The Role Of Instructional Material In Public Junior Secondary School (A Case Study Of Three Schools In Lagos Mainland)

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The Role Of Instructional Material In Public Junior Secondary School (A Case Study Of Three Schools In Lagos Mainland)


Abstract


This study was conducted to examine the role of instructional materials in teaching and learning in three Junior secondary schools in Lagos Mainland in Lagos State. This study therefore, used descriptive survey to investigate the availability of instructional materials. The population for the study was 845 and sample size was 530 based on Research Advisor (2021) table of determining sample size. The data was collected through the use of AUIMQ (Role of instructional Materials Questionnaire). The data collected was analyzed using frequency and percentages. The study revealed that there were no adequate instructional materials in the schools and the few available ones are not mostly put to use because of teachers inability to operate them or their ignorance to utilize the materials. This research study found that teaching without instructional materials is ineffective and therefore teachers should try to utilize the available instructional materials for effective teachings and learning.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

The idea of using materials and equipment to enhance effectiveness in the instructional process is as old as mankind, the wise teacher will always use equipment or aids in form of instructional materials to help the learners understand and learn better. The unavailability of instructional materials in our secondary schools and the little or no use of the available ones has impacted on the performance of children at the primary level.

In the recent years, there has been discussions and debates on the falling standard of education. The blame has been shifted from one education variable to another. Teachers, parents and students share the blame, ministries of education are often to blamed from the deteriorating condition in schools. It is with this background in mind that the researchers undertook the research on accessibility and the utilization of instructional materials in Lagos Mainland Secondary schools.

Instructional materials are doubtlessly useful tools hence when applied effectively by a teacher help to enrich his teaching and stimulate in his student the desire to learn. Instructional materials, however do not achieve any of the attributed value on their own, their usefulness depends on what the teacher makes out of them. Intelligent handling of these materials in classroom is necessary. For effective utilization of instructional materials teachers must understand how to use and control instructional materials. Unless the classroom teacher uses these devices and directs the students attention to what they should look for, the students will not learn as much as intended form the devices.

To illustrate ideas, demonstrate abstract ideas and processes and show relationship of ideas in developing sequence requires an intelligent application of instructional materials. It is of almost importance, for the teacher to be at home with the limitation of the chosen materials so as to facilitate its effective utilization.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Students’ poor academic performances have become a concern to all stakeholders. Education stakeholders blame the teachers while the teachers on their part blame the government for failing in their responsibilities to provide adequate instructional materials to enhance students’ academic performance in Secondary Schools (Adedeji, 2002). It is also perceived that although these instructional materials are lacking in most Secondary Schools, their utility by teachers has also been questionable.

This is in variance with the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2013), where it is was categorically stated that learning experiences for children shall be made more meaningful with the provision and effective use of innovative materials in schools. These innovative materials are the broad-based instructional materials needed for teaching-learning process in the Secondary Schools. It is against this background that the researcher hopes to assess the role of instructional materials for effective teaching in Junior Secondary Schools in Lagos Mainland, Lagos State.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

Generally, the study aimed at ascertaining the role of instructional materials for effective teaching in Junior Secondary Schools in Lagos Mainland., Lagos State. Specifically, study was to:

  1. Examine the extent of availability of visual instructional materials for effective teaching in Junior Secondary Schools in Lagos Mainland., Lagos State
  2. Ascertain the extent of availability of audio instructional materials for effective teaching in Junior Secondary Schools in Lagos Mainland., Lagos State.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions guided the study:

  1. To what extent are visual instructional materials available for effective teaching in Junior Secondary Schools in Lagos Mainland. of Lagos State?
  2. To what extent are Audio Instructional Materials available for effective teaching in Junior Secondary Schools in Lagos Mainland. of Lagos State?

1.5 Hypotheses

The study was guided by the following null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance

  • H01: There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of teachers from Lagos Mainland on the extent of available visual instructional materials for effective teaching in Junior Secondary Schools in Lagos Mainland., Lagos State.
  • H02: There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of teachers from Lagos Mainland on the extent of available audio instructional materials for effective teaching in Junior Secondary Schools in Lagos Mainland, Lagos State.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The use of instructional materials gives the learner opportunity to touch, smell or taste objects in the teaching and learning process. Consequently, knowledge passed unto the students at different levels of educational instructions should be well planned and properly allied with relevant instructional materials for clarity and comprehensibility. Hence the significance of this study to the students, teachers, curriculum planners, educational system and the society at large.

To the students, the effective use of instructional materials would enable them to effectively learn and retain what they have learnt and thereby advancing their performance in the subject in question. This is because according to Nwadinigwe (2000), learning is a process through which knowledge, skills, habits, facts, ideas and principles are acquired, retained and utilized; and the only means of achieving this is through the use of instructional materials.

The study would enhance teachers’ teaching effectiveness and productivity. Consequently a teacher who makes use of appropriate instructional materials to supplement his teaching will help enhance students’ innovative and creative thinking as well as help them become plausibly spontaneous and enthusiastic.


1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The scope of this study covers extent of use of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning in junior secondary school. In the course of the study, the researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

a) Availability of Research Material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Instructional Material:

Instructional materials are the tools used in educational lessons, which includes active learning and assessment. Basically, any resource a teacher uses to help him teach his students is an instructional material

Effective:

Successful in producing a desired or intended result.

Teaching:

Perhaps the most significant difference between primary school and secondary school teaching is the relationship between teachers and children. In primary schools each class has a teacher who stays with them for most of the week and will teach them the whole curriculum.

Learning:

Learning is the act of acquiring new or modifying and reinforcing existing knowledge, behaviours, skills, values, or preferences which may lead to a potential.


1.9 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

This study examined the role of instructional materials for teaching and learning in secondary schools in Lagos Mainland, Lagos State. The research work was guild through four research questions and three research hypotheses.

All seventy-eight (530) teachers from twenty six (26) secondary schools in the study area were selected due to the small population size. The research work was guided through four research questions and three research hypotheses which form the basis the administered questionnaire. A well structured questionnaire was used is greater necessary information from the sample respondents while all information collected was subjected to frequency counts and percentage with all hypothesis tested at 0.05 level of significance using t-test statistic.

Based on the analysis of data collected from administered questionnaire, it was gathered that most of the resources for teaching and learning education subject are not available in secondary schools in Lagos Mainland, Lagos State. Educational resources influence the teaching and application of education subject in secondary schools.


5.2 Conclusion

From the result of the study, the following conclusions were made:

There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of Lagos Mainland and Lagos mainland Local Government Area teachers on the availability and utilization of visual instructional materials for effective teaching in Junior Secondary Schools in Lagos Mainland., Lagos State was accepted. There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of Lagos Mainland and Lagos mainland Local Government Area teachers on the availability and utilization of audio instructional materials for effective teaching in Junior Secondary Schools in Lagos Mainland., Lagos State. There is a significant influence of Lagos Mainland and Lagos mainland Local Government Area teachers on the availability and utilization of audio-visual instructional materials for effective teaching in Junior Secondary Schools in Lagos Mainland., Lagos State.


5.3 Recommendations

In view of the Place of Instructional Materials for Effective teaching of economics in Public Junior Secondary School, the following recommendation were made;

  1. The Government, public spirited individuals, non-governmental organization and companies should assist the schools through funding, donations and provision of instructional materials.
  2. Since instructional materials facilitate teaching outcomes, the government at all levels, should establish more educational Resource centres and information communication technology centres.
  3. Curriculum planners and implementation and educational policy makers should sensitize the school and teachers on the need to put more emphasis on utilization and improvision of resources materials in teaching and learning of Education subjects.
  4. The government as a matter of policy should recruit more qualified graduate teachers to teach at secondary school level most especially Business studies.
  5. Adequate instructional materials should be provided for effective teaching and learning process.

The Role Of Instructional Material In Public Junior Secondary School (A Case Study Of Three Schools In Lagos Mainland)


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The Role Of Instructional Material In Public Junior Secondary School (A Case Study Of Three Schools In Lagos Mainland)


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Frequently Asked Questions


Do instructional materials matter to teachers and students’ performance?

The following were findings of the study: first, instructional materials are the key to teachers’ and students’ performance. Secondly, most community secondary schools in Rombo District suffer shortage of essential teaching and learning materials.

What are instructional materials for secondary teachers?

This implies that the instructional materials mainly comprise “eliciting performance” and “providing feedback on performance correctness,” in addition to “providing learning guidance” for guided discovery learning. Many of Gagné’s 9 ideas have broad implications for secondary teachers in community secondary schools in Rombo district.

What is the purpose of instructional materials?

Instructional materials are meant to improve the quality of education for effective academic performance of students in schools. The performance of the students on the intended learning outcomes provide the validation – loop on the success of the interaction and instruction.

Does the availability of instructional materials influence quality teaching?

The availability, adequacy and relevance of instructional materials in classrooms can influence quality teaching, which can have positive effect on students’ learning and academic performance. 

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