.

Thus drug abuse is not just about mislaying drugs but the habit involves in the use of any chemical substance that has an effect on the body and they include smack, gbana heroine, cocaine, white girl, call it whatever name you like. Drug abuse is a fatal past time Nigerians have decided to indulge in and does the county have to show for it.

Nigerians have just woken up from the menance of drug abuse which is like a nightmare that refuses to go away. Drug abuse is not a recent phenomenon in Nigeria, it started in the late 1960s where the use of Indian ehmp (cannabis) as a stimulant became widespread and what followed was a graded upsurge in the use of hemp by the Nigerians youths.

In the eighties Nigerians was just a transit point for hard drug from the golden triangle of Asia the capital of Europe and United States. Soon drug trafficking began to increase at a geometric rate. Nigerians lined by Filthy Lune, they stood to make from the illicit business joined the growing army of drug couriers in droves.

As the menance of drugs grew wide, the government woke up to the dangers of the trade if left unchecked. Nigerians and the people carrying Nigerian passports started getting nodded and the prisous of Brazil, Saudi Anabia, United States, Brittan and Germany became filtted to the brim with Nigerian involved in the business forum. They become a fonce to be neckoned within 8500 billion per annum world drug circuit.


1.2 Statement Of Problem

On the afternoon of April 10,1985, the normally serne atmosphere at Nigerian’s maximum Kirikini prison was shattered by the sound of continuous gun fire. At the end of it, the bodies of three young Nigerians namely Barthlonew Owoh, Bernard Ogedenge and lawal Akauni dangled at grotesque angles from the stakes at the prision’s fining range. The three became the first victims of Nigerian government’s attempt to seriously tackle the drug problem, the victims of a retroactive law that prescribed death for drug trafficking and which were then gradually creeping like a night maninder into out society.


1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The objective of this study is to access the role of mass media in generating awareness among the public on the danger of drug abuse; A case study of vanguard and punch Newspaper.

Considering that through their agenda setting and surveillance role, the mass media (Vanguard and Punch newspaper) becomes crucial. True, the mass media (Vanguard and Punch Newspaper) cannot do the job in isolation, the workers in these establishments have to take cognizance of some socio-cultural factors but they can go a long way in laying the background for the fight against drug abuse.

As an adjunct of the mass media’s (Vanguard and Punch Newspaper) role, this study would focus on the type of drugs in Nigeria, their effect role of communication, the effect of vanguard and punch new a print medium, attitude change and policy on the abuse of hard drugs in Nigeria. The public policy on the drug scourge is vital because it partly shows tht societies response to problem that has become a mosquito in the net.


1.4 Significance Of The Study

The decision to study on drug abuse in Nigeria was spurred by two incidents.
The first was mind bending, a soap oppra, which nan on network television for a quarter in 1990. It highlighted the effects of drug on their users and the agony the addicts and their families go through. Going by the public reception of programme and the rare reviews it received in the press, it become clear that Nigerians were not very aware of the various ramifications of the drug problem in Nigeria. This situation amplified the need for the use of mass media in the battle against the lethal habit.

Secondly was a pensal of the various public policies on drug abuse revealed a sore point. Few of the policies prescribed education of the public as a means of eradicating the drug epidemic in Nigeria. Most of the policies prescribed punitive measure for battling the danger called drugal of the various public policies on drug abuse revealed a sore point. Few of the policies prescribed education of the public as a means of eradicating the drug epidemic in Nigeria. Most of the policies prescribed punitive measure for battling the danger called drug.


1.5 Research Questions

The general problems that this study would seek to answer are as follow:

  1. What is the public policy on drug abuse in Nigeria?
  2. Can the mass media (vanguard and punch newspaper) generate public awareness on drug abuse in Nigeria?
  3. In what ways can the mass media (vanguard and punch newspaper) play the role of generating public awareness on drug abuse?
  4. Have the media (Vanguard and Punch newspaper) been generation public awareness about drug abuse in Nigeria?
  5. To what extent can mass media generate public awareness about drug in Nigeria?
  6. What media of mass communication would be most suitable and effective in creating awareness against drug abuse in Nigeria?
  7. In what ways can mass media (vanguard and Punch Newspaper) generate public awareness about drug abuse in Nigeria.

1.6 Research Hypothesis

These hypothesis are drawn from the topic and from the variables.

  1. Hi: The mass media (vanguard and punch newspaper) generate awareness of dangers of drug abuse.
    Ho: The mass media (vanguard and punch newspaper) does not generate awareness of dangers of drug abuse.
  2. H2: The existence of drug use is as a result of insufficient effort by the media.
    H0: The existence of drug use is not as a result of insufficient effort by the media.
  3. H3: The awareness of the effects of drug abuse is due to the impact of the media.
    Ho: The awareness of the effects of drug abuse is not due to the impact of the media.
  4. H4: The nature of the media messages reveals that drug abuse is commonest among youths.
    Ho: The nature of the media messages reveals that drug abuse is not commonest among youths.
  5. H5: The mass media can control drug abuse in Nigeria.
    H0: The mass media cannot control drug abuse in Nigeria.

1.7 Definition Of Terms

Drug
Conceptual:

Medicine or material used for making medicines

Operational:

An chemical agent other than food stuffs which significantly affect the body structure of function.

Abuse
Conceptual:

To put to wrong use.

Operational:

Use badly to the extent that there are observable effects.

Public
Conceptual:

Concerning people in general

Operational:

Mass of people who use drugs and are reflects in media content.

Awareness
Conceptual:

Having knowledge or consciousness

Operational:

Act of sensitization

Role
Conceptual:

The part taken by someone in any activity

Operational:

A function played by someone in any activity either to create awareness or spread information for people to take corrections or amendments.

Generate
Conceptual:

Cause to exist

Operational:

To circulate or spread ideas, suggestions, solutions to problems at hand.

Media
Conceptual:

the modern means of giving news and opinions to large number of people.

Operational:

A means through which information is being generated or circulated to the publics.


1.8 Assumptions

It is expected that if this study is properly conducted, the researcher will arrive at the following results.

  1. That the media need to do more than they are doing to address drug abuse.
  2. That the media effectiveness would be determined by how they address youths and adults.
  3. The media have made a lot of impact in increasing awareness of drug abuse.

1.9 Limitation Of Study

During the course of gathering data for this project, the researcher was found with some limitations and these limitations include finance and time. And also the problem of staying within the scope of the study because, to a certain extent, the project topic extensive so the researcher had to stay within the scope she could conveniently and possibly handle.


Chapter Five


Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion.

5.1 Summary

The role of mass media in generating public awareness against drug abuse (A case study of focus of this study).Adjuncts of this study include the extent and ways in which mass media can generate general awareness about drug abuse and the suitable media for disseminating it .Systematic sampling was used to select one hundred (100) respondents from the international school of the university of Lagos.

The study revealed that mass media are the primary source of drug awareness among the students. More specifically it is found that electronic media (radio and television) was the principal medium from which the students obtain anti-drug message, followed by the print media (newspaper and magazine).

The findings also revealed that most respondents received the anti drug message in form of drama, news feature articles and documentaries in that order. It was also found that left to the respondents, the mass media can enlighten Nigerians on drug by publishing more print media articles (newspaper and magazine) on the drug problem.

Electronic media (radio and television) was the most preferred medium among the respondents followed by print media (newspaper and magazine), with the following reason: it illustrates the affects of drug on the users and since the electronic media mostly television entertains, it can attract and reach a wide audience including illiterates.
There exist a relationship between the frequency of respondent’s exposure to the various media and the media preference respondents were exposed more to the electronic media than they wee to print media in a corresponding proportion therefore the frequency of exposure to the media affects the preference of the respondents.

Sex, education and ages did not influence media preference of respondents. The respondents all of whom wee within the same age group and educational level preferred the electronic media (radio and television).
The study was tested with survey method using questionnaire as its measuring instrument.


5.2 Recommendations For Further Study

The findings of this study are limited to the students of international school of university of Lagos. Even though a representative sample of the students was taken, the findings cannot be generalized to all student.

Also, since students of the institution were mostly from the middle income class, the findings of this study could have been affected by the social status of the respondents.

Future researchers should study the source for drug awareness and media preferences among Nigerian secondary school student considering high risk group in the drug coverage.

Further, a research should be carried out in Nigeria society with a view to gathering data that would be useful in sampling out drug abuse and trafficking the socio-economic factors that breed drug abuse and trafficking it is only them that the public enlightenment efforts of the NDLEA can achieve some success.


5.3 Conclusion

This study reveled the electronic media as the most preferred media. The combination of picture and sound will add to the aim of preference. Viewers can see the ravages of drug on the users that is the testimony and exhortation of those involved.

Entertainment is another attribute of electronic media that could have endeared it to respondents. Since the medium entertains mot of the time, it would be capable of attracting and reaching large audience. Since the students form the higher risk group in Nigeria’s drug epidemic, the nation anti drug crusaders would do well to use the electronic media to get the students and indeed Nigerians.

Drug enforcement officers should increasingly use the mass media to enlighten Nigerian on the dangers of the manance since the mass media was found to be the principal source of drug awareness. Even thought the electronic media was most preferred media, the value of the print medium should not be under-rated. The mass media should be cognited in the fight against drug abuse and misuse. Where the drug enforcement agency decides too narrow down the choices. However, dramas and documentary programmes should be used to graphically bring home the dangers of drug to the audience. As revealed by the success of mind bending, drama can be quite useful in crusade of this sort.


The Role Of Mass Media In Generating Awareness Against Drug Abuse: A Case Study Of Vanguard And Punch Newspaper


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