Role Of Inspection In Product Quality Management Drive In Northern Noodles Ltd, Kaduna

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Role Of Inspection In Product Quality Management Drive In Northern Noodles Ltd, Kaduna


Abstract


Although inspection has always been integral to every organization in Nigeria, it has either been ignored or received with little attention in the past years. The study was designed to explore the role of inspection in product quality management drive in Northern Noodles Ltd, Kaduna. It investigated the type, nature, challenges and effects. The study argues that while provision of infrastructure and personnel are vital for ensuring quality employee productivity; the absence of inspection could lead to low performance. The study employed the descriptive survey as the research design. The simple random and purposive random sampling were used, to gather and collate first hand information relevant to the study from respondents in order to access the role of inspection on employee productivity. In all 50 respondents including directors, external inspectors, circuit inspectors and other staff (training officers, budget officers and administrators).These respondents provided information relevant to the study. The outcome of the study indicated that while majority of internal inspectors preferred and advocate for greater emphasis on internal inspectors, the external inspectors (from regional office) preferred the promotion of both systems in Northern noodles Ltd, Kaduna. It also came to light that inspection cannot be overlooked since it is a major tool for better employee productivity giving the right inspectors, right tools and right resources. The study showed that appraisal results are important for counseling sessions since staff expects that they are directed where they fall short. Inspection cannot have effect on performance if staff job satisfaction is down played. For improved performance, inspectors must make staff job satisfaction their top priority.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Inspectors have come under pressure, several times on their effect on employee productivity. However, no matter what criticisms are leveled against them, their contributions cannot be over emphasised. If inspectors have the responsibility of improving employee productivity by equipping them with knowledge, interpersonal skills, and technical skills then one will say that organization s cannot do without inspectors‟ involvement.

Doug Wallace, a Materials Management subject expert with Life Cycle Engineering [L.C.E] Consultancy Company Charleston, South Carolina; in a paper presentation titled “Maintenance and Reliability Inventory Management” gave an apt and practical illustration that underscores the need for inspection. He said, have you heard of the guys that burned up a brand new piece of rotating equipment because it was installed with no oil in it? That little oversight cost $80,000 for a replacement. When properly lubricated, it would have cost less than $100”. Again, he said, “How about the guys that cut a section out of their raw materials feeder line and then find out the replacement piece was just a little bit too short to fit into the gap? That little mistake cost thousands of dollars in unplanned repairs and potentially hundreds of thousands in lost production”. This brings to mind the two renowned cases in Nigeria of Indomie Instant Noodles Poisoning Crisis of 2004 and Pfizer Poisoning Crisis, Kano 1996. What these organizations suffered in terms of cost, production revenue loss and image can only be imagined. Again, operating in an unstable environment riffed with stiff competition; product quality management has become in more ways than one the life-blood of the organization. Be that as it may, and as strategic as product quality is to success of the organization, it will be near impossible if not impossible to achieve the goals of enhancing, maintain and sustaining product quality without the eagle eye of inspection. Inspection itself is a word with many synonyms, so, whether a writer chooses the word examination, observation, investigation or assessment, it will still be inspection, and sometimes the word testing is adopted depending on what is being inspected. The general idea and concept is to ascertain or determine quality or conformity of materials, products and components to pre-set standards and specification.

So, materials outsourced or insourced either as raw materials, components, spare parts or MROs as well as the organizations output are subjected to thorough examination to ensure that they conformed to specifications and standards before they are certify for production or consumption. This brings to bear the subtle but distinct fact that inspection and quality are two inseparable Siamese twin terms, where one can hardly be discussed without alluding to the other. In fact, inspection is a tool often utilized by organizations for the realization of product quality management objectives. Thus, in other to understand the basis for inspection and its role in product quality management drive of an organization, a concise but lucid perspective of specification and standardization, the concept of quality management, quality control and quality assurance will need to be understood as they are interwoven and make it difficult to be discussed one without the other.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The effectiveness or ineffectiveness of the inspection exercise can mean the successor failure of the organization. This is because the slightest oversight of outsourced or and insourced materials and products from specification and standards will often result to the production of defective output with multiple and spiraling effects in multiple fronts with unimaginable consequences for both the organization and consumers.

Consequently, no where in the manufacturing industry are those consequences more truer, acute and immediate as in the food and drugs industry.

The choice of Northern Noodles Limited Kaduna, in an attempt to examine the role of inspection in the quest for effective product quality management in the food industry was prompted by a few negative indicators which combined to impair on the quality of their products.

The issue that arose for this study is asked, whose responsibility is it in the organization to ascertain and certify the compliance of product inputs to pre-determined standards and specifications? Again what measures are put in place by the organization to ensure that defective materials not do enter the production process? It is also asked, what measures are put in place to detect defects even in the production process?


1.3 Objectives of the Study

It is a truism that defective materials allowed to enter the production line can cause the failure of the organization, as quality will be impinged upon eventually, and this will be with great consequences to the organization and society at large. It is therefore necessary that this must not be allowed to occur.

The objective of this study is therefore built around the examination of the quality management programs employed by the organization in its drive towards ensuring quality of its outputs.

The specific objectives of the research are:

  1. To identify the nature and practice of inspection in Northern noodles Ltd, Kaduna state.
  2. To examine the challenges faced in the cause of inspection in Northern noodles Ltd, Kaduna state
  3. To assess the role of inspection on Northern noodles Ltd, Kaduna state.

1.4. Research Questions

The following research questions guided this research.

  1. What is the nature of inspection carried out in Northern noodles Ltd, Kaduna state?
  2. To what extent does inspection have effect on employee productivity in Northern noodles Ltd, Kaduna, Kaduna state?
  3. What challenges do inspectors face in the course of discharging their duties in Northern noodles Ltd, Kaduna state?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

HO1: To examine the challenges faced in the cause of inspection in Northern noodles Ltd, Kaduna state

HO2: To assess the role of inspection on Northern noodles Ltd, Kaduna state.


1.6 Significance of the Study

The research study is of immense importance in many facets. First, it is a requirement in partial fulfillment for the award of Higher National Diploma (HND) in the Department of Purchasing and Supply Management, Kaduna Polytechnic which the researcher stands to receive, and without which he cannot graduate.

Again, as a reservoir of knowledge, it will serve as a guide for further study to some future researchers. Students will also benefit, because it will help expand and expose them to the different perspectives on the subject matter. Further, and importantly, it will be a tremendous benefits to the organization under studied; as it will expose them to the dangers embedded in the laxity or casualness given to the inspection exercise by the organization.

Finally, the general public will also glean from its sublime significance, since everyone buys in one way or another, and to property adopt the principles and approaches of the inspection exercise in their personal acquisitions.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This research work is focused on the role of inspection in product quality management drive in Northern Noodles Limited, Kaduna, located along Kachia road, Chikun Local Government Area, Kaduna. The research considered and covered the period from 2011 and 2012. The searchlight was beamed on the Purchasing Department, the Production Department, Quality Control and the Administrative departments of the organization.


1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

Inspection:

This describes a process of careful examination of materials, services, component or a process or work product to determine its conformity to set standards.

Sourcing:

This is a purchasing procedure through which buyers seeks, survey and evaluate suppliers, and determine policies relating to those who will most suitably meet the requirement of the buying organization.

Insourcing:

This describes the process by which an organization takes responsibility for providing services and conducting its operations in-house or in other locations but by its own staff.

Outsourcing:

This gives or describes contracting out services and operations that are usually conducted in-house to other firms that can do them better, cheaper and faster.

Efficiency:

This implies the minimum used of resources to reach goals. That is, doing things right.

Effectiveness:

This means pursuing and reaching the appropriate goals. In other words doing the right thing.

Specification:

This is the careful, detailed and distinct description of an item, or service to be supplied in which the supplied item must conform to.

Standardization:

The formulation and evaluation at national and at company levels, to define and prescribe the specified quality and/or performance characteristics of a material, product and/or operations and service.

Standards:

Are a model, or general agreement of a rule established by the authority, consensus or customers and used by various levels of interests.

Quality:

Quality is the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfill requirements.

Material:

Anything that can be offered to the market for attention, acquisition, use or consumption for the satisfaction of needs is referred to as material.

Purchasing:

This term in this context denotes the act of a function in an organization that is responsible for the procuring of materials into the organization.

Supplier:

This refers to an organization or a person who supply or releases goods or service to a buying organization.

Defect:

This is a situation where a component, material, product or service does not meet its requirements or specification and needs to be repaired or replaced or rejected.

Productivity:

This means efficient utilization of available resource at economic cost.

Production:

This is the rate of units produced in terms of machines, labour, materials or any other effective basis.


Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

The study brought to bear the importance of inspection on employee productivity. It indicated that the role of inspection in product quality management drive in Northern Noodles Ltd, Kaduna, Kaduna state is so crucial that attention has to be paid to develop it.

As indicated in the findings, it can be concluded that the general feeling of respondents, particularly inspectors and staff was that internal inspection should be given greater attention as both groups understand best the situation on the ground and how to deal with them.

It was inferred from the study results that most staff and inspectors saw inspection as more of administrative responsibility. Majority of staff and inspectors perceived the approach as control oriented rather than participatory. According to respondents, particularly staff and inspectors, this control and visit oriented inspection by external inspectors had little impact on employee productivity and should be changed.

Staff and unit heads preference on internal inspection must not be taken for granted and brushed under the carpet. Again, the fact that majority of staff and unit heads preferred internal inspection to external inspection did not mean the external inspection should be eliminated as both internal and external inspection reinforces or complements each other. It would be in the right direction that policy makers take pro-active steps at improving the conditions of both internal and external inspection levels to make their activities attractive and also to win the commitment of inspectors. The level of dissatisfaction for the work of external inspectors by staff and unit heads shows a clear weakness in the performance of external inspectors.

Inspectors must attach great importance to staff job satisfaction as indicated in the research findings. Inspectors in each department must make employee job satisfaction their concern to boost staff morale, as this in the long run will lead to good results of work done. Also appropriate method of appraisal should always be used. It should be devoid of any human factor in order to achieve the purpose for which it was used. More importantly, staff members cherish feedback since it reveals their position on the work they do. It also assists them to strategize for good performance.

Inspectors should not be taken for granted, for their challenges are never ending. There may be weaknesses with their inspection, but it is the organization which would have to alleviate these weaknesses. They need to be properly managed to make them acquire the sense of working to improving performance.


5.2 Recommendation

The following recommendations are made:

  1. Inspection plays a major role in ensuring better employee productivity and all the players must be encouraged to do what they are doing well. Because each individuals task contributes to achieving better performance. From the findings, employees must be satisfied with their work as well as feeling engaged, and then they will be willing to perform well with the assistance of inspection.
  2. Inspection must be more of ideas sharing and participatory than conventional or control oriented in order to improve on performance. In order to gather a wide range of knowledge as well as technical and inter personal skills, as indicated that when staff members are given the opportunity to use their abilities and skills, they unearth their talents and perform wonderfully.
  3. Both internal and external inspections must make conscious efforts at revising and adopting new attitude focused on developing the staff toward positive work performance. In other words appropriate staff development must be organised periodically to make staff become competent on their jobs.
  4. The activities of external inspectors must be brought down to the door steps of the Industrial directorate, internal administrators and staff level through regularization of visits and participation of external inspectors in activities of the directorate. From the findings it was revealed that external inspectors hardly visit, and when they do they are so rigid; relationship gap is large. If external inspectors can come up with flexible and innovative ways of supervising, criticism would be accepted and the necessary corrections made.
  5. On-the- job training and re-fresher causes must be given the necessary attention. Supply of training materials must be improved to enable inspectors to organise adequate training for staff.
  6. The findings showed that the frequency of on the job training was inadequate, for this reason the researcher recommends adequate training to sharpen the skills for better job performance. Again as inspectors stated, funds and logistics have been some of their major hindrance to organising training for staff. It is the wish of the researcher that funds will be released at the right time, accompanied with necessary logistics.
  7. The study revealed that performance appraisal is being down played. For good performance, appraisal should be done half a year to ascertain employee productivity on their job.
  8. Appraisal results must be used at counseling sessions to assist staff who fall short of expectation. This is totally lacking.
  9. Staff job satisfaction should be the top priority of inspectors. When staff members feel secured, recognised and allowed to use their skills and abilities better performance is assured.

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