The Role Of Mass Media As A Tool For Public Enlightenment In Achieving The Millennium Development Goals (MDGS)

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

The Role Of Mass Media As A Tool For Public Enlightenment In Achieving The Millennium Development Goals (MDGS)


Abstract


Sustainable development refers to a mode of human development in which resource use aims to meet human needs while ensuring the sustainability of natural systems and the environment, so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but also for generations to come. Sustainable development encompasses four domains – economic, ecological, political and cultural sustainability. In order to have a sustainable world, it is very important to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The role of mass media has been phenomenal in eradicating extreme poverty and hunger. Today, attaining Universal Primary Education has been on the top of the agenda of every government. Today women are more empowered, there is reduction in the Child Mortality Rates and improvement in maternal health which have been possible due to the intervention of mass media. Further, media have been able to create ample awareness across the globe in combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases. To achieve MDGs, it is very essential to have a global partnership for development wherein developed countries contribute for the progress of developing countries.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

The problem of development has occupied to attention of scholars, activists, politic rams, development works and international organize for many year with an increased tarps in to last deaden. According to UNDP report. In 1998, It advocated that even through there are different perspectives to development there is a general consensus that development will lead to good change manifested in increased capacity of people to have control over materials assets, intellectual resources and ideology, and obtain physical necessaries of life (food, cloture and shelter) employment, equality participation in government, political and economic independence, adequate education, gender equality, sustainable development and peace.

This is why some pager have argued that to purpose of development is to improve peoples live by expanding their choice, freedom and dignity. However, the reality of the world is that many comprise are under – development with precious development indices. More than 1.2 billion people or about 20 precut of the world population live survive on less than us $1 per day according to UNDP report because wealth is concentrated in the hand of a far people.

The UNDP in its 1998 report documented that the three richest people in the world have assets that exceed the combined gross domestic product (GDP) of the 48 least development countries.

Nigerian which was one of the richest 50 counties in the early 1970, according to OPEC evaluation, has retrogressed to become one of the 25 poorest countries at the threes hold of the twenty first century as reported by transparency international (TI). It is phonic that Nigeria is the south largest exporter of oil according to OPEC report and the same time host the third larges number of poor people after china as also reported by TI.

Statistics shown that the incidence of poverty using rate of us $ per day increased from 28.1 percent in 1980 to 46.3 percent in 1985 and drenched to 42.7 percent in 1992 but increased again to 65.5 percent in 1996. The incidence increased to 69.2 percent in 1997. If the rate of us $2 per day is used to measure the poverty line will jump to 90.8 percent. Nigeria fares very poorly in all development indices. The average annual percentage growth of GDP in Nigeria from 1990 – 2000 was 2.4, this is very poor when compared to Ghana (4.3) and Egypt (4.6). The gross national income per capital is us $260, under five mortality rate per 1,100 and life expectancy at birth is 46 years for males and 48 years for female.

Poverty in Nigeria is in the midst of plenty. Nigeria is among the 20 countries in the world with the widest gap between the rich and the poor. The Gini index measure the extant to which the distribution of income (or some cases consumption expenditure) among individual or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A gini index of zero represents perfect equality while an index Gf100 implies perfect in equal.

Nigeria has one of the highest giniindex in the world. The gini index for Nigeria is 506. This compares poorly with other countries such as India (37.8), Jamaica (37.9), Maintain (37.3) and 12 wonder (28.9).

In order to address the problem of the poverty and promote sustainable development, the United Nations Mille mum declaration was adopted in September 200 at largest ever gather my of heads of states committing countries both rich and poor to do all they can to eradicate poverty, promote lummox dignity and equality and achieve peace, democracy and environmental stability.

In Nigeria recognizing the pivotal rotes of civil society organization (CSOS) in mobilizing public pressure for the achievement of the millennium development Goals (MDGs) Civil Society Action Coalition of Education for All (CSACEFA) and Civil Society Coalition on Poverty Eradication (CISCOPE) with the support of the millennium campaign and action Aid Nigeria Organized a Civil Society Consultative form on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Abiya, Nigeria on 20th April, 2004 that aimed at enlighten people or, Nigeria about the purpose and the objectives of Millennium Development Goals.

This form adopted various means of passing information such as television, Newspaper, internet, bill board and most importantly radio to the people.

Since mass media is a vital means of communication, which has the capacity of reaching large heterogeneous group of people, over the years has become tool in the hand of this form formed by CSOs, CSACEFA, CISCOPE and AANO to pass effectively millennium development goals campaign to the Nigeria in perfect way.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The world main development challenges, such as poverty, hunger, diseases, conflict, underdevelopment and inequalities, have occupied the Allen lion of the international organization, Civil Society, Politicians, Scholars, state and development workers.

However in order to address these development challis most especially in the underdevelopment nations such as Nigeria, the millennium development goals was adopted.

This work therefore is designed to measure the role of mass media as a tool for public enlightenment in achieving the millennium development goals (MDGs) and this will look at the mass medic as an agent of social change.


1.3 Research Questions

  1. To what extent has mass media been informing the people on the issue of development?
  2. To what extant has the mass medic been making the government according to the people on the issue of development?
  3. To what extant has the medic been carrying the messages of the MDGs?
  4. Which medic do the Iree resident prefer for message on millennium development goals.
  5. What are the attitude of people towards the millennium development goals campaign on mass medic.

1.4. Research Hypothesis

  1. H0: mass media cannot be used as a tool for public enlightenment in achieving the millennium development goals
    H1: mass media can be used as a tool for public enlightenment in achieving the millennium development goals
  2. H0: the media has not been carrying the messages of the MDGs
    H1: the media has been carrying the messages of the MDGs

1.5. Objectives of the Study

  1. To examine the extent the mass media has been informing the people on the issue of development.
  2. To examine the extent the mass medic been making the government according to the people on the issue of development.
  3. To examine the extent the medic has been carrying the messages of the MDGs?
  4. To know the attitude of people towards the millennium development goals campaign on mass medic.
  5. To know if mass media can be used as a tool for public entertainment in achieving the MDGs

1.6 Significance of the Study

This work will be relevant to Nigerians and Nigeria government on the area they need to pay more attention in solution to the inherent problem of attuning millennium development goals In Nigeria society most especially Iree community. At the same fine, the study of this project work is of a great importance because. It will go along ways in helping people to know the positive contribution of the mass – medic in achieving the millennium development goals. The research work is also an important mat ends of the work of expert on similar study.


1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The study is meant for the entire citizenry of Nigeria and the entire element that are involved in achieving millennium development goals. The fixes of the study therefore is the Nigerian community which comprises federal Government, the state and the local Government, which encompasses the old, the young the infant as wells the unborn. It does not by any reason intend to go outside this frame work and cover all categories of mass in Nigeria.

More ever, the study will be limited to the information from both primacy and secondary sources of data collations. Information from urban, cyber café and questionnaire may act as a limited by time because of its academic purpose and a particular time has been slated for its completion.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Role:

The way in which some or something is involved an activity or situation and how much influences they have on it.

Mass Media:

A social institution created to perform, as required by the society identifiable tasks of information, interpretation, education and entertainment. In performance of those role. It employs technologies of commutation such as radio, television, film telegraph, newspapers and magazines e.tc. To comic ate message to a large, heterogeneous, anonymous, scattered and transitory audience.

NDGs:

Millennium development goals, a program that is aimed at eradicating  under – development problem such as HIV/AIDs, hunger, poverty, conflict and inequalities e.t.c in the world.


1.9 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  1. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  2. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  3. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  4. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  5. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain the role of the media as a tool for public enlightenment in achieving the millennium development goals.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of media and public enlightenment in Nigeria.


5.2 Summary

The main purpose of this study was to examine the role of the media as a tool for public enlightenment in achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Nigeria. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are commitments made by world governments under the auspices of the United Nations Millennium Declaration in September 2000, to address the problem of poverty and promote sustainable development. Information dissemination was defined as a process of conveying knowledge or fact from one person to another person.


5.3 Conclusion

Conclusively, themedia has been playing a pivotal role in achieving the Millennium Development Goals. It needs to focus more on the developmental aspects rather than focusing too much on the entertainment aspects of society. It has been creating public opinion and whenever media participates wholeheartedly, it has brought in sea change in the society. Hence, the role of media in sustainable development is very significant.


5.4 Recommendations

On the basis of the findings of this study, the following recommendations are made with a view to enhancing proper dissemination of information towards the achievement of MDGs.

  1. The finding of the study showed that there are enough channels of information dissemination towards the achievement of MDGs. It is therefore recommended that these channels should be properly consulted for effective dissemination of information.
  2. There should be provision of adequate ICT facilities like the internet that can be accessible to everybody, there should be provision of adequate manpower, more people should be trained on the use of computer, the government should carry out public awareness campaign on the objectives of MDGs, adequate public libraries should be built and technical expertise to install and maintain electronic networks should be trained and above all, adequate fund should be provided.

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