Role Of Mass Media In Conflict Resolution: An Appraisal Of Broadcasting Corporation
Crisis is part of human society which exist through the interaction of man another with another that must be managed otherwise there will be problems on this fact that the research focuses on the role of mass media in conflict resolution: with a careful look at Broadcasting Corporation of Oyo State coverage of NURTW crisis in Oyo state and how they bring the situation under control. The researcher used survey research method with the use of a questionnaire in gathering the needed information. From the findings, it is revealed that BCOS played a crucial role during NURTW crisis in Oyo State as it brought to the public some of the causes, personality involved in the crisis, stage of the crisis and causality numbers and other issues related to the issue and suggesting solutions. Journalists from BCOS were sampled and 100 copies of the questionnaire were administered to 100 respondents within the station using particular 100 respondents from the news and current affairs.
1.1 Background of the Study
Mass media often plays a key role in today’s conflict. Basically, their role can take two different and opposed forms. Either the media takes an active part in the conflict and has responsibility for increased violence, or stays independent and out of the conflict, thereby contributing to the resolution of conflict and alleviation of violence. Which role the media takes in a given conflict, and in the phases before and after, depends on a complex set of factors, including the relationship the media has to actors in the conflict and the independence the media has to the power holders in society. Successive evolutions in communication technologies have significantly altered the conduct of conflict, warfare, and conflict resolution. Compared to people of earlier ages, people around the world today know much more and much sooner about major developments in international relations. Global news networks that broadcast live from all corners of the world and via the Internet provide immediate access to unfolding events and, under certain conditions, could influence the way those events develop and end. Evolutions in communication technologies have changed the meaning of power in international relations, the number and nature of actors participating in international political processes, and the strategies these actors employ to achieve their goals. Governments have lost much of their monopoly on information, and non-state actors and individuals have become much more active and significant participants in world affairs, both in warfare and conflict resolution. State and non-state actors are increasingly employing ―soft power,‖ or ―smart power,‖ which integrates soft and hard power, and public diplomacy, which translates soft power assets into concrete actions. Successful utilization of soft power and public diplomacy depends to a large extent on global communication.
Despite the critical significance of the roles played by media in conflict and conflict resolution, this area has been relatively neglected by both scholars and practitioners. Most existing studies focus on the often negative contributions of the media to the escalation and violence phases of conflict. Very few studies deal with the actual or potential media contributions to conflict resolution and reconciliation. Indeed, the media, particularly radio and television, were instrumental in fomenting conflict and violence in places such as Rwanda and Bosnia. The Danish cartoon controversy also demonstrates that the media can even cause a violent conflict. Scholars and practitioners have noticed how the media exacerbate conflict and have concluded that the media’s role can be reversed and converted into positive contributions to conflict resolution. This reversal, however, is difficult to achieve. It is always easier to foment conflict than resolve it, and the media’s role in conflict resolution is more complicated than the roles of those dominating the violence phase.
The Oyo State Government, on Sunday, warned some leaders of the suspended National Union of Road Transport Workers (NURTW) in the state to desist from carrying out the threats of violence issued in a video, which has gone viral in the last 24 hours. A statement signed by the state’s Commissioner for Public Works and Infrastructure, Professor Raphael Afonja, noted that the government of Governor Seyi Makinde would bring the full weight of the law to bear on anyone caught disturbing peace and order in the state.
The government further called on the residents of the state to ignore the empty threats by leaders of the suspended union and go about their lawful businesses, noting that the state government and all the security agencies in the state remained alert and on top of the security situation. The government maintained that though the leaders of the NURTW might have misinterpreted the Park Management System, which is aimed at rebranding the management of motor parks in the state, it would not sit idly and watch some individuals threaten the peace of the state. The statement read in part: “The attention of the Honourable Commissioner for Public Works and Infrastructure, Professor Raphael Afonja has been drawn to a video that has gone viral in the last 24 hours, in which some members of the banned Oyo State Chapter of the National Union of Road Transport Workers (NURTW) were seen threatening to unleash violence in the state. It has come to the knowledge of the Ministry that a number of commentators and some of those who were seen threatening mayhem have misinterpreted the initiative that has yielded the planned rebranding of the Motor Parks in the State under the aegis of the Park Management System(PMS) introduced by the current administration in Oyo State. The Ministry therefore wishes to place on record that the government of the day in Oyo State will not open its eyes and allow unwarranted activities threaten the peace of the good people of Oyo State
The Ministry wishes to urge the peace-loving residents of the state to go about their lawful duties without fear and intimidation. Let it, however, be known to any agents of violence or purveyours of trouble that the state would not hesitate to deal decisively against any threat of violence within the ambits of the law.
Those seeking to throw the state into confusion have been at it for a long while with the series of traps that have continued to fail. It should also be noted that the laws of the land, including the Anti-Terrorism Act, fully and clearly denominate acts of violence and threats to instigate the same. Those who stand accused of accessories after the facts of treason and Treasonable felony are in no way excusable under the law. The Ministry would therefore urge everyone who do business around the Motor Parks in Oyo State to continue to abide by the laws of the land. Anything to the contrary would bring the full weight of the law to bear on the accused.
The statement further explained that new Park Management Systems (PMS) initiative, apart from being introduced to sanitizes the poor state of the parks across the state, would also assist in boosting the State’s Internally Generated Revenue (IGR) and also provide employment to the teaming youths across the state who would be recruited by the Park Managers. In another breath, the Ministry wishes to bring to the notice of the residents and the good people of Oyo State that the new Park Management Systems (PMS) that the initiative is aimed at sanitizing the poor state of the parks spread around the state. Besides being a way of boosting the State’s Internally Generated Revenue (IGR), the PMS will also provide employment to the teaming youths across the state who would be recruited by the Park Managers. The fear of job loss by those currently involved in the Park systems is unfounded because every able-bodied, and law-abiding person willing to contribute to the proper management of the parks would be gainfully engaged. The Honourable Commissioner also wishes to reiterate the ban on activities of the NURTW at the Parks in the state, pending the resolution of the Union’s internal conflicts the matter and would give directions on the next line of action.
1.6 Statement of the Problem
The Nurtw crisis emanated right from the disparity between Alhaji Mukaila Lamidi Auxiliary on fomenting the crisis because he wanted a change of exco by force and Mr. Abideen Olajide, aka Ejiogbethe former chairman of Nurtw Oyo chapter opposed the move. The Oyo state national union of road transport workers major crisis, which started since May, 2019 on the issue of expelled members fomenting trouble in the Nurtw Oyo chapter. The power tussle between the two rivals and move to change of leadership resulted to the crisis. The media came to the centre stage of what most commentators regard as partisanship. While it was expected to play the role of uniting the people, the way and manner some of the media reported the Nurtw conflict led to the prevention of the conflict beyond Ibadan to other parts of the state. Consequently, risking the innocent lives and wellbeing of the Nurtw Workers. This research work will examine the role mass media played in the resolution of the crisis in Nurtw Oyo chapter.
1.7 Research Question
- What are the factors that influence the media to aggravate conflicts?
- What is the impact of the role played by the broadcasting corporation in curbing the spread of conflicts in Oyo State?
- What role should the broadcasting corporation play in building peace among the two parties involved in Nurtw conflicts?
1.8 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this work is to examine role of mass media in conflict resolution an appraisal of broadcasting corporation.
Thus the following objectives were formulated;
- To examine the factors that influence the media to aggravate conflicts?
- To ascertain the impact of the role played by the broadcasting corporation in curbing the spread of conflicts in Oyo State?
- To determine the role broadcasting corporation play in building peace among the two parties involved in Nurtw conflicts?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The government will be enlightened more on the roles played by mass media in Oyo state in the Nurtw conflict and there roles towards resolution of the conflict, and to see the better way to improve and support mass media’s in Oyo state.
The work will enlightened the Nurtw workers on the state of Nurtw in Oyo State and better ways to avoid crisis.
This work will serve as a guide for researchers and students who wish to further or carry out a research in line with this research work.
1.8 Scope / Limitation of the Study
This work examine role of mass media in conflict resolution: with a careful look at Broadcasting Corporation of Oyo State coverage of NURTW crisis, research work is limited to Oyo state Nurtw chapter.
Thus the limitation of this research work it’s the time frame to cover the work and financial constraints.
1.9 Definition of Terms
The communication outlets or tools used to store and deliver information or data.
Mass media refers to a diverse array of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication.
A serious disagreement or argument typically a protracted one.
Conflict resolution is conceptualized as the methods and processes involved in facilitating the peaceful ending of conflict and retribution.
National union of road transport workers is an independent Nigerian trade union that serves the interests of transport workers in the road transport sector, by calling for collective obtaining and pushing for social stability for all workers in transport sector as defined in its constitution.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
This work is to examine role of mass media in conflict resolution an appraisal of broadcasting corporation. Crisis is part of human society which exist through the interaction of man another with another that must be managed otherwise there will be problems on this fact that the research focuses on the role of mass media in conflict resolution: with a careful look at Broadcasting Corporation of Oyo State coverage of NURTW crisis in Oyo state and how they bring the situation under control. Three research question and objectives were formulated to guide this work. The researcher used survey research method with the use of a questionnaire in gathering the needed information, Journalists from BCOS were sampled and 100 copies of the questionnaire were administered to 100 respondents within the station using particular 100 respondents from the news and current affairs. From the findings, it is revealed that BCOS played a crucial role during NURTW crisis in Oyo State as it brought to the public some of the causes, personality involved in the crisis, stage of the crisis and causality numbers and other issues related to the issue and suggesting solutions.
5.2 Conclusion and Recommendation
The broadcasting corporation Oyo station particularly, the media appear to contribute to the shaping of the kind of society where it operates. Act, as motivator of the people to rise above their differences, and also act, even as a conciliator for the warring parties. Consequent upon this, Oyo station broadcasting corporation ensures that escalation of crisis is prevented through its reportage as it is the only medium upon which every member of the society got their information.
The following recommendations are made:
- Media houses should cross check through their news before reporting on any conflicts so as not to be seen to be bias, or one-sided.
- Government should sanction any media house that indulges in bias reportage of crisis.
- Government should set up a media monitoring department in the Ministry of information to guard against false reportage.
- There should be more government owned media houses to counter biased news from private owned media outfit.
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