The Role Of Managers In Effective And Efficient Management Of An Organisation

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The Role Of Managers In Effective And Efficient Management Of An Organisation


Abstract


The topic of this study is “The Roles of Managers in Effective and Efficient Management of The Organization” “A case study of Nigeria Breweries Plc, Ibadan, Oyo State. The company has a population of about 200 staffs. Yaro Yamani formular was used to find the sample size which is 150 and that was the number of questionnaires distributed. The objectives of this study is to ascertain The extent to which managers can have a substantial impact on performance and organization’s success or failure cannot be over emphasized. Managers establish the type of climate which facilitates motivation and successful performance of the organization. Managers play important role in an organization’s life. They direct, guide, influence, facilitate and coordinate the activities in the organization. The realization of organizational goals depends also on them as well as the works. The study examines if managers have direct relationship with the effectiveness and efficiency of an organization. They provide the required skills and leadership to move the organization to greater height. In carrying out this study, Primary sources of data were collected through questionnaires, while the secondary data includes; text books, journals, etc. Having analyzed the data, the following findings were made; that manager’s function contributes immensely to the attainment of objectives in the organization that the leadership styles adopted by the managers depend on the prevailing situations and the behaviour of the employees. Some of the management problems militating against the operation of the organization are; incompetence and lack of managerial know how. Essentially the study recommends as follows; that manager should be made aware of the importance of their managerial functions and it must be carried out meticulously. Autocratic leadership style should be removed from the organization rather; democratic leadership style should be adopted.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

There is no doubt whatsoever that in the contemporary business world, that what makes organizations effective is not only the financial capacity of such organization but the caliber of human elements operating in them. That is why some organizations find it difficult to maintain their status while others continue to forge ahead.

Moreover, it is observed that some organization after being established, simply close down within a matter of time, while their contemporaries not only expand but also continue to operate successfully. The secret behind the discrepancies in the operational ability of organization depend to a large extent on their managers and the role or activities which they perform in them. Most corporate organization all over the world today not only enjoy optimum productivity but also maintain incredible competitive ability that makes them out maneuver their contemporaries due to the efficiency of their managers in business. The manager’s actions shape the destiny of their organization.

However, one may be tempted at this junction to ask who are those managers, and what function or role do they play in these corporate organization?

Our discussion of managerial roles may seem to suggest that a manager’s job is highly orchestrated and that management is a logical, orderly process in which managers rationally calculate the best way to use resources to achieve organizational goals. In reality, being a manager often involves acting emotionally and relying on gut. An immediate reaction is an important aspect of managerial action. Managers are often overloaded with a responsibility, which leaves them with little or no time to analyze every nuance of a situation, and therefore make decision in uncertain conditions without being sure which outcome will be the best.

The range of problems that managers face is enormous (high variety), in which they must deal with it simultaneously. They must make snap decisions (brevity) and many times, must rely on experience gained throughout their careers to do their jobs to the best of their abilities. Managers and their subordinates learn both from their successes and from their failures.

According to (Cole ,2003), Opined that management is not an activity that exist on its own right, but rather, it is a description of variety of activities carried out by those members of organization whose role is that of a manager, that is someone who has formal responsibility for the work of at least one other person in the organization. He also explained that the activities carried out by those managers have generally been grouped in terms of planning, organizing, motivating and controlling activities. They describe manager’s jobs primarily in terms of their inputs.

Contributing more on the activities of managers in organization, (Donnelly, 2006) explains that in planning, managers determine activities, create the position and allocate responsibilities for the achievement of plans. In motivating, managers endure meeting the social and psychological needs of employees in the fulfillment of organizational goals. In controlling, managers monitor and evaluate activities and provide correcting mechanism.

Years ago, managers were thought of as people who were “the boss”, while that might still be true today, many managers view themselves as leaders than as people who tell subordinates what to do. The role of a manager is comprehensive and often very complex. Not everyone wants to be a manager, nor should everyone consider been a manager. “Managers are individuals who oversee the activities of others and provide leadership”. He added that all managers have a role as a leader, and this role includes creating, maintaining a purposive organization, motivating and disciplining employees. However, this is just an aspect of the roles which managers play in organization.

Consequently, it would not be out of place or an overstatement to assert that the pivot on which the progress of corporate organizations resolve is in the caliber of managers. But the question then is, how far and to what extent do these managers perform their roles, and what major factor impede their efforts in this direction?

It is in response to this question that necessitated this study on the role of managers in corporate organization with special reference to Nigerian Breweries (NB Plc).


1.2 Statement of the Problems

The fact that some organization perform optimally and others perform very poorly, gives credence to the testimony that there are certain variables or factors which makes organization different from one another. These differences are not only observable in the organizational structure or the environments in which these organizations operates but on the skill of the executives or managers to see to the day-to-day administration of these organization. Studies have shown that while some managers performs their managerial roles and functions with commitment and dexterity, others exhibit unusual degree of indifference in their administrative posture and such situation have often times spelt doom for their organizations.

Consequently, the discrepancy in the performance of corporate organizations especially those in the same economic environment points, to clincher that the role which their managers play and the function they perform, accounts to a large extent on success or failure of the organizations.

Against the above backdrop, studies have also shown that while some organization enjoy efficiency from their workforce, wider market share, optimal productivity and maximal profits, others not only experience the reverse in their organization but have often times find it difficult to break-even. And in the worst of such situations, some of these organizations have met their waterloo and consequently gone out of business.

The fact that some organization perform optimally while others perform abysmally, helps to identify a problem that the role of managers are indispensable factors in the success of corporate organization. However, the questions are;

  1. To what extent do these managers perform their roles?
  2. What constitute impediment to the successful performance of these roles?

It is as a result of the above analogy and in response to the question that informed this study on the role of managers in corporate organization with special reference to Nigerian Breweries (NB Plc).


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The general objective of this study aims to investigate the role of managers in effective and efficient management of an organization through the aid of Nigeria Breweries Plc, Ibadan.

Among others, the specific objectives of this study are as follows:

  1. Examining the roles of managers in an organization.
  2. Identifying the major management functions which managers in an organization perform to increase productivity.
  3. Examining how the leadership/management style of managers affects the productivity and performance of their workers in the corporate organization under study.
  4. Identifying the management problems which militate against the smooth operations of corporate organization.

1.4 Research Questions

For the purpose of achieving the objectives of this study, the following questions will be addressed:

  1. Do managers have roles to play in the organization?
  2. Does the function of managers in corporate organization have positive impact on the attainment of objectives by workers in the organization?
  3. Does the leadership style/management style of managers affect the productivity and performance of the workers in the corporate organization understudy?
  4. What are the management problems militate against the smooth operation of the corporate organization under study?

1.5 Hypotheses:

Hypothesis 1
  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between managers and the roles managers play in the organization
  • Hi: There will be a significant relationship between managers and the roles managers play in the organization
Hypothesis 2
  • Ho: There will be no significant relationship between the function of managers in corporate organization and it’s Impact on the attainment of objectives by workers in the organization
  • Hi: There will be a significant relationship between the function of managers in corporate organization and it positive Impact on the attainment of objectives by workers in the organization

1.6 Significance of the Study

The role of managers in the efficient and effective operation of corporate organization cannot be under estimated. This is because managers constitute the platform on which the success or failure of organization is drawn. This study is therefore significant because most managers would benefit (mostly inexperienced managers), since the research had unveiled the major roles which managers are expected to perform in organization to enhance the smooth and effective operation of organization.

This study is also very significant because organization would benefit immensely since the study had highlighted the management function, which most corporate organization managers had hitherto not been performing. Consequently, their (i.e. the managers) contact with this study would enable them to look inward and appreciate the relevance of such management function for the successful performance of their organization.

The study is also of immense benefit to other organizations (other than corporate organizations) since the findings and recommendations would enable them find solution to their problems especially as it affects low productivity and efficiency among the employees.

Above all, this study is very significant to students and other researchers as they would benefit from the research work. This is because the study would serve as a kind of spring board for fellow student researchers who would have interest in the subject matter in future.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

Study of this nature cannot be successfully completed without the researcher experiencing some constraints or limitation. In view of this, one of the major limitations experienced by the researcher during the course of this study was time constraint. It was not easy for the researcher to conduct an exhaustive survey of the activities of the manager in the corporate organization selected for this study and also do justice to other academic engagements within the time stipulated. For example attending regular classes and doing assignment e.t.c.

Another major limitation to this research was inadequate finance. A study of this nature require enough funds to enable the researcher make constant visit to the corporate organization chosen for the study in order to collect relevant information on the subject matter under study. But the problem of inadequate finance nearly marred the efforts of the researcher in this direction.

Another major limitation of this study was the difficulty encountered by the researcher during the administration and collection of questionnaire from the respondents. Some of the respondents proved very uncooperative and explained to the researcher that supplying any information to an outsider could mar the cordial relationship existing between them and the management in spite of the fact that the researcher made it explicit to them that the study was for academic purpose only.


1.8 Scope of the Study

As cited in (Osuala, 2000) an adequate statement of the problems also defines it very carefully in terms of its scope, as it is obvious for a researcher to set forth the bounds of the topics being researched on. To this end therefore, the scope of this study covered the role of managers in corporate organization and the organization selected for this study is Nigerian Breweries (NB Plc).


1.9 Sources of the Materials

The sources of chapter one was gotten from extensive use of University of Lagos Library where a few things were jotted from textbooks and a pilot study was carried out in the NB Plc Ibadan where the researcher carried out a field survey on the subject matter with the aid of a few questions from the staffs on the various problems they encounter on daily basis in regardless of the role their managers play whether or not there is impact on their management. Points were jotted down and were used to formulate statement of the problems of this study.

While literature for this study which comprised of the chapter two includes information(s) gotten from journals, unpublished articles, relevant text books, psychology, management and other related materials like project works. The researcher also makes extensive use of the internet where it is mentioned that the literature work are both from foreign and local books. After completion of this study it should not be surprising to readers that most of the information on “The role of Managers in Effective and Efficient Management of an Organization (a case study of NB PLC)” were got from foreign articles and literatures.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

This work examines the Roles of Managers in Effective and Efficient Management of The Organization, a case study of Nigeria Breweries Plc, Ibadan, Oyo State. The company has a population of about 200 staffs. Yaro Yamani formular was used to find the sample size which is 150 and that was the number of questionnaires distributed. The objectives of this study is to ascertain The extent to which managers can have a substantial impact on performance and organization’s success or failure cannot be over emphasized. Managers establish the type of climate which facilitates motivation and successful performance of the organization. Managers play important role in an organization’s life. They direct, guide, influence, facilitate and coordinate the activities in the organization. The realization of organizational goals depends also on them as well as the works. The study examines if managers have direct relationship with the effectiveness and efficiency of an organization. They provide the required skills and leadership to move the organization to greater height. In carrying out this study, Primary sources of data were collected through questionnaires, while the secondary data includes; text books, journals, etc. Having analyzed the data, the following findings were made; that manager’s function contributes immensely to the attainment of objectives in the organization that the leadership styles adopted by the managers depend on the prevailing situations and the behaviour of the employees. Some of the management problems militating against the operation of the organization are; incompetence and lack of managerial know how. Essentially the study recommends as follows; that manager should be made aware of the importance of their managerial functions and it must be carried out meticulously. Autocratic leadership style should be removed from the organization rather; democratic leadership style should be adopted.


5.2 Conclusion and Recommendation

Nowadays the managerial roles have widened, became more complicated, active and creative. Managers, who want to administrate enterprises in an appropriate way must be up to the mark, fulfill more and more functions and play on many stages. They should be flexible, be able to adapt themselves to different situations and play many roles, change roles, adapt them and even create the roles, because the internal and external contexts of company’s functioning are constantly changing. Who is not able to keep up with it, will lose the game called management art. Concluding, we may say, that management activity is the result of a person’s mental activity and many factors influence the efficiency of that activity, such as: the role of the manager, the professionalism and knowledge of the manager, his leadership, decision-making and communication skills, his personality and temperament type, psychological aspects, etc.

Thus the following were recommended as follows;

  1. For effective managerial role, managers should use the combinations of the managerial skills and functions. For there is no best managerial skills and functions that depends on the situation that confronts the manager.
  2. The organizations should try and employ more degree holders to handle some management position rather than employing non degree holders and claim they are experienced yet they cannot apply some of the management principles.
  3. There should be training for managers and employees on some principles that are important for effective productivity.
  4. Employees should be effectively motivated, economic rewards must not be offered alone, but recognition and opportunities for realizing various individual goal and aspirations must be created.
  5. Top management should create enabling environment and rules for both managers and subordinates to carry out activities together as this will give all employee/members sense of belonging and hence increases in productivity.
  6. That manager should be made aware of the importance of their managerial functions and it must be carried out meticulously. Autocratic leadership style should be removed from the organization rather; democratic leadership style should be adopted.

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Frequently Asked Questions


What is the role of a manager in effective management?

As disseminators of information flowing from both external and internal sources, managers provide the vital link between the superior and the subordinates by appraising higher up with the problems of subordinates and inform the subordinates the decisions taken by the higher ups.

What are the characteristics of efficient management?

In any business, an efficient manager is one who uses limited resources available viz., time, material and men to get the job done in a more professional manner. This includes securing productive and profitable results in a short span, using funds allotted for a business more legibly yet smartly, and appraising employee performance etc.,

What is the nature of managerial work according to Mintzberg?

In management literature Harry Mintzberg conducted one of the first comprehensive studies regarding the nature of managerial work. Harry Mintzberg identified three basic roles performed by managers. They are: (1) Inter-personal roles (2) Informational roles (3) Decisional roles. These roles describe what managers actually perform.

What are the different types of management roles?

From his own empirical studies and incisive analysis he concluded that managers play several different roles and these roles fall into three broad categories: interpersonal, informative and decisional. Each can be further sub-divided into various sub-categories.

What are the roles and responsibilities of Management?

Decisional Roles: To get the work done, managers have to make decisions. In performing the decision-making role, man­agers act as entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and negotiator. In playing the entrepreneurial role, managers actively design and initiate changes within the organization.

What is the goal of Management in business?

Goal of Management. It is important for managers to create an environment that is professional. Managers have to make sure employees are doing what is necessary to fulfill the company’s goals. A good manager does not have to yell at employees, but has the ability to talk to them and motivate them to be successful.

What are the qualities of an effective manager?

A manager has to be able to set priorities and motivate your team members. This involves self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management. The manager needs to radiate energy, empathy, and trust. And, remember that effective leaders work daily to develop team members through positive, constructive feedback and coaching

What is effective management and why is it important?

Effective management refers to achieving goals and targets for the organization by encouraging employees to grow their skills and put their 100% effort into work. It plays an essential role in the success of the organization.

What are the characteristics of an effective financial management system?

Characteristics of an Effective Financial Management System Effective Financial Management 1. Regulatory Requirements 2. Written Policies and Procedures 3. Documentation of Expenses 4 Managing Cash 5 Efficient Accounting System 6 Budget Controls 7. Time & Activity Documentation 8. Matching Requirements and In-Kind Contributions 9. Reporting 10.

What is effective management?

What is Effective Management? Effective management is one which is successful in achieving the short as well as a long-term goal of an organization while running right towards the vision of the organization. The organization could be profit oriented or a not for profit organization.

What are the traits of an efficient employee?

Their approach is quite receptive and they are more successful and effective in handling clients than their negative counterparts. A trait characteristic of efficient employees is their positive attitude towards their colleagues. They are quite cordial in maintaining healthy work relations with their team members.

What are the characteristics of proper management?

Some of the characteristics of proper management are explained below: Every organization is established for a specific objective. Management, under organization, is an instrument or system that contributes to the efficient use of human and other resources to achieve predetermined objectives.

Why study the Mintzberg managerial roles?

By studying the Mintzberg Managerial Roles, it is possible to find out in which areas managers can improve themselves and how they can develop the right skills. The 10 Mintzberg Managerial Roles provide a tool for managers and other people in leading positions.

What is Mintzberg’s theory?

In 1973 Henry Mintzberg carried out empirical studies into the managerial behaviour of CEOs in five private and semi-public organisations. From those first studies he was able to identify six characteristics that define the work life of managers.

What are the managerial roles and responsibilities?

Decisional roles: This category describes a manager’s responsibility to use the information they gain to form business and strategic decisions. The managerial roles included in this category are entrepreneur, disturbance-handler, resource-allocator and negotiator. Related: Management Skills: Definition and Examples Mintzberg’s 10 managerial roles

What is Henry Mintzberg known for?

He has written many business books on various organisational management theories. Henry Mintzberg distinguishes ten key managerial roles that managers and executives fulfil. Do you want unlimited and ad-free access?

What are the three types of managerial roles?

The products are has intraoperative and postoperative applications. Hemostats can be used for oozing venous type bleeds, diffusion of raw surface bleeding, bone bleeding, and needle-hole bleeding.

What are the roles of Management?

What are mintzberg’s managerial roles? Henry Mintzberg’s ten managerial roles are: Figurehead; Leader; Liaison; Monitor; Disseminator; Spokesperson; Entrepreneur; Disturbance Handler; Resource Allocator; Negotiator

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